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Unit 3 notes_updated


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Unit 3 notes_updated

  1. 1. KMS2014Design & Management ofTraining ProgrammesUnit 3:Formulation of training objectives
  2. 2. ObjectivesAt the end of this unit you will be able to:♦ Describe the meaning and the need for training objectives♦ Explain the factors to be considered when selecting objectives♦ Explain the framework in writing objectives♦ Write clear objectives for a training programme♦ Communicate training objectives
  3. 3. Introduction♦ Before training can be prepared, before training procedures or subject matter or material can be selected it is important to state clearly just what the results of that training will be♦ A clear statement of objectives will provide a sound basis for choosing methods and materials and for selecting the means for assessing whether the training has been successful
  4. 4. What are objectives♦ Description of what trainer wants learners to be able to exhibit before considering learners competent♦ Describes an intended result of training rather than the process of training♦ Effects change – Cognitive (knowledge) – Psychomotor (skills) – Affective (abilities)♦ Measurable – Quantitative or qualitative
  5. 5. Why do we need objectives♦ Provides basis for selecting or designing training materials, content and methods♦ For evaluating or assessing the success of training♦ For organizing the trainees own efforts and activities for the accomplishment of the important training events♦ Provides basis for improving existing training programmes
  6. 6. Objectives framework♦ Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (1949) – Ralph Tyler – Addresses educational purposes, educational experiences to be provided to attain the purposes, effective organization of educational experiences & determining whether these purposes are attained
  7. 7. Objectives framework (ctd)♦ Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) – Benjamin Bloom – Classifies objectives into 3 parts • Cognitive domain – recall or recognition of knowledge & development of intellectual abilities and skills • Affective domain – changes in interest, attitudes & values and development of appreciations and adequate adjustment • Psychomotor domain – changes in movement, coordination and use of motor-skill areas♦ Preparing Instructional Objectives 2 nd ed. (1975) – Robert Mager – Proposed useful objectives to possess 3 characteristics – Performance, Condition & Criteria
  8. 8. Setting learning goals♦ Should learning goals statements articulate the outcomes we want to achieve?♦ Recognize that some types of learning differ from others: affective, behavioral and cognitive learning♦ Is it possible to design the training programme with only one of these types of learning or design a programme that incorporates all of the types?♦ Are the objectives a response to specific organizational programmes?
  9. 9. Affective learning♦ Involves attitudes, feelings and preferences♦ When there is a “won’t do” situation i.e. a lack of desire to use new knowledge or skills – Learners to place a VALUE on certain situations, procedures or product or to be more aware of feelings or reaction to certain issues or new ideas – Example: in a bank • Managers examine to what extent their orientation is either customer focused or inward looking
  10. 10. Psychomotor learning♦ Involves the development of competences in actual performance situations♦ When there is a “can’t do” situation i.e. a lack of skill – Learners to PRACTICE skills that were demonstrated and receive feedback on the performance – Example: in an R&D seminar • Participants practice creative thinking techniques by applying them to problems at the workplace
  11. 11. Cognitive learning♦ Involves the acquisition of information and concepts related to knowledge♦ When there is a “don’t know” situation i.e. a lack of knowledge – Learners to comprehend new knowledge and also to analyze and apply it to new situations – Example: in a “The Law and the Workplace” seminar • Participants learn the legal definition of sexual harassment and applies it to issues in their own jobs.
  12. 12. Training programme – alllearning goals♦ More likely to result in last change♦ Example: – A short course on understanding group dynamics that devote a session on the task and maintenance roles that members need to play in groups – The goals are • Identify the current and future preferences for task maintenance goals in a group (affective) • Utilize new task and maintenance behaviors when conducting meetings (psychomotor) • Differentiate between task and maintenance behaviors exhibited by colleagues at a group meeting (cognitive)
  13. 13. Selecting objectives♦ Distinguish between objectives that would be nice to achieve and those that are necessary♦ Consider the following: – Comprehensiveness and representativeness of the learning outcome: proper balance amongst the three learning types – In harmony with the basic principles of learning especially adult learning needs: readiness, motivation, retention and transfer value – In harmony with the philosophy of the organization
  14. 14. Specifying objectives♦ How do we specify objectives? – A set of learning goals (general) broken down into specific training objectives. Each learning goal will have one or more specific objectives♦ Why do we need to specify objectives? – Specify objectives in the form that will make them effective tools for managing, monitoring and evaluating the training – It will give specific criteria to determine if the course design is appropriate especially when the training programme is more technical in nature: • State what, under what conditions and according to what standards
  15. 15. Stating and expressing objectives♦ Written in a style that is easy to understand and straight to the point♦ Select verbs that must clearly convey the intent, most precisely specify the learner’s behavior and avoid commonly misinterpreted terms♦ Use a format: “upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to ……..(list specific objectives)”♦ Mager’s behavioral objectives – Concerned with clarity and communication – Statements of objectives should include three components: behavior, conditions and criterion
  16. 16. The behavior component♦ Describes in clear terms what a learner has to do in order to demonstrate successful learning – terminal behavior♦ Concerned about words used (e.g. know, understand, appreciate) that describe mental operations which can’t be observed but have to be inferred from behavior♦ Need to describe the activities which demonstrate understanding and appreciation, using words which are open to fewer interpretations
  17. 17. The conditions component♦ States the conditions or limitations under which the learner has to perform♦ Need to specify any tools or equipment available to aid the task, or the range of problems to be solved or equipment to be mastered♦ If it is desired that the learner use a particular method, then this should be stated, together with any special requirements about location
  18. 18. The criterion component♦ Provides the standard of performance: how well the learner had performed in order to be considered successful♦ Concerned with speed, quality or accuracy♦ Can be conveyed by specifying how many questions, problems or tasks have to be answered, solved or completed correctly
  19. 19. Common errors in statinglearning objectives♦ Describing the trainer’s behaviour rather than the trainee’s behaviour♦ Stating the learning objective in terms of the learning process rather than in terms of the learning result♦ Listing simply the subject matter to be covered♦ Including more than one type of learning outcome♦ Over-specifying the training objectives
  20. 20. Communicating trainingobjectives to others♦ An important skill to develop♦ Amongst problems encountered: – Confusion with language or jargon – Put off by the format – Difficult to read or comprehend – Lengthy because of over-specification of training objectives
  21. 21. Guidelines for defining trainingobjectives♦ State the general training objective as the expected learning outcome♦ Place under each general training objective a list of specific learning outcomes that describe the terminal behaviour that learners are to demonstrate when they have achieved the objective – Begin each specific learning outcome with a verb that specifies definite, observable behaviour – Keep the specific learning outcome free of course content so that the list can be used with different units of training
  22. 22. – Be certain that each specific learning outcome is relevant to the objective it describes♦ When defining the general objective in terms of specific learning outcomes, revise and refine the original list as needed♦ Be careful not to omit complex objectives (e.g. critical thinking etc) simply because they are difficult to define in terms of specific learning outcomes♦ Consult reference materials for help in identifying the specific types of behavior that are most appropriate for defining the complex objectives
  23. 23. What did I learn from this unit?