KMS2014Design & Management of Training Programmes UNIT 6 TRAINING METHODS
Objectives of the unitAfter studying this unit students will be able to:• Identify some of the training methods that can be used for both on-site and off-site training programs.• Use orientation training, on-the-job training, apprenticeship training, coaching, mentoring, computer-based training, and job rotation for on- site training programs.• Use lecture, audio-visual techniques, videoconferencing, role playing, games and simulation, and computer-assisted instruction for off-site training programs.
Introduction• must decide which methods to use to optimize trainee learning.• numerous methods available for presenting information and transmitting skills.• can be grouped into two main categories: On-Site Training Methods and Off-Site Training Methods.
A. On-Site Training Methods• those methods that are used by the trainees to learn the skills and knowledge while in the same physical and social environment in which they will work once training is completed.• On-site training methods : • Orientation training • On-the-job training • Apprenticeship training • Coaching • Mentoring • Computer-based training • Job rotation
1. Orientation Training used for new employees.• to get new employees started in the right direction.• trainers provide information on matters that are organization-wide in nature.• orientation program on the following ten tasks: 1. Introduction to the company. 2. Review of important policy and practice. 3. Review of benefits and services. 4. Benefit plan enrollment. 5. Completion of employment document. 6. Review of employer expectations. 7. Setting of employee expectations. 8. Introduction to fellow workers. 9. Introduction to facilities. 10. Introduction to the job.
2. On-the-job Training involves assigning new employees to experienced workers or supervisors.• trainee is expected to learn the job by observing and by working.• provide a favorable role model.• method facilitates positive transfer of training.• trainees learn by doing and receive immediate feedback.• ten suggestions for implementing effective OJT programs: 1. training new employees will not on job security, pay level, seniority, or shift status. 2. their added responsibility would be instrumental in obtaining rewards for them.
OJT (Con’t)3. trainers and trainees should be carefully paired.4. based on their ability to teach and their desire to take on this added responsibility.5. should rigorously trained in proper methods of instruction.6. their new assignment is by no means a chance to exploit others.7. trainees should be rotated.8. organization must realize that production may be slowed down, equipment damaged, and some defective products made.9. trainer must realize the importance of close supervision.10. OJT should be used in conjunction with other training approaches.
3. Apprenticeship Training• applicable for training tradespeople.• has skill development as its major goals.• usually combine classroom instruction and shop instruction.• sometimes, large corporations hire instructors from trade schools on a part-time basis.• each apprentice is typically given a workbook.• instructors use part of their class time for presenting lectures, giving demonstrations, etc.
4. Coaching• method where a manager or supervisor attempts to work closely with the employee.• serves a number of important functions: lets subordinate know what their supervisors think about how they do their jobs. enables supervisors and employees to work together. improves communication and collaboration. provides a framework for establishing short- and long- term personal career goals.• can be considered as a method of motivating. give them more open lines of communication with their boss, concrete feedback on areas needing improvement, positive reinforcement for what they do well, and specific goals for change.
5. Mentoring• method where newer and younger employees (mentees) are assigned to older and senior employees (mentors).• Mentors - people two or three levels higher in the organization than the trainee.• major goal of mentoring is the teaching of job skills.• to derive benefit from a formal mentoring program, the training specialist must make the following: defined clearly the purpose and goals. select mentors carefully. organization should provide mentor training. take steps to ensure that mentors are accessible.
6. Computer-based Training (CBT)• provides instruction by using the computer terminal on an employee’s desk or in his/her office.• information is presented on the computer terminal and learner to go over it by following the instructions given.• sometimes test questions are included.• used to teach efficiently many different types of job skills to employees.• it can reduce costs by cutting down on trainee travel and training time.• good method because computer is sensitive to individual differences in learning rates among trainees.
7. Job Rotation• giving the trainees a series of job assignments in various parts of the organization.• to expose individuals to a number of environmental changes.• trainees can assume an observational role, but it is important that they become personally involved.• assign them full functional responsibility.• responsibility should be supplemented with supportive coaching from an immediate supervisor.• trainees gain an overall perspective of the organization and an understanding of the interrelationships.
Job Rotation (Con’t)• number of ways for job rotation to be effective: must be tailored to the needs and capabilities of the individual trainee. trainees’ aptitude profiles and interest patterns - determine their particular pattern of assignments. length of time - determined by how fast they are learning. trainees should only be placed in company locations where they receive feedback, reinforcement, and monitoring of their performance by interested and competent supervisors.
B. Off-Site Training Methods• allow trainees to acquire skills and knowledge away from the job pressures.• seven methods that we are going to look at: Lecture Audiovisual techniques Videoconferencing Role playing Games and simulation Computer-assisted instruction
1. Lecture• use alone is very effective for knowledge acquisition.• for dissemination of information.• effectiveness will be maximized when it is augmented by other training methods.• also be beneficial for introducing some new area of content, and for providing procedures or directions.• is not an effective method for modifying attitudes, developing problem-solving skills, or improving interpersonal competence.
2. Audio-visual Techniques• can be used in almost any training and development situation.• include films, videotapes, and television.• used mainly for knowledge acquisition.• have unique advantages over conventional lectures when used in the following situations: • there is a need to illustrate how certain procedures should be followed over time. • there is a need to expose trainees to events not easily demonstrable in live lectures. • the training is going to be used organization-wide. • audio-visual training is supplemented with live lectures or discussions before and after the session.
3. Videoconferencing• for simultaneous training.• individuals at multiple sites.• network consists of a central broadcasting facility, a satellite service line that transmit signal to receiving stations through television projectors or screens in meeting rooms or convention centers.• material can be presented in a two-ways video and audio.• can teach the trainees at multiple locations.• is worth considering when: the employees need to receive training immediately; the company does not have enough trainers to do the job; the company does not have sufficient facilities to accommodate all trainees; or the company does not want to spend a large amount of money bringing people together.
4. Role Playing method to help trainees both experience certain feelings and practice certain skills. example: the training objective is to have trainees get in touch with their feelings about confronting others. set up a dramatic situation in which trainees are required to confront someone else. discuss the feelings generated by the role-playing experience. you can design a role-playing exercise to enable participants to practice constructive methods of confrontation.• many choices when designing role-play exercise: Scripting Formatting Processing
5. Games and Simulations• bring realism to off-site training situations.• safety hazards are removed, pressures for productivity are minimized, individualized feedback is increased, and opportunities for repeated practice are provided.• help the trainees grasp the total course content.• help test the behavioral style and performance of individuals.• allows the trainer to identify the skills that already exist and to note which need to be strengthened.
Games and Simulations (Con’t)• several things to keep in mind: needs to be relevant to the participants. mimic the format and character of well-known ones. well-known games and simulations can be modified to suit your needs. fun-like, contrived (artificial) games can be followed by more serious, less contrived ones. instructions need to be carefully thought out. almost always need to be discussed afterward for the experience to be an effective teacher.
6. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)• is often used as a supplement to conventional instruction.• trainees typically interact directly with the computer at a training facility away from their office.• is often combined with learners’ exercise manuals, equipment simulators, and/or hands-on practice.• computer’s role typically involves administering the training program to the trainees and possibly testing their performance after learning.• computer is capable of assessing the trainee’s progress continously and adapting the method and/or material presented to fit the trainee’s particular needs, by virtue of its storage and memories capabilities.• CAI has been increasingly used in occupational settings for teaching administrative tasks, technical information, perceptual motor tasks, and problem diagnosis.