Objective of the UnitUpon completion of this unit, you should be able to: describe the meaning and the need for having training objectives; discuss the factors to consider in selecting objectives; explain the framework for writing objectives; write clear objectives of a training program; and communicating training objectives to others.
Introduction Among the topics that need to be covered in this unit are: importance of defining objectives factors to consider in selecting objectives ways to state objectives clearly (framework and the format) examples
Objectives: What are they? Expectations: ◦ to learn ◦ to be able to do Outcomes: ◦ from the learning experience Effecting change: ◦ cognitive ◦ affective ◦ psychomotor Measurable: ◦ quantitatively or qualitatively
Objectives: Why do we need them?1) Provides a basis for selection or designing of training content and procedures.2) Provides basis for evaluating or assessing the success of the training program.3) Serves as a basis for improving the existing training program4) Provides basis for organizing trainee’s own efforts and activities for the accomplishment of the important training intentions.
Frameworks in stating objectives: The issue of how to formulate useful, clear objectives was addressed by the following: 1) Ralph Tyler in the 1940s: ◦ published Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (1949) ◦ addresses the following issues: educational purposes, educational experiences to be provided to attain the purposes, organizing effectively the educational experiences and determing whether these purposes are being attained.
Frameworks (Con’t.) 2) Bloom (1956), Krathwohl (1964), Simpson (1972) and their committees: developed Taxonomy of Educational Objectives divided into three parts : cognitive domain, affective domain and psychomotor domain comprise of general and specific categories 3) Robert Mager: tackled how to write objectives published Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction (1962), revised (1975) Preparing Instructional Objectives books are short, practical and entertaining
I. Setting Learning Goals 1) Should learning goals statements articulate the outcomes we want to achieve? 2) Recognize that some types of learning differ from others: affective, behavioral and cognitive learning? 3) Is it possible to design the training program with only one of these types of learning or design a program that incorporates all? 4) Are the objectives a response to specific organizational program?
Affective Learning: formation of attitudes, feelings and preferences. Goal: when there is a lack of desire to use new knowledge or skills (“won’t do” situation) ◦ want learners to value a certain situation, procedures, or product or be more aware of feelings and reactions to certain issues and new ideas. ◦ Example of affective learning: ◦ in a bank: managers examine to what extent their orientation is customer-focused or inward looking
Psychomotor Learning: actual performance of procedures, operations, methods and techniques. Goal: when there is a lack of skill (“can’t do” situation) ◦ want the learners to practice skills that were demonstrates and receive feedback on the performance. Example of behavioral learning: ◦ in research and development seminar: participants practice creative thinking techniques by applying them to problems back on the job
Cognitive Learning: acquisition of information and concepts related to course content. Goal: when there is a lack of knowledge (“don’t know” situation). ◦ want the participants not only to comprehend the subject matter but also to analyze and apply it to new situations. Example of cognitive learning: ◦ “The Law and the Workplace” seminar: participants learn the legal definition of sexual harassment and apply it to issues at their jobs.
Training Program that Incorporates All the Learning Goals: lasting change. Example: A short course on understanding group dynamics that devote a session on to the task and maintenance roles that members need to play in groups. The goals are: ◦ identify the current and future preferences for task maintenance roles in a group (affective) ◦ utilize new task and maintenance behaviors when conducting meetings (psychomotor) ◦ differentiate between task and maintenance behaviors exhibited by colleagues at a group meeting (cognitive)
II. Selecting Objectives Consider the following: Comprehensiveness and representativeness of the learning outcome: proper balance among the three learning types. basic principles of learning especially adult learning needs: readiness, motivation, retention and transfer value. philosophy of the organization.
III. Specifying Objectives How do we specify objectives? A set of learning goals (general) - break down into specific training objectives: each learning goal will have one or more specific objectives Why do we need to specify objectives? ◦ Specify objectives -managing, monitoring and evaluating the training. ◦ specific criteria - technical in nature: state what , under what conditions and according to what standards.
IV. Stating and Expressing Objectives Written - easy to understand and straight to the point. Select verbs that most clearly convey the intent, specify the learner behavior and avoid commonly misinterpreted terms. Use a format: “upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to …. (list specific objectives)” Mager-Type Behavioral Objectives: ◦ clarity and communication. ◦ Statements of objectives should include three components: the behavior, the conditions and the criterion
The Behavior Component Describes in clear terms, what a learner has to do to demonstrate successful learning --- terminal behavior. Concern about some words used (e.g. know, understand, appreciate) that describe mental operations which cannot be observed but have to be inferred from behavior. Need to describe the activities which demonstrate understanding and appreciation, using words which are open to fewer interpretations. Examples of behavior are ???
The Conditions Component Not sufficient to describe the terminal behavior only but we need to state the conditions or limitations under which they need to perform. Need to specify any tools or equipment available to aid the task, or the range of problems to be solved or equipment to be mastered. If it is desired that the learners use a particular method, then this should be stated, together with any special requirements about place. Examples of conditions ???
The Criterion Component Provides the standard of performance: how well the learner has to do to be considered successful. Concerned with speed, quality or accuracy. Can be conveyed by specifying how many questions, problems or tasks have to be answered, solved or completed correctly. Examples of criteria are ???
Common Errors and Ways in Stating Learning Objectives1) Describing trainer’s behavior rather than the learner’s behavior.2) Stating the learning objective -process rather than as learning product.3) Listing - subject matter to be covered.4) Including more than one type of learning outcomes5) Over specifying training objectives, (nontechnical training like management skills ( see handout)
V. Communicating Training Objectives to Others Communicating objectives effectively to others is an important skill to develop. Problems encountered are: ◦ confused with language; jargon ◦ put off with the format ◦ difficult to read and comprehend ◦ lengthy - over specification of training objectives (see handout for example of technical and nontechnical training objectives) Guideline for defining training objectives in behavioral terms (see handout)
Guideline for defining training objectives:1) State the general training objective (goal) as expected learning outcomes.2) Place under each general training objective a list of specific learning outcomes. a) Begin each specific learning outcome with a verb that specifies definite, observable behavior. b) Keep the specific learning outcomes free of course content so that the list can be used with different units of training.
Guideline (con’t) c) each specific learning outcome is relevant to the objective it describes.3) When defining general objective (goal) in terms of specific learning outcomes, revise and refine the original list of objectives as needed.4) Be careful not to omit complex objectives (e. g. critical thinking, appreciation)5) Consult reference materials for help in identifying the specific types of behavior that are most appropriate for defining the complex objectives.
Worksheet1: Developing training Objectives Try your hand at specifying objectives. Take the content of this unit and state the objectives for the unit in this worksheet. Upon completion of this unit, students will be able to:
Worksheet2: Developing Training Objectives Design that incorporates all three learning types result in more lasting change. For the following training programs, write the goals and specific objectives (affective, behavioral and cognitive). 1) 2-day workshop on computer technologies to the academic staff of the university 2) 2-day managerial skills workshop for SALCRA scheme managers 3) 2-day research and development workshop for academic staff of the university 4) 2-day communication skills workshop for top level supervisors
Eg: workshop on interactive multimedia technologies, i.e. designing courseware. cognitive learning goal - understand design issues in multimedia development and production. Specific training objectives:
Upon completion of the workshop, students will beable to: 1) identify key design issues in multimedia development and production. 2) name basic development tools in multimedia production. 3) name the techniques in crafting multimedia documents.For the affective goal??? Objectives ???For the psychomotor goal ??? Objectives ???