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Advancing Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
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  • Will address many relevant issues regarding electric vehicles. The takeaway from this presentation is that you need to be proactive on several elements, if you want to do your best to create an EV friendly community, you need to have a plan – which is something we do at VHB. I will frame many of these slides by giving you actions to take and questions to ask yourself.
  • EVs at this time take several hours to charge even on the faster Level 2 systems. Volt takes around 4 hours, the Leaf around 8 from a fully depleted battery.The largest / widest area of the pyramid is the largest and easiest market to implement. Also from bottom to top in the level of importance in EV buyers decision making process.Home means different things to different people (apartments, condos, etc) Home for a traveler is hotel, home for a fleet car is an office building. The more we install on the top of the pyramid the more we can change charging behavior. There will be more than we need out there right now.
  • So with the pyramid in mind, the first thing you want to do is allow charging infrastructure, not go trying to install . In many cases it is not necessarily disallowed, you want to remove ambiguity by making it explicitly clear that it is allowed. Allow level 1 and 2 charging stations as an incidental/accessory use in all zoningAllow DC Fast Charging stations in commercial or industrial, and as a conditional use in residentialAdopt EV related definitions in codeConsider battery swapping stations in code too – allow as a principal use in certain zones- this is possibly the next iteration- see picture on the bottom left (this would be a principle use for property)- might be worth addressing in your codes if you are already making changes-you don’t want to keep going back, list it as a possibility. Again, it’s about staying proactive.
  • Does my comprehensive plan need transportation, energy or sustainability components that support electrified transportation?Should my community provide incentives or require plug-in ready buildings (electrical conduit)? (Massport example)Should my community require the actual charging station in new construction?Should we only require in residential construction?
  • So now think about how long it takes in your community to get an electrical permit and inspection, with the idea that you don’t want it to be a barrier to EVs. This is also a revenue opportunity.Generally speaking the concept of buying a car is quick so the permitting needs to be equally as fastMany residential garage chargers simply plug into a regular 240v outlet, but should still be installed by a licensed electrician.Portland, OR – instant online permit and inspection within 24-48 hrs OR Minor Label ProgramHouston: Electrician obtains instant permit online - $35 – same day or 24 hr inspections after electrician calls Code Enforcement DepartmentRaleigh:1-hr permit: $74 – Inspections within 24 hrs of installationelectrical inspector, multiple permits for on-street (break the sidewalk)Consider a minor label programOregon: Minor labels are inexpensive permits for minor electrical and plumbing residential and commercial installations. Only licensed electrical and plumbing contractors can buy and use minor label stickers (10 stickers for $140). 1 out of 10 minor label installations is inspected by city electrical inspectors. Only applies to single or two family residential – inside the garage and within sight of the electrical panel.Will reduce burden of inspections on the CityYou all have copies of the DOE model permit on your tables
  • Guidebook is available online google Charging Station Installation Handbook Raleigh and it’s the first link. (too long to put here) (very general, applicable to all)Utility (curb cut, metering)Car dealers: very important, first point of contact for an EV buyer. As part of their sell they need to know how easy it is. You need to hand them their sales pitch, not just some sample forms.
  • Ok, now we need to talk about parking and streetscape issues. This photo could be in an historic neighborhood- Update streetscape design standards to include EV chargingTake into account historic districts, begin dialogue nowConsider a shared parking ordinance so charging stations at businesses can be used by nearby residents (to maximize the use of the charging station throughout the day)Update both on-street and off-street parking design regulations and signage guidanceGreen pavement coloring can be used off-street, do not use blue
  • Should be first spot near the corner/crosswalkFor curb parking:Do you want to require only equipment with self contained retractable cords? Create a nice clean lookDefine “charging”: Does it simply mean connected to the charging station equipment?Where are there residences with no access to off-street parking?What requirements does the utility have?What ownership and payment models do we want?
  • The 1 per 25 recommendation is for a large parking garage for example.
  • Remember: re-fueling, unlike gas stations, will be done while the vehicle is parked and unoccupied. A Parking space for an EV is also a potential fueling station!Some cities are afraid of loosing revenue on parking spaces, but there are many ways to keep that spot generating revenueRemember: At first EV spots may not always be EV spots all day long, maybe just at night. Now vs 5 years from now may be different.
  • ICEd = Internal Combustion Engine parking in an EV spacePoint out the sign
  • Note: probably most of you will not own the equipment outright, but I will quickly mention several of these items incase you are interested.
  • Many have credit card swipes, you can call a number on your cell phone and type in your credit card information. Some deal with third party leases- City can lease the property
  • Start going to your Clean Cities meetings, they have money, or will soon. DOE awarded about 900k to states in New England recently for EV infrastructure, so contact your local Clean Cities.

Advancing Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Advancing Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Kathleen Rosen / Michelle Broussard : Voltrek Jason Zogg / Kim Lundgren : VHB Lisa Schwarz, AICP : Town of Andover, MA
  • 2. Here we go again!
  • 3. EVs: Planning and Permitting Issues SNEAPA October 21, 2010
  • 4. EVs: Planning + Permitting Issues► Markets for charging► Allowing EV infrastructure► Permit / Inspection Processes► Parking + Streetscape► Handicap► Payment► Education► Partners► Resources 96-99 EV1 / Cadillac ELR (2013)
  • 5. Markets for Charging Streets/ Sidewalks ► No one will buy an EV if they Highway Fast Charging can’t charge at home. Retail / Parking Garages Hotel / Work / Schools / Campus / Transportation Terminal Multi-Unit Building (Condo/Apt) Home-Garage
  • 6. Allowing Charging InfrastructureActions to take► Level 1 & 2  Incidental/Accessory use► DC Fast Charge  Commercial or Industrial zones or Conditional Use► EV Definitions in code► Battery swapping stations  Principal use
  • 7. Allowing Charging Infrastructure Questions to ask yourself ► Comp Plan? ► Incentives? ► Require EV stations?  Residential & Commercial
  • 8. Permit/Inspection ProcessActions to take► Permitting process needs to be quick► Establish online permit► Guarantee 24-48 hour EV permit or an instant permit► Minor Label Program – Oregon► Conditional Permit & Inspect USDOE - National Model EV Permit Later
  • 9. Permit/Inspection ProcessActions to take► Provide inspectors with the EV inspectors guidebook► Make sure utility is involved as part of process► Educate car dealers so consumers have realistic expectations
  • 10. Parking + StreetscapeActions to take► Streetscape design standards► Historic Districts► Shared parking► On and Off street parking design guidance & signage► Colored pavements – do not use blue
  • 11. Parking + Streetscape Questions to ask yourself ► Require retractable cords? ► Our definition of charging? ► Neighborhoods with no off-street parking? ► Utility requirements- coordination? ► Ownership and payment models?
  • 12. ADA/Handicap Issues► No ADA requirements at this time► Placement should not violate ADA pathways for sidewalk width etc.► Recommendation: 1 handicap EV space per 25 EV spaces► Cable must not run across ADA pathway
  • 13. Public Parking Issues► Parking = re-fueling opportunity  EV parking for active charging  Enforce normal time limits during day  Allow overnight for those without off- street EV charging  Define charging: WA defines as “connected”
  • 14. Public Parking Issues“ICEd”
  • 15. Public Charging► Pole mounted, wall mounted, pedestal style► Integrated “revenue grade” utility meter► Smart grid equipped► Retractable enclosed cable system (GE)► Level 1 - for electric scooters/bikes and NEVs► Data collection - software► Advance Reservations► Some vendors provide charging station management, payment processing, maintenance, etc
  • 16. Payment► Charging for electricity = UTILITY► How avoid? Can charge for time or connection or parking► Credit card swipes, phone number or membership card
  • 17. Partners► Utilities► Car Dealerships► DMV► Clean Cities► MPO► Hotels► Large Employers► Car Sharing (Zipcar/ Hertz On Demand)
  • 18. Education► Emergency responders  NFPA training program► Car Dealerships► Parking garage owners► Condo associations► Electrical inspectors► Utility mailings to homeowners► Municipal Websites► Community College training programs
  • 19. Resources► Washington State Department of Commerce: Model ordinance, development regulations and guidance► Charging Station Handbook for Electrical Inspectors and Contractors: Advanced Energy/City of Raleigh► US DOE: Charging Station Permit Template: Alt Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center► VHB!  Kim Lundgren/Jason Zogg  klundgren@vhb.com  jzogg@vhb.com  617.924.1770
  • 20. POWERING YOUR JOURNEY SMEVs: An Overview of the Technology SNEAPA October 21, 2010
  • 21. Electric Vehicles: The Trend• Growing Trend: globally and nationally• Lowers carbon emissions• Reduces U.S. dependency on foreign oil• Consumer and Commercial Adoption: increase demand across all types of drivers• Availability and Access: Hertz and Enterprise already added to fleets• Federal Government Goal: 1 million EV’s on the road by 2015
  • 22. Electric Vehicles: Manufacturers2010 Releases 2011 Target 2012 Target Release ReleaseNissan Leaf Ford EscapeChevy Volt Audi A1 Hyundai Blue-WillFord Transit Connect BMW e6 Hyundai 10 ElectricRolls Royce Electric Ford Focus Toyota Prius Plug-inPhantom Tesla S Volvo V70Tesla Roadster Fiat 500 Daimler Smart ED
  • 23. Charging Stations: Examples
  • 24. Charging Stations: Level 1In 1991, the Infrastructure Working Council (IWC) was formed by theElectric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to establish consensus onaspects of EV charging.Level 1 – 120 volt AC / 15-20 AMPs• Time for full charge up to 12 hours• Original installations primarily Level 1 Level 1 charger installed prior to J1772 adoption
  • 25. Charging Stations: Level 2Primary chargers currently being installed for public and private (in-home) use. Commercial/public applications include work placeparking facilities, malls, restaurants, municipal streets - anywhereyou would expect to park for at least 45 minutes.Level 2 – 240 volt AC /40 AMPS• Typically 40Amps (maximum current 32amps)• Provides maximum 7.7 kW with a 240 VAC circuit(Output regulated by Car’s on board charger).• Time to charge 4-8 hours for full BEVs; Less forhybrids
  • 26. Charging Station: SafetyThe J1772 Coupler Standardized in 2010Allows communication between vehicle & charging station• Designed to last in all weather conditions• Engineered to prevent inadvertent disconnection• Grounded pole - first to make contact and the last to break• Interlock device prevents vehicle startup while connected• De-energized until attached• De-energizes prior to removal
  • 27. Charging Stations: DC Fast ChargingPathway Infrastructure: Next generation chargersfor additional locations. Will not replace Level 2. DC Fast Charging / 3Phase 208, 480 or 600VAC • Commercial and public applications • Performs similar to commercial gasoline service station – rapid recharge • Off-board charger provides AC to DC conversion • Time to charge 5-30 minutes
  • 28. Where Will They Charge?It is estimated 75% of charging will take place at home. In order for massadoption to occur public infrastructure is needed to address “range fear”.Build it and they will come: • Downtown areas • Convention centers • Hotels • Restaurants and event centers • Malls • Theaters • Golf courses • Universities
  • 29. Current Recharging Stations Map Source: U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center 6/15/11 Number of estimated public sites needed in U.S. = 800,000
  • 30. Public Installations: Why Now? • Encourage EV Adoption • Meet Sustainability Objectives • Enjoy Green Publicity / Recognition • Provide Benefit to Local Citizens • Attract VisitorsVoltrek works with cities and towns to co-ordinatemutually beneficial public/private partnerships
  • 31. Current Voltrek Projects • EBSCO Publishing • Electric Insurance Co. • LENOX HOTEL • Indigo Hotel • BU Medical Center • Seaport Hotel • Harvard Pilgrim Health • Cambridge Side Galleria • Prudential Center Garage • Medical, Academic, and Scientific Community Org.
  • 32. Voltrek Makes it Simple Voltrek provides a custom turn-key solution Strategic Planning & Implementation • All-Points Project and Facilities Assessment • Effective Cost Analysis and Design Options • Supervised Installation and Testing Ongoing Support • Systematic Monitoring and Quality Assurance • Custom Servicing and Maintenance Financing • Traditional Financing for Property Owners • Public/Private Sponsorship
  • 33. EVs: A New England Case StudyTown of Andover, Massachusetts SNEAPA October 21, 2010
  • 34. Town of Andover, Massachusetts• Population 33,201• Household Median Income $111,000• Hybrid vehicle ownership over 5%
  • 35. Process  Why? • Opportunity to promote and support green initiatives  How? • Team effort (Electrical Inspector, DPW, Planning and Legal) • Municipal parking lot and infrastructure analysis • Funding • Town support (Board of Selectmen) • Request for Proposals and License  When? • 2011 (hopefully)
  • 36. Pros and Cons as a Municipality Pros  Proactive and forward thinking  Small revenue source  Providing opportunity for residents Cons  Lack of funding to purchase or install  Length of time to implement
  • 37. Electric Vehicle Downtown AndoverCharging Station• In municipal parking lot• Two parking spacesfrom the electric supply