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Electric Vehicles Readiness and Charging at Multi-Unit Dwellings by Eric Huang

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Electric Vehicles Readiness and Charging at Multi-Unit Dwellings by Eric Huang

  1. 1. EV-Readiness policy introduction and VCI - MUD Pilot Project Overview Eric Huang, Program Manager 10/20/2020 Electric Vehicle Readiness and Charging at Multi-Unit Dwellings Photo @Dylan VanWeelden
  2. 2. ● Building Codes Intro ● Why EV-Readiness in Building Codes? ● Introduction to Preliminary Learnings from the VCI-MUD Project 2 Today’s Topics:
  3. 3. What are Building Codes? “Collection of laws, regulations, ordinances adopted by a government legislative authority with the physical structure and health conditions of buildings and building sites” ● Who creates model codes? ○ ICC - Int’l Code Council ○ NFPA - National Fire Protection Association ○ ASHARE - American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers ● What codes are there? ○ IBC - Int’l Building Code ○ IRC - Int’l Residential Code ○ IECC - Int’l Energy Conservation Code ○ NEC - National Electrical Code 3
  4. 4. Building Codes FAQ (Cont.d) ● Who adopts? ○ AHJs: -Nations, States, and Provinces adopt codes recommended by the ICC ● How often are they updated? ○ Code cycles is generally 3-yr (ICC) ■ Code Development Committee, Code Change Proposal, Code Development hearing, Call for Public Comment, Final Action Hearing ■ Code adoption cycle in U.S. States is also generally 3-yr (i.e. OR, WA) 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. • Building codes are divided by sections i.e. • Building, Electrical, Mechanical, and Plumbing are common ones. • Model Codes are developed by specific agencies and adopted by AHJs. • The ability of each level to create and enforce codes varies depending on the local authority Summary: Building Codes
  7. 7. Why we care about building codes for EV? ● Access to charging is critical ○ MUD tenants have substantial barriers installing EVSE ○ Full circle: Residential, workplace, and public charging ● Building codes nowadays have energy efficiency requirements, which will free up electrical capacity for the building to accommodate EV charging ● New buildings: ○ Last for decades ○ EV readiness is a technology-neutral ○ EV charging is a marketable amenity ○ Financially optimal comparing to retrofitting 7
  8. 8. Avoided Costs for EV-Ready Parking 8 (per space) Enclosed 2 EV-Ready Space Enclosed 6 EV-Ready Space Enclosed 12 EV-Ready Space San Francisco 1 $2,800 n/a $1,511 Oakland 2 $1,660 $890 $470 Source: 1. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Cost-Effectiveness Report for San Francisco. November 17, 2016 2. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Cost-Effectiveness Report, City of Oakland. July 20, 2016 3. ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE: MULTIFAMILY BUILDING STANDARDS. Report. April 2018. Accessed January 2019. https://arb.ca.gov/cc/greenbuildings/pdf/tcac2018.pdf “An estimated $7,000 per parking space can be avoided with multiple installations of Level 2 charging stations. An estimated $8,000 per parking space can be avoided when an individual Level 2 charging station is installed.” 3
  9. 9. What Building Code Language to adopt/propose? 9
  10. 10. Definitions ● EV-Capable Space: ○ Electrical panel capacity and space to support a minimum 40-ampere, 208/240-volt branch circuit for each EV parking space, and the installation of raceways, both underground and surface mounted, to support the EVSE. ● EV-Ready Space: ○ A designated parking space which is provided with one 40-ampere, 208/240-volt dedicated branch circuit for EVSE servicing Electric Vehicles. The circuit shall terminate in a suitable point such as a receptacle, junction box, or an EVSE for the EV parking spaces. EV-Readiness Code: 10 EV-Capable EV-Ready
  11. 11. EV-Readiness in Commercial and Residential New Developments • EV-readiness amendments were passed in Jan. 2020 • Commercial: • Minimum 2 EV-Ready spaces, 20% EV-capable, 208/240V 50-amp dedicated circuit • Residential: • At least one EV-Ready space at one or two-family dwellings; • Multi-Family dwellings: minimum 2 EV-Ready spaces, 20% EV-capable, 208/240V 40-amp dedicated circuit • Latest update: ICC's Board invalidated the EV-ready and electrification-ready proposals ---- TBD 11 Recent Update on IECC 2018
  12. 12. • Project Overview • Preliminary Results Overview • MUD EVSE Innovative Technologies VCI-MUD Project Introduction Photo @Dylan VanWeelden
  13. 13. 13 Project Objectives • Engaging stakeholders to determine the barriers with MUD charging • Demonstrating innovative technologies addressing the barriers • Compiling project findings in a toolkit • Disseminating the toolkit Impact on Barriers •Collect and analyze data on existing MUD charging stations utilization •Demonstrate technologies that reduce MUD charging costs and ease management barriers •Create an outreach tool and engage MUD owners, managers and residents
  14. 14. Baseline Multi-Unit Dwelling PEV Charging Infrastructure Data Analysis Review Photo @Dylan VanWeelden
  15. 15. • Level 2 or above charging • Charging that took place at or near the MUD locations • Charging station usage pattern • MUD Decision-Making • Barriers to MUD Charging Implementation Forth 15 What are we assessing in “Baseline Analysis” Photo @Dylan VanWeelden
  16. 16. Final Analyzed Dataset TO EDIT: View>Header&Footer>Apply to All | 04.07.2017 | Forth 16 Type EVSE ports Charge Sessions Total Collected 1,474 512,175 Outliers removed 432,863 MUD-Located 223 23,925 MUD-Supporting (L2) 12 2,699 MUD-Supporting (DCFC) 8 2,022
  17. 17. • Increasing annual usage trends as expected • 12.2 hour average session; 3.6 hours average charge duration • Energy profiles similar for both longer and shorter sessions • Highlights opportunity to increase utilization MUD Charging | 09.22.2020 | Forth 17 PEV Charging Session Summary Data Analysis MUD-Located
  18. 18. • Increasing annual usage • 2.9 hour average session; 2.2 hours average charge duration (incentivized to move on after session) • Shorter charge sessions overall. • Energy profiles similar for longer and shorter sessions • Highlights opportunity to increase utilization 18 PEV Charging Session Summary Data Analysis – MUD-Supporting L2 MUD Charging | 09.22.2020 | Forth
  19. 19. MUD Decision-Making Process: • Apartment Building – simpler process with owner and management ruling • Condominium – complicated and political process of association mixed with local jurisdictional complexities Key Barriers Identified: • Education and Awareness Barriers • Financial Barriers • Electrical Preparedness Barriers • Building Physical and Design Barriers 19 Qualitative Baseline Data Aggregation and Analysis MUD Charging | 09.22.2020 | Forth
  20. 20. Project Outreach Interview Results TO EDIT: View>Header&Footer>Apply to All | 06.07.2016 | Drive Oregon 20 Barrier Number of Responses Descriptions and Examples Information and education 15 -Chicken-and-egg problem for PEV adoption and EVSE need -Need proper information for building owners, managers, and HOA on features and benefits HOA related 17 -Common area management -Association approval difficulties and homeowner buy-in -A few stalls far from electrical panel will be extremely costly Parking limitation 15 -Deeded parking and limited parking spaces -Parking garage or spaces far from electrical panel, increasing costs Parking operation 8 -Drivers do not unplug when done charging -Outside free-riders problem Capital constraints 8 -Not enough funding and/or may need grants or incentives Electrical related 12 -Older building may not have enough electrical capacity and require costly upgrades -Distance of electrical panel from garage increases installation costs -Potential need to conduct expensive load study Cost of installation 14 -Installation cost of running electrical circuit and conduit for EVSE -Installation cost for electrical panel or service upgrade O&M ongoing cost 15 -Power management and network subscription fees Network signal 4 -Weak cellular signal in garages -Expensive to run internet cables and install Wi-Fi router or cellular repeaters
  21. 21. Innovative Charging Infrastructure Technology Pilot Demonstration Plan Photo @Dylan VanWeelden
  22. 22. Finalized Innovative Technologies List 20 Finalized Innovative Technologies List Finalized Innovative Technologies List Electric Vehicle Institute Converted gas station to EV-only charging station Xeal Energy EVSE scheduling/reservations, overstay notifications, adjacent session user communication, billing, data collection (baseline + in-use), analytics Cyber Switching + ampUp (combined) CyberSwitching EV Master Controller - Rotational charging (on/off) to manage ≤4 EVSE on one electrical circuit. EVMatch EVSE scheduling/reservations, overstay notifications, billing, data collection (baseline + in-use), analytics PowerFlex Systems Power Management System OpConnect Smart Charging network service and equipment MUD Charging | 09.22.2020 | Forth
  23. 23. Finalized Innovative Technologies List 20 Company Technology Solution Liberty Plugins HYDRA Power Management System ampUp SW control added functionality to non-networked “dumb” stations (billing, data collection, analytics) for shared EV charging spots (best) and dedicated spots FreeWire Technologies Portable power storage with Level-2 charging capability MUD Charging | 09.22.2020 | Forth
  24. 24. Pilot Demonstration Implementation 24 EVSE Utilization Data Analysis • Collect / analyze system utilization data • Summarize findings in case studies Business Case Data Analysis • Collect / analyze business case data (electrical service costs [energy and power], charging infrastructure capital costs, monthly service fees [MUD and users], monthly MUD revenue) • Summarize findings in case studies MUD Property Stakeholder Feedback Analysis • Collect / analyze MUD property owner/operator and MUD resident (PEV owner and non-PEV owner) feedback • Summarize findings in case studies MUD Charging | 09.22.2020 | Forth
  25. 25. Questions? Photo @Dylan VanWeelden

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