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Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
Rivers & Environments
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Rivers & Environments

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Transcript

  • 1. Rivers & Environments
    • Earth’s water
    • Hydrological Cycle
    • River System
    • Drainage Basin
    • Features from Rivers
  • 2. Earth’s Water
    • About 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered with Water.
    • 97% of Earth’s Water is Salt water, contained in seas and oceans.
    • But ONLY 3% of the Water is Fresh Water.
    • Out of the 3% of fresh water, ONLY 1% is stored on streams, lakes and rivers .
  • 3. Earth’s water 75% of Earth is Water 97% is saltwater 3% is freshwater 99% stored in glacier, Ice-sheet or underground Only 1 % is Found in streams Lakes/ rivers
  • 4. Singapore’s Water
  • 5. What about Singapore?
    • As a small island that doesn't have natural aquifers and lakes and with little land to collect rainwater, Singapore needs to maximise whatever water it can harvest.
    • Thus, it is important to clean up Singapore River or any other drainage channels.
    • A pervasive network of drains, canals and rivers channels rain water to Singapore’s 14 reservoirs.
    • When the Marina Barrage is completed, it will give birth to the nation’s 15th reservoir and the first in the city.
    • .
  • 6. Recap: QUIZ
    • How much of the Earth’s surface is made up of Water?
    • Ans: 97%
    • How much of the Earth’s available water is fresh water?
    • Ans: 3%
    • Where are 1% of Earth’s fresh water found?
    • Ans: Streams, Lakes, Rivers
  • 7. Water Cycle
  • 8.
    • The earth first gain water by precipitation, such as rainfall.
    • The water from the rainfall can end up in sea/oceans or on land as surface runoff.
    • Most of water will end up in sea/oceans, while some would end up on earth surface.
    • Eventually the water on land would end up in oceans/seas as surface runoff.
  • 9. Hydrologic cycle - continuous movement of water, moving from Earth’s surface into the air and from air back to earth’s surface
  • 10. Recap:
  • 11. River System
    • River is a body of water in a channel.
    • Structure of a river:
    Tributaries
  • 12. Drainage basin
  • 13. Recap: Source Tributary Mouth Watershed Confluence
  • 14. Do rivers simply flow through the whole course?
    • NO! Rivers ‘DO WORK’ along the way from the source to the mouth.
    • At upper course , usually erosion takes place.
    • By erosion, we mean that there is high energy level, river ‘remove’ / ‘take’ materials along with the flow.
  • 15. Rivers doing work
    • At the middle course, there is lesser energy as compared to upper course.
    • Imagine you are on a slide, at the beginning, it is very fast, but at the middle of it, you start to slow down.
    • But, still, certain level of erosion can take place.
    • But more of transportation would take place.
    • Feature like meanders may be formed.
  • 16. At the lower course
    • All good things come an end. At the end of the slide ride, all things come to standstill, meaning, no or very low energy.
    • Usually, erosion would not take place.
    • Instead, deposition takes place.
    • Materials that are carried by the river is deposited at the lower course.
    • Features like floodplain, deltas are formed.
  • 17. Features formed from river
    • Extensive overview of features that can be found along a river course
  • 18. At different course.
  • 19. 1. Valley
    • Valley is a low area between hills or mountains.
  • 20. 2. Water fall
    • Waterfall is a vertical flow of fast-moving water falling from great height.
  • 21. 3. Meanders
    • Meanders are curves and bends formed when river erodes sideways and deposits the sediments it is carrying on opposite banks.
  • 22. 4. Floodplains
    • Floodplain is low-lying land that becomes flooded when a river overflows.
  • 23. 5.Delta
    • Delta is formed when layers of sediments are deposited at the river mouth over time.
  • 24. Rivers and People
    • Benefits
    • Water supply for farming/ Industry
    • Water for consumption
    • Recreation/ tourism
    • Production of hydroelectric energy
    • Means of transport
    • Risks/ Problems
    • Flooding

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