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Introduction to Arduino & Robotics


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Its a basic concept about for Arduino & robotics

Published in: Engineering

Introduction to Arduino & Robotics

  1. 1. Zubayer Al Billal Khan Research Consultant CPSD IT limited Introduction to... Arduino & Robotics
  2. 2. Contents:  Introduction on Arduino 1. What is Micro-Controller? 2. What is Arduino? 3. Types of Arduino. 4. Arduino UNO board. 5. Sensors:. 6. What is “Function”? 7. Control statements [if, if… else, switch case.]. 8. Loop statements[while, for, do… while.]. 9. Common functions.  Workshop on robotics
  3. 3. Introduction Design, organize, and collaborate
  4. 4. Famous microcontroller manufacturers are MicroChip, Atmel, Intel, Analog devices, and more. [list] It is a micro-computer. As any computer it has internal CPU, RAM, IOs interface. It is used for control purposes, and for data analysis. Micro-Controller:
  5. 5. Arduino. What is Arduino? A microcontroller board, contains on-board power supply, USB port to communicate with PC, and an Atmel microcontroller chip. It simplify the process of creating any control system by providing the standard board that can be programmed and connected to the system without the need to any sophisticated PCB design and implementation. It is an open source hardware, any one can get the details of its design and modify it or make his own one himself.
  6. 6. Arduino boards: UNO Mega LilyPad Arduino BT Arduino Nano Arduino Mini
  7. 7. Arduino UNO: Digital output ~: PWM. 0,1: Serial port. In circuit Serial programming Atmel MicroController Analog input. Power Supply USB port Power input
  8. 8. Digitalandanalog. Digital or Analog? All physical quantities are analog. Analog means that the quantity can take any value between its minimum value and maximum value. Digital means that the quantity can take specific levels of values with specific offset between each other. Ex: 1- Digital: English alpha consists of 26 letter, there is no letter between A and B. - Square waves are Digital. Ex.: 2- Analog: Temperature, can take any value[-1,12.8,25.002,… etc.]. - Sine waves are analog.
  9. 9. Sensors Sensors: A device that transforms the physical quantity into electrical value. Ex.: Light sensor transduce the light into change in voltage or resistance.
  10. 10. Sensors Light sensors: - Photo-Resistor [photo-cell]. - Photo-Diode. - Photo-Transistor.
  11. 11. Sensors Photo Resistor: - The value of the resistance depends on the incident light density. - 1 K-Ohm at light, 10 K-Ohm at darkness. Photo Diode: - The current is controlled by the incident light density. Photo Transistor: - Base-emitter junction is controlled by the incident light density, has an amplification effect.
  12. 12. Arduino Coding. Stylize, edit, and animate your media
  13. 13. Integer: used with integer variables with value between 2147483647 and -2147483647. Ex: int x=1200; Character: used with single character, represent value from - 127 to 128. Ex. char c=‘r’; Long: Long variables are extended size variables for number storage, and store 32 bits (4 bytes), from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647. Ex. long u=199203; Floating-point numbers can be as large as 3.4028235E+38 and as low as -3.4028235E+38. They are stored as 32 bits (4 bytes) of information. Ex. float num=1.291; [The same as double type] Data Types and operators You may need to know about these typed: Array, Boolean, byte, etc. here.
  14. 14. Statement represents a command, it ends with ; Ex: int x; x=13; Operators are symbols that used to indicate a specific function: - Math operators: [+,-,*,/,%,^] - Logic operators: [==, !=, &&, ||] - Comparison operators: [==, >, <, !=, <=, >=] Syntax: ; Semicolon, {} curly braces, //single line comment, /*Multi-line comments*/ Statement and operators:
  15. 15. Compound Operators: ++ (increment) -- (decrement) += (compound addition) -= (compound subtraction) *= (compound multiplication) /= (compound division) Statement and operators:
  16. 16. If Conditioning: if(condition) { statements-1; … Statement-N; } else if(condition2) { Statements; } Else{statements;} Control statements:
  17. 17. Switch case: switch (var) { case 1: //do something when var equals 1 break; case 2: //do something when var equals 2 break; default: // if nothing else matches, do the default // default is optional } Control statements:
  18. 18. Do… while: do { Statements; } while(condition); // the statements are run at least once. While: While(condition) {statements;} for for (int i=0; i <= val; i++){ statements; } Loop statements: Use break statement to stop the loop whenever needed.
  19. 19. Void setup(){} Used to indicate the initial values of system on starting. Void loop(){} Contains the statements that will run whenever the system is powered after setup. Code structure:
  20. 20. Led blinking example: Used functions: pinMode(); digitalRead(); digitalWrite(); delay(time_ms); other functions: analogRead(); analogWrite();//PWM. Input and output:
  21. 21. You can download the Arduino IDE (The program used to write code and uploading it to arduino boards) from: Arduino IDE:
  22. 22. Here you can learn how to program Arduino and what each code means and do, from here: Arduino Reference:
  23. 23. Robotics
  24. 24. DEFINATION 9 August 2017Seminar on Robotics & Embeded system Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots . The word ROBOTICS is used to collectively define a field in engineering that covers the mimicking of various Human characteristics.  It is the application of electronics, mechanical, electrical and computer engineering.
  25. 25. Laws of Robotics  Isaac Asimov proposed three “Laws of Robotics” and later added the “ zeroth law ”.  Law 0: A robot may not injure humanity or through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.  Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law.  Law 2: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law.  Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law.
  26. 26. Uses of Robotics:  Agriculture  Automobile  Construction  Entertainment  Health care  Household purposes  Laboratories:  Law en forcement : surveillance, air port Security, spying, etc.  Manufacturing  Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc.  Mining, excavation and exploration  Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc.  Utilities: gas, water and electricity  Warehouses
  27. 27. Robotic Industry – Now A Days 1. Aurotek Corp. 2. Axium Inc. 3. Daihen Corp. 4. Denso Wave Inc. 5. Ellison Technologies Inc. 6. Kawasaki Robotics Inc. 7. Kuka AG 8. Mitsubishi Electric Corp. 9. Nachi Fujikoshi Corp. 10.Pari Robotics 11.Reis Robotics 12.Rockwell Automation Inc. 13.Schunk GmbH 14.Staubli International AG 15.TM Robotics 16.Yamaha Robotics 17.Honda 18.IRobot World top Robotic Industry
  28. 28. Components of ROBOTS Power Supply  Sensors Controller Effectors Actuators
  29. 29. POWER SUPPLY Suitable power supply is needed to run the motors and associated circuitry.  Typical power requirement ranges from 3V to 24V DC.  Power supply must be adjusted as per the ratings of the components.  Power supply must be regulated using voltage regulator and current regulator ICs.
  30. 30. POWER SUPPLY Rechargeable 12V Battery LM317 Current Regulator IC with Heat Sink LM7805 Voltage Regulator IC
  31. 31. EFFECTORS Effectors are the parts of a Robot which execute the certain task.  Effectors pick up or modify objects or somehow cause an effect to the environment.  Examples: Mechanical grippers, Vacuum Grippers, Wheels, etc.
  32. 32. ACTUATORS  Actuator is the actual mechanism that enables the effectors to execute an action. Actuators typically include electric motors, hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders, gears, etc. Gears Pneumatic Cylinder Pneumatic Motor
  33. 33. • DC Motors o As the name suggests, a motor which uses a DC (Direct Current) power o Can run in both directions o Speed Controllable
  34. 34. • Stepper Motors o Used for measured rotation o Can be held at a particular position of the shaft o Ideal for many autonomous robots requiring higher precision
  35. 35. Servo Motors : o Used in closed loop control systems in which work is the control variable. o An integral feedback device (resolver) or devices (encoder and tachometer) are either incorporated within the servo motor or are remotely mounted, often on the load itself
  36. 36. Physical Property Technology Contact Bump, Switch Distance Ultrasound, Radar, Infra Red Light Level Photo Cells, Cameras, LDRs Sound Level Microphones Strain Strain Gauges Rotation Encoders Magnetism Compasses Smell Chemicals Temperature Thermistors, Infra Red Inclination Inclinometers, Gyroscope Pressure Pressure Gauges Altitude Altimeters SENSORS
  37. 37. CONTROLLER Controller provides the necessary intelligence to control the action of the robot.  It receives the information from the sensors and activates the actuators to perform the task.  It comprises complex electronics circuit.  Micro Controllers are used in Automatic Robots whereas different electronic switching components are used in Manual Robots.  The set of instructions is written in High Level Language, compiled and converted into Machine Code(HEX code) and burnt in the Micro Controller with the help of Computer Software .
  38. 38. CONTROLLER
  39. 39. The Scope Of Robotic Industry In Bangladesh
  40. 40. Resource link: • EMK Makerlab Community: rlab/ • Youtube: studiobd • Project links:
  41. 41. VLSI EGY- I.GEEK – S3Geeks Thanks for coming 