The government fully recognizes the great economic and employment contribution and potential of tourism and seeks to encourage the development, growth and international competitiveness of the UK tourism industry”. Elliot 1997Tourism economic activity is seen as a multiplier effect helping other sectors of the economy. Tourism and notes the value of supporting this industry, because it is helping to alleviate poverty and to create employment and other opportunities for people in the country
The researcher notes that it is evident that policy- making in tourism, has a widespread effect on economic, social, environmental and political actions, in countries where these have been applied. The development of policies for tourism, both short-term and long-term, will however depend on the actors that are immersed in decision-making policies. Political system can be liberal, democratic or totalitarian, but in practice all types of governments have supported or sponsored tourism
, Hall (2005) suggests that governments are stable when they are able to adapt and satisfy the demands of the external elements within a political system. In contrast when the governments are unable to satisfy the demands and to adapt to the challenges of the external forces then political instability occurs
On the other hand (Healey, 1991; Healey and Rawilson, 1993; cited in Saunders et al., 2007, p, 312) suggest other typology of interview, differentiating between standardised interview and non standardised interview, but both help to gather valid and reliable data relevant to the research.The researcher decided to use an unstructured interview because it is more exploratory, according to Saunders et al,. (2007) this type of interview is informal, and is generally used to explore in depth general areas in which the researcher is interested (see in fig.6 Interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people that can help you gather valid and reliable data that is relevant to your research objectives (Kahn and Cannell, 1957 cited in Saunders et al., 2007, p. 310)
This strategy allowed cooperates between the members in the public and private sector, all of this to coordinate and develop a strategy focussed to promote the marketing of quality tourismThe East African Community (EAC) is the regional intergovernmental organisation of the Republics of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Republic of Rwanda and Republic of Burundi with its headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania
Presentacion final uem
Cascante Caballero WalterBachelor’s Degree in InternationalHospitality and Tourism ManagementThe Political Factors influencing TourismKenya
Literature review Relationship between Tourism and politics What is the role of the government in Tourism Evaluating policies and decision making by Governments Political instability Methodology Data Analysis and type of Data used to the findings Findings and Analysis Kenya Overview Politics, Government and tourism in Kenya in the last 10 years of the 21stcentury Evaluating Policies and decision making in two periods (2002-2007) and(2008-20012) To evaluate how influential political instability is on the tourism industry inKenya. ConclusionContents
IntroductionAim To evaluate, the political factors influencing tourismespecially in Kenya, in the first decade of the 21stcentury.Objectives To understand the relationship between tourism andpolitics. To examine the position of the government in thetourism sector in Kenya. To analyze the tourism policy-making To evaluate how political instability influences tourismin Kenya
Relationship betweenTourism and politics• The relationship between politics and tourism are higlight innowadays by the economics importance in developing countries.• The tourism industry is widespread in majorities of productivesectors• the political system, directly or indirectly influences tourism,through policies established by governments in order to developthe country.• The highest purpose of tourism policy is to integrate the economic,political, cultural, and intellectual and economics benefits oftourism cohesively with people, destinations and countries.• Then it is palpable that politics and tourism share a wide range offactors such as social, economic, political and cultural, in a country.
• Governments are involved in tourism because this sector generatesimportant benefits and help to boost the economies of countries.• The government are involve directly and indirectly in the tourism industry.What is the role of the government inTourism?• Tourism policies are established by governments in three levels such as,central governments, autonomous and the municipally government• The five roles of government such as “coordination, planning, legislationand regulation, entrepreneurship, and stimulation” are vital for the successof the tourism.
• Policy making typically involvesa pattern of action over timeand involving many decisions• The policy-process is importantto consider within a politicalsystem That it is operating inpolitical environmentEvaluating policies and decision - making by GovernmentsPolicy making is a political activity that is embedded within the economic andsocial characteristics of society. It reflect society’s values, ideologies, distributionof power, institutions anddecision-making• The policies adopted by governments will determine the area and sector ofthe impact. It could be economic, social or environmental.• Political system as any persistent pattern of human relationships that involves,to a significant extent, power, rule or authority.
• Political violence can to be presented indifferent forms such as wars, coups,strikes, riots and terrorismPolitical instability• Political instability has been presentedby different types of governments inany country.• Although the duration of politicalviolence may be short lived, the longterm implications for tourism can lastfor many years affecting the confidencenot only of the tourists, but also of thepotential investors in tourism.It refers to a situation in which conditions and mechanism of governance and rule arechallenged as to their political legitimacy by elements operating from outside the normaloperations of the political system.• Politic violence can have an affect both directly and indirectly on other economicsectors and on employment.• Political instability is one of the elements that destroys tourism in any country.
MethodologyData AnalysisQualitative Method - This method analyses and focuses on the content of the collectionof primary and secondary data.- It makes a descriptive research of the current documents and more relevant issues.-This analysis is concerned with the explanation of status of some events at a particulartime or its development over a period of time.- The researcher used the data triangulation method, in order to check on thetrustworthiness and fullness of the qualitative data. This model was made possible byconsulting a variety of sources of data relating to the same event.
Secondary DataThe type of secondary data sources are multiples such as books, professionalsjournals, magazines articles, online data sources, websites, governments, semi-governmental organizations, catalogues and information on internet.MethodologyPrimary DataThe primary data method to collectinformation used by the researcheris based on interview, it could beformals and structured or informaland unstructured conversation.
Politics, Government and tourism in Kenya in the first decade of 21st century• Tourism was viewed by government of Kenya as a capitalist device. Similarly,the opinion has one’ of the interviewees, who states that in Kenya the tourismwas viewed by the government as an important contributor in the economy.• Tourism is viewed by Kenyan government as a political bridge between nations,this helps to improve relations, made agreements between countries (2001 to2005, the second agreement called East African Community (EAC) was signed)• the Plan launched by the government of Kenya in 2003, called “EconomicRecovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (2003-2007)”, wheretourism was seen as a productive sector by the government. It was due its higheconomic multiplier effect in others sectors such as transport, entertainment,agriculture, trade and industry• the government of Kenya plays an important role in tourism through theministry of tourism, which promotes this sector.FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
Evaluating policies and decision makingTourism policy in Kenya 2002-2007
Evaluating policies and decision makingTourism policy in Kenya 2008-2012
• In December, 2007, Kenya experiment a period of instability as a consequence ofthe dissatisfaction with result of the elections.• Political instability and political violence in Kenya, impacts in tourism provoking anegatives effects on the local economy and on employment.• The security and safety of tourists is a priority responsibility of the government.Security is a key consideration while selecting a holiday or travel destination. TheGovernment of Kenya is thus committed to ensuring the security and safety of allvisitors, citizens and residents.TO EVALUATE HOW THE INFLUENTIAL OF THE POLITICALINSTABILITY IS ON THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN KENYA.
CONCLUSION• 2002 -2007, it was a period characterized by an economic recovery.• 2008 -2012, It was focuses in economic aspects, social, environment, wildlife,security and political factors.• The role of the government was integrated different organization, ministries andlocal communities in order to develop appropriate policies for tourism sector.• Kenyan Government combines its resources such as human, financial andphysics. All of these in order to formulate policies to satisfy demands, that itconsider more important to improve the tourism sector.• It is evident the implication of government within tourism, who use this sector asa medium to reduce the poverty, create new jobs, improve quality of live of thepeople and the economy of Kenya• there is a big political influence in tourism in Kenya, because all politicalenvironments affect the tourism directly or indirectly. It on base on the decisionsmade affect positive or negative the tourism, but is clear that the governmentsare who identify the necessities of the sector In order to improve, it is necessarythe coordination a correct planning to execute a accurate policy in order to solvethe weakness of this sector