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Topic 4: Global Tourism – is tourism
the way to go?
KQ3: Developing tourism at what
cost?
Developing tourism at what cost?
Figure 1.66 Kayan Lahwi women in Myanmar. Adapted from: JD Jiang
Developing tourism at what cost?
Introduction
• Traditional culture can be greatly affected by tourist
activities
• Kayan...
Developing tourism at what cost?
Economic
• Tourism can bring about positive and negative economic
impacts.
Positive
• Em...
Positive Economic Impact
 Employment: Work performed for a wage or salary, in cash
or in kind
 Employment Opportunity – ...
Positive Economic Impact
 Employment Opportunity - hill tribe woman in a colorful
traditional costume selling handicraft
...
 Employment Opportunity – Flight attendants
Positive Economic Impact
http://floralia.centerblog.net/1072-les-plus-beaux-u...
Positive Economic Impact
Employment opportunities
• The growth of tourism has led to an increase in number of tourism-
rel...
Positive Economic Impact
Growth in income
• Tourism growth can lead to growth in income for
individuals and a country
• Ex...
Positive Economic Impact
Growth in income
Figure 1.68 A Filipino fisherman and a group of tourists watch as a whale shark...
Positive Economic Impact
Region Percentage of all tourism
receipts in 2011 (%)
Europe 45
Asia Pacific 28
The Americas 19
O...
Positive Economic Impact
Growth in income
• A large portion of revenue from tourism is sometimes lost
as leakage, especia...
Positive Economic Impact
Figure 1.70 Distribution of international tourist spending in Phuket, Thailand. Adapted from:
Han...
Positive Economic Impact
Figure 1.71 South Sea Island Beach,
Fiji. Tourism is Fiji’s largest foreign
exchange earner.
Inc...
 Increase in foreign exchange
Positive Economic Impact
•Countries that host large numbers of tourists receive considerabl...
 Increase in foreign exchange
Positive Economic Impact
•The tourism industry contributes directly and indirectly
to gover...
Positive Economic Impact
 Increase in foreign exchange
Region 1990 1995 2000 2005
Africa 6 402 85 00 10 503 21 525
Americas 69 274 98 439 130 797 144 556
East Asia 44 445 77 296...
 Development of infrastructure – train infrastructure in Singapore
Positive Economic Impact
http://www.set-edu.com/web/in...
 Development of infrastructure – Beijing National Stadium,
Beijing, China
Positive Economic Impact
http://nl.wikipedia.or...
 Development of infrastructure – sewage treatment plant
Positive Economic Impact
http://www.saskatoon.ca/DEPARTMENTS/Util...
 Development of infrastructure – electricity pylons to transmit power
Positive Economic Impact
http://kids.britannica.com...
Positive Economic Impact
Infrastructure development
• Infrastructure development: Construction of transport
and communicat...
Positive Economic Impact
Infrastructure development
• Example: Roads
– Link airports, cities and tourist sites which allo...
Positive Economic Impact
Infrastructure development
• Creates employment for local workers as many workers
are needed dur...
Seasonal unemployment
Negative Economic Impact
http://oneshetwoshe.com/2013/07/ski-resort-in-the-summer.htmlhttp://www.li...
Seasonal unemployment
Negative Economic Impact
Seasonal unemployment
• Certain tourist activities depend on climatic con...
Seasonal unemployment
Negative Economic Impact
• Example: European countries surrounding the
Mediterranean
– Majority of a...
Negative Economic Impact
Figure 1.76a) Changes in employment in the hotel and restaurant sector in the European Union
comp...
Negative Economic Impact
 Seasonal unemployment
•Example: Sapporo, Japan
– Receives a large number of visitors from Decem...
Leakage of tourism receipts to other
countries
Negative Economic Impact
Negative Economic Impact
Underuse of facilities
• Underused facilities can be costly to maintain
• Money from tourists nor...
Negative Economic Impact
http://www.topbeijingtravel.com/beijing-attractions/
• Example: Venue for Summer Olympic Games in...
Negative Economic Impact
Figure 1.78 Potential effects of tourism development on resource allocation.
Shortage of service...
Positive Socio-cultural impacts
Preservation of culture and local customs.
Figure 1.79 The difference between heritage an...
Positive Socio-cultural impacts
Preservation of culture and local customs.
Figure 1.80a) The historical
Christ Church in ...
Dilution of local customs and heritage
Negative Socio-cultural impacts
Figure 1.81 Local street vendors selling
souvenirs ...
Negative Socio-cultural impacts
Dilution of culture and local customs
• Local cultural festivals and religious rituals are...
Negative Socio-cultural impacts
Increased crime
Figure 1.82b) Tourist
traps deter tourists from
visiting mainly due to
sca...
Negative Socio-cultural impacts
Increased crime
Increased crime
• Example: Scam on Japanese tourists in the UK
– In 2010,...
Positive Environmental impacts
http://www.kota-kinabalu.net/2010/09/sepilok-orang-utan-sanctuary.html
Conservation of natu...
Positive Environmental impacts
Conservation of natural environments
• Example: Kenya
– Survival of animals relies on fundi...
Negative Environmental impacts
Increased congestion
• May be due to:
–Large numbers of tourists near popular attractions
...
Negative Environmental impacts
Figure 1.83 A large
crowd of tourists at
Trevi Fountain in
Rome, Italy.
Increased congestio...
Negative Environmental impacts
http://melissaeweiss.com/2009/06/
Figure 1.84 Graffiti on the Great Wall of China,
Beijing,...
Negative Environmental impacts
Pollution and littering
• A major problem that degrades some tourist areas
• Authorities s...
Scenic Nepal?
Pollution and
littering
Destruction of
habitat
Negative
Environmental
impacts
Negative Environmental impacts
Destruction of habitats
• Popular tourist sites can be overwhelmed with visitors
during bus...
Negative Environmental impacts
Destruction of habitats
• Example: Red Sea
– Major diving and snorkelling destination for a...
Negative Environmental impacts
Increased carbon footprint
• Carbon footprint: Amount of
greenhouse gas emissions that
woul...
Negative Environmental impacts
http://www.tripadvisor.com/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g294265-d1086295-
i62043622-Crowne_Plaza...
•Management refers to making decisions that benefit
both the natural environments and the lives of the local
population
–E...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
• Sustainable tourism: Form of tourism organised in a
way that allows it to contin...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable
tourism
• Conservation: Caref...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable
tourism
• Can occur with help...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable
tourism
• Example: Tourism ne...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Figure 1.87
[Clockwise
from top left]
a)
Whitsunday
Islands in the
Great Barrier
R...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
 Conservation and sustainable tourism
 The Great Barrier Reef receives 14 millio...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable
tourism
• Sustainable tourism...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable
tourism
• Role of United Nati...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Figure 1.88 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in selected countries in Southeast Asia. A...
How are the impacts of tourism
managed?
 Conservation and sustainable tourism
 UNESCO provides funding to threatened sit...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Tensions in managing the impacts of tourism
• Tourism can produce tensions due to ...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Tensions between tourists and locals
• The needs of tourists may conflict with nee...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
•Example: Bali, Indonesia
– Visited by many tourists for natural landscape and foo...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Figure 1.90 Traffic
congestion in Kuta, Bali,
Indonesia.
Tensions between tourists...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Tensions between tourists and locals
• Example: Bali, Indonesia
– Tourist faciliti...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Tensions between tourists and the environment
• Arise when the needs of tourists c...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Tensions between tourists and the environment
• Example: Machu Picchu, Peru
– City...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Tensions between tourists and the environment
• Example: Machu Picchu, Peru
– The ...
How are the impacts of tourism managed?
Figure 1.93 A large group of tourists at Machu Picchu, Peru.
Tensions between tou...
Measures for managing the tensions
• Government authorities play an important role
in balancing and resolving tensions
• O...
Measures for managing the tensions
• Examples:
– Limit number of visitors to minimise congestion and
degradation
– Withhol...
Measures for managing the tensions
• Balancing the needs of various groups can be
very difficult
• Example:
• Needs of res...
Responsibilities of various groups in
conserving and protecting tourist
areas
Local communities
Visitors
Tour operators...
Responsibilities of various groups
Local communities
• Example: Candirejo Village
– Villagers set up a cooperative in 2003...
Responsibilities of various groups
Figure 1.94 The andong, a type
of local transport used at
Candirejo Village (village no...
Local communities
Strengths– Involve locals in decision making
with regards to tourism management strategies
to be carrie...
Responsibilities of various groups
Figure 1.95 Visitors should be dressed
appropriately to visit temples, such as this one...
Visitors
Strengths – visitors’ spending can provide funds to
help conserve environments, preserve culture or
maintain a t...
Responsibilities of various groups
Tour operators
• Tour operators may belong to associations concerned
with conserving an...
Tour Operators
Strength – valuable feedback from tour guides used
by local communities and planning authorities to plan
t...
Responsibilities of various groups
Non-governmental organisations
• Non-governmental organisations (NGOs): Non-profit
orga...
Responsibilities of various groups
Non-governmental organisations
• Example: The International Ecotourism Society (TIES)
–...
Non-governmental
organizations
Strengths – facilitate communication between various
stakeholders such as between local co...
Responsibilities of various groups
Planning authorities
• The most important group in ensuring that the tourist
areas are ...
Responsibilities of various groups
Planning authorities
• Example: Singapore Tourism Board (STB)
– Attracts large numbers ...
Planning authorities
Strengths – able to successfully develop, approve,
fund and maintain infrastructure that help manage...
Figure 1.96 [Clockwise from top left] The ethnic districts of Singapore. a) Arab Street. b) Chinatown. c)
Little India
Dev...
Responsibilities of various groups
• Important for the different groups to work
together to develop strategies to protect
...
Case study of
Singapore
http://www.riverview.com.sg/singapore-guide/where-to-shop
Chinatown, Singapore
Resort World Sentos...
Case study of Singapore
• Case study will discuss four questions:
–What is the nature of the tourist activity?
–What is th...
Case study of Singapore
• Chinatown
– Rich in Chinese cultural
and historical elements
– Shows a blend of
Chinese culture,...
Case study of Singapore
What is the nature of the tourist activity?
• Chinatown
– Chinatown Heritage Centre: Museum that s...
Case study of Singapore
What is the nature of the tourist activity?
• Integrated Resorts (IRs)
– Large-scale developments ...
Case study of Singapore
– Leisure tourists can
engage in a wide range
of activities, e.g. visiting
theme parks, attending
...
Case study of Singapore
• Impact of Chinatown development
– Its development as a tourist attraction has had
numerous socia...
Case study of Singapore
– 1998: Chinatown Experience
Guide Plan was implemented to
bring pedestrians back by
attracting bu...
Case study of Singapore
Impact of Chinatown development
– Several brands of food items with a history of more
than 30 year...
Case study of Singapore
What is the impact of the development of tourism?
New Businesses that moved in has
helped revitali...
Case study of Singapore
• Impact of Chinatown development
– Many original residents have since moved out
– Today: Most of ...
Case study of Singapore
•Impact of Integrated Resorts development
–Created many employment opportunities in hotels,
restau...
Case study of Singapore
•Impact of Integrated Resorts development
–Created many employment opportunities in
hotels, restau...
Case study of Singapore
• Impact of Integrated Resorts development
– Tourism arrivals increased to 14.4 million in
2012 (9...
Case study of Singapore
• Impact of Integrated Resorts development
– Concerns about negative social and
environmental impa...
Case study of Singapore
• Impact of Integrated Resorts development
– Complaints about environmental issues
o Potential dis...
Case study of Singapore
What is the impact of the development of tourism?
IRs contributed to country’s
tourism receipt of ...
Case study of Singapore
Figure 1.10 Temple
Street, Chinatown
How is the impact managed?
• Chinatown
– Authorities infused...
Case study of Singapore
How is the impact managed? Retaining Chinatown cultural Heritage
http://reginsrealm.blogspot.sg/20...
Case study of Singapore
How is the impact managed?
• Integrated Resorts
– Strictly managed through various social safeguar...
Case study of Singapore
How is the impact managed?
• Integrated Resorts
– Government pledged to keep a close watch on the
...
Case study of Singapore
How is the impact managed?
• Integrated Resorts
– The National Council on Problem Gambling was set...
Case study of Singapore
How is the impact managed?
Managing negative social impacts of casino on locals –
Locals have to p...
Case study of Singapore
Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop?
• Tourism has numerous benefits to a country...
Case study of Singapore
Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop?
 In Singapore:
– International tourism recei...
Case study of Singapore
Figure 1.102 International tourism receipts in Singapore by tourism sector in
2012. Adapted from: ...
Case study of Singapore
Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop?
• Tourism is a key industry for the Singapor...
Case study of Singapore
Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop?
• In summary:
– Tourism has provided many jo...
Recap
1. Assess the impact of tourism on a country.
2. Explain how tourism can be made sustainable.
3. Compare the roles o...
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Tourism kq3 ppt

KQ3: Developing tourism at what cost?
What are the impacts of tourism?
 Economic impact
 Socio-cultural
 Environmental
How are the impacts of tourism managed?

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Tourism kq3 ppt

  1. 1. Topic 4: Global Tourism – is tourism the way to go? KQ3: Developing tourism at what cost?
  2. 2. Developing tourism at what cost? Figure 1.66 Kayan Lahwi women in Myanmar. Adapted from: JD Jiang
  3. 3. Developing tourism at what cost? Introduction • Traditional culture can be greatly affected by tourist activities • Kayan Lahwi women as tourist attractions: –Tourists photograph the ‘long-necked women’ –Tourists buy clothing and souvenirs made by the women –Local businesses charge fees to enter the villages –Some of the women were relocated to Inle Lake –The tradition of wearing brass neck coils continues because it gives the Kayan Lahwi a source of revenue
  4. 4. Developing tourism at what cost? Economic • Tourism can bring about positive and negative economic impacts. Positive • Employment opportunities • Growth in income • Increase in foreign exchange • Infrastructure development Negative • Seasonal unemployment • Underuse of facilities • Shortage of services
  5. 5. Positive Economic Impact  Employment: Work performed for a wage or salary, in cash or in kind  Employment Opportunity – Chefs in a restaurant http://www.examiner.com/article/iron-chef-michael-symon-opening-2-new-restaurants-cleveland
  6. 6. Positive Economic Impact  Employment Opportunity - hill tribe woman in a colorful traditional costume selling handicraft http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-images-thai-tribe-woman-image5718049
  7. 7.  Employment Opportunity – Flight attendants Positive Economic Impact http://floralia.centerblog.net/1072-les-plus-beaux-uniformes-hotesses-de-air
  8. 8. Positive Economic Impact Employment opportunities • The growth of tourism has led to an increase in number of tourism- related jobs • The tourism industry offers many employment opportunities, e.g. hotels, souvenir shops, tour agencies • Some jobs are: – Directly linked to the tourism industry, e.g. travel agents, tour guides, hotel staff, waiters and waitresses – Indirectly linked to the tourism industry, e.g. taxi drivers, shop owners • In 2011, the tourism industry employed over 235 million people worldwide (6–8 % of all the jobs in the world)
  9. 9. Positive Economic Impact Growth in income • Tourism growth can lead to growth in income for individuals and a country • Example: Fishermen on Pamilacan Island, Philippines – Local tour companies hire fishermen to help them view and swim with whale sharks – Fishermen are paid between US$80–US$100 per boat for their service – Fishermen can expect additional income on top of their fishing livelihood – Tour companies will experience an increase in revenue – Overall increase in revenue for the country through taxes collected from the fishermen and tour companies
  10. 10. Positive Economic Impact Growth in income Figure 1.68 A Filipino fisherman and a group of tourists watch as a whale shark passes underneath their boat. Adapted from: Steve De Neef Photography
  11. 11. Positive Economic Impact Region Percentage of all tourism receipts in 2011 (%) Europe 45 Asia Pacific 28 The Americas 19 Others 8 Figure 1.69 Distribution of global tourism receipts. Adapted from: World Tourism Organization (2012) Growth in income • Tourism receipts: Money received from tourist spending • Tourism receipts generate large revenue for many countries • In 2011, worldwide tourism receipts exceeded US$1 trillion
  12. 12. Positive Economic Impact Growth in income • A large portion of revenue from tourism is sometimes lost as leakage, especially in LDCs • Leakage occurs when revenue earned from tourism is paid to other countries for the import of goods and services needed to meet the needs of tourists • Example: Phuket, Thailand –Travellers may use the services of foreign-owned businesses and buy imported items –Some of the profits made by local businesses are sent to another country to pay for imports –Money that does not stay in the local economy may bring few benefits to local businesses and workers
  13. 13. Positive Economic Impact Figure 1.70 Distribution of international tourist spending in Phuket, Thailand. Adapted from: Handmer, J., Choong, W. (2006) ‘Disaster resilience through local economic activity in Phuket’. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 21(4), 8-15. Growth in income
  14. 14. Positive Economic Impact Figure 1.71 South Sea Island Beach, Fiji. Tourism is Fiji’s largest foreign exchange earner. Increase in foreign exchange • Foreign exchange: Money earned from other countries in exchange for goods and services • Important to an economy because it allows the receiving country to purchase goods and services from elsewhere in the world • Example: Tourism is Fiji’s largest foreign exchange earner, making up 20%-25% of its economy
  15. 15.  Increase in foreign exchange Positive Economic Impact •Countries that host large numbers of tourists receive considerable tourism business investments from other countries •Example: Singapore – Has many international hotel chains, e.g. InterContinental, Marriott and Shangri-La – These chains invest in building and furnishing hotels and resorts, and training staff at tourist destinations – Hotels exchange their own currency to purchase Singapore dollars in order to make their investments – Increases demand for Singapore dollars and contributes to Singapore’s capital inflow
  16. 16.  Increase in foreign exchange Positive Economic Impact •The tourism industry contributes directly and indirectly to government revenues •Examples of how tourism contributes directly to government revenues include taxes on tourists (e.g. airport tax) and income taxes on employees of tourism- related businesses •Examples of how tourism contributes indirectly to government revenues include taxes on goods and services that are supplied to tourists (e.g. petrol for rented cars) •Since taxes are collected in local currency, this increases the foreign exchange of the host country
  17. 17. Positive Economic Impact  Increase in foreign exchange
  18. 18. Region 1990 1995 2000 2005 Africa 6 402 85 00 10 503 21 525 Americas 69 274 98 439 130 797 144 556 East Asia 44 445 77 296 85 410 130 949 Europe 142 885 212 159 232 486 348 263 Middle East 5 124 10 905 17 567 27 557 South Asia 2 029 3 404 4 797 9 816 Total 270 159 410 703 481 560 682 667 Total tourism receipts (US$, million) in different regions of the world Positive Economic Impact
  19. 19.  Development of infrastructure – train infrastructure in Singapore Positive Economic Impact http://www.set-edu.com/web/index.php/du-hoc/129-tin-tuc-du-hoc/682-singapore-s-la-chn-hang-u-danh-cho-hc-sinh-vit-nam
  20. 20.  Development of infrastructure – Beijing National Stadium, Beijing, China Positive Economic Impact http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Beijing_National_Stadium,_Beijing_2008_Olympics.jpg
  21. 21.  Development of infrastructure – sewage treatment plant Positive Economic Impact http://www.saskatoon.ca/DEPARTMENTS/Utility%20Services/Water%20and%20Wastewater%20Treatment/ Wastewater%20Treatment%20Plant/Pages/default.aspx
  22. 22.  Development of infrastructure – electricity pylons to transmit power Positive Economic Impact http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-106845/High-voltage-transmission-lines-span-the- countryside-carrying-electricity-from
  23. 23. Positive Economic Impact Infrastructure development • Infrastructure development: Construction of transport and communication networks, electrical frameworks and systems for water and waste disposal • Tourism cannot develop and would not be able to operate on a large scale without sufficient infrastructure and appropriate facilities such as: –Airports –Roads –Electricity –Hotels • Infrastructure built to enhance tourism brings benefits to the locals
  24. 24. Positive Economic Impact Infrastructure development • Example: Roads – Link airports, cities and tourist sites which allow tourists access to local attractions – Allow local people better access to markets, health care, education and jobs • Example: Sports venues and other infrastructure – Built for major sporting events, e.g. Olympic Games, World Cup – Improve sporting infrastructure of host countries – Useful even after the key event, e.g. Summer Olympic Games in Athens and Beijing
  25. 25. Positive Economic Impact Infrastructure development • Creates employment for local workers as many workers are needed during the construction process • Local industries are boosted because local materials may be used to construct the infrastructure • Encourages economic growth due to increased spending in the local economy
  26. 26. Seasonal unemployment Negative Economic Impact http://oneshetwoshe.com/2013/07/ski-resort-in-the-summer.htmlhttp://www.livetravelmountains.com/skiing/korea-winter-guide/ Ski resorts in the Alps during winter Ski resorts in the Alps during summer
  27. 27. Seasonal unemployment Negative Economic Impact Seasonal unemployment • Certain tourist activities depend on climatic conditions • Countries may experience regular fluctuations in tourist numbers • People in tourism-related jobs have to find other sources of income when employment is temporarily unavailable
  28. 28. Seasonal unemployment Negative Economic Impact • Example: European countries surrounding the Mediterranean – Majority of all hotel stays take place in the summer season of July to September, e.g. Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Spain – Increase in summer visits is mainly due to the warm weather as tourists can do a range of activities e.g. relaxing by the beach, hiking – Employment in hotels and restaurants across the European Union reaches its peak for the year during this season
  29. 29. Negative Economic Impact Figure 1.76a) Changes in employment in the hotel and restaurant sector in the European Union compared to annual averages (represented by 100), 2009. b) Changes in employment among tourist accommodations in the European Union compared to annual averages (represented by 100), 2009. Adapted from: European Union Eurostat (2010).  Seasonal unemployment
  30. 30. Negative Economic Impact  Seasonal unemployment •Example: Sapporo, Japan – Receives a large number of visitors from December to February, many of whom engage in winter sports, e.g. skiing, snowboarding – Mountain ski resort operators employ more people during winter to cater to the high tourist demand – In other seasons, workers return to other jobs, (e.g. farming) or move away temporarily until the next tourist season
  31. 31. Leakage of tourism receipts to other countries Negative Economic Impact
  32. 32. Negative Economic Impact Underuse of facilities • Underused facilities can be costly to maintain • Money from tourists normally pays for the cost of maintaining such facilities • Facilities may become neglected when there are few tourists
  33. 33. Negative Economic Impact http://www.topbeijingtravel.com/beijing-attractions/ • Example: Venue for Summer Olympic Games in Beijing – Venues allegedly deteriorating years after the Olympics – Some were renovated to become more profitable, e.g. Beijing National Aquatics Center was renovated into a water park – Only one-third of major sports venues in China have managed to break even Underuse of facilities
  34. 34. Negative Economic Impact Figure 1.78 Potential effects of tourism development on resource allocation. Shortage of services • Tourist infrastructure may require the use of large amounts of land, water and power • This could lead to a shortage of services, e.g. water supplies or power in non-tourist areas
  35. 35. Positive Socio-cultural impacts Preservation of culture and local customs. Figure 1.79 The difference between heritage and custom. Preservation of culture and local customs • Preservation of culture: Protection of the way people live, including their economic activities, traditional beliefs and religious practices • Could apply to heritage and customs
  36. 36. Positive Socio-cultural impacts Preservation of culture and local customs. Figure 1.80a) The historical Christ Church in Malacca, Malaysia, has been carefully restored and now stands as a relic of Malacca’s colonial history, while serving as a tourist attraction. b) Sites such as the Angkor Wat complex in Siem Reap, Cambodia, have entry fees that help fund conservation efforts. Preservation of culture and local customs • Preserved and restored sites are more attractive to tourists • Restored sites benefit the local population by: – Enhancing people’s sense of history – Build a sense of belonging to the community • Tourism revenue can fund the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage, e.g. entry fee to Angkor Wat
  37. 37. Dilution of local customs and heritage Negative Socio-cultural impacts Figure 1.81 Local street vendors selling souvenirs at the Swayambhunath Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal Dilution of culture and local customs • Identity, culture and values of a place can be lost when tourism becomes the major activity of an area • Tourism-oriented commercial activities (e.g. food outlets, travel agencies, souvenir shops) can overwhelm an area • Buildings may be modified or built to accommodate tourism • Locals may relocate elsewhere, which changes the original atmosphere, appearance and functions of the area they left
  38. 38. Negative Socio-cultural impacts Dilution of culture and local customs • Local cultural festivals and religious rituals are sometimes modified to meet the demands and expectations of tourists –Dancers deliberately pose for tourist photographs –Rituals are shortened to fit into itinerary of tourists –Rituals are repeated several times a day • Authenticity and significance of cultural events are reduced because of commercialisation • Example: Kayan Lahwi women – Tourists pay entrance fees at Kayan Lahwi village – Some tourists treat the women as exhibits Padung longnecks doing a traditional dance for tourists
  39. 39. Negative Socio-cultural impacts Increased crime Figure 1.82b) Tourist traps deter tourists from visiting mainly due to scams and overpriced goods. • Tourists carry valuable items, e.g. watches, cameras • Tourists are prone to being mugged, cheated or scammed in tourist areas or tourist traps • Tourist traps: Places where information, goods or services are sold at greatly inflated prices –Can also refer to places where tourist scams are common –Can deter tourists from visiting • Many countries have police to help serve tourists and sort out conflicts with locals over purchases
  40. 40. Negative Socio-cultural impacts Increased crime Increased crime • Example: Scam on Japanese tourists in the UK – In 2010, Japanese tourists were scammed by a woman pretending to be a tourist – The woman would ask for directions or ask to have her photo taken – Her accomplices would appear and pose as police officers requesting for the group’s identification and credit cards – The woman would hand over her identity and credit card and convince the tourists to do the same – Once the credit cards are handed over, they would be used to withdraw money from the ATM or buy expensive items
  41. 41. Positive Environmental impacts http://www.kota-kinabalu.net/2010/09/sepilok-orang-utan-sanctuary.html Conservation of natural environments • Funding from tourism helps protect and conserve environments such as coral reefs, rainforests and mountainous areas, e.g. revenue from entrance fees to national parks and diving sites, levies on accommodations •Example: Sepilok Orang-utan Rehabilitation Centre – Partly relies on visitor entry fees to pay staff – The staff help rehabilitate orang-utans that have been orphaned or injured
  42. 42. Positive Environmental impacts Conservation of natural environments • Example: Kenya – Survival of animals relies on funding from international tourists who want to see these animals in the wild – Estimated tourist revenues for: o A lion: US$7,000 a year o A herd of elephants: US$600,000 a year – Money raised from wildlife tourism becomes a way to continue to preserve the animals and their habitats
  43. 43. Negative Environmental impacts Increased congestion • May be due to: –Large numbers of tourists near popular attractions –Tourist shops and accommodations that cluster near tourist areas –Vehicular and pedestrian traffic • Apart from adding to local traffic, huge inflow of cars and buses can contribute to air pollution.
  44. 44. Negative Environmental impacts Figure 1.83 A large crowd of tourists at Trevi Fountain in Rome, Italy. Increased congestion • Example: In Rome, many older walkways and narrow streets are filled with tourists
  45. 45. Negative Environmental impacts http://melissaeweiss.com/2009/06/ Figure 1.84 Graffiti on the Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Vandalism • Vandalism: Crime of deliberately damaging property belonging to other people • Cultural, historical or natural sites may be vandalised by individuals or developers • Example: Thousands of stones and bricks of the Great Wall of China are covered with graffiti
  46. 46. Negative Environmental impacts Pollution and littering • A major problem that degrades some tourist areas • Authorities sometimes fail to implement measures that would properly manage waste left behind by tourists • Example: Cruise ships – Tourists dump plastic bottles, food packaging and old batteries overboard from cruise ships – Solid and liquid waste are sometimes dumped into the sea by ships – Harbours, marinas and the ocean become polluted
  47. 47. Scenic Nepal? Pollution and littering Destruction of habitat Negative Environmental impacts
  48. 48. Negative Environmental impacts Destruction of habitats • Popular tourist sites can be overwhelmed with visitors during busy times of the year, e.g. beaches and villages • When too many tourists visit a destination, they may destroy habitats and wildlife – Careless tourists trample on plants, while others collect eggs and feathers of birds as souvenirs – These tourists make too much noise which can disturb and frighten off animals
  49. 49. Negative Environmental impacts Destruction of habitats • Example: Red Sea – Major diving and snorkelling destination for around 1.2 million visitors annually – Habitats of coral reefs and exotic fish have been damaged o Swimmers collect shells or corals as souvenirs o Hotels and restaurants in the area sometimes dump waste and sewage into the sea
  50. 50. Negative Environmental impacts Increased carbon footprint • Carbon footprint: Amount of greenhouse gas emissions that would be produced by activities that involve the use of fossil fuels • Activities may include travelling by planes and tour buses, and electricity consumption by hotels
  51. 51. Negative Environmental impacts http://www.tripadvisor.com/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g294265-d1086295- i62043622-Crowne_Plaza_Changi_Airport_Hotel-Singapore.html Increased carbon footprint •Carbon footprint is measured in equivalent amounts in carbon dioxide •Example: One-way economy class flight from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur generates 30 kilogrammes of carbon dioxide per passenger
  52. 52. •Management refers to making decisions that benefit both the natural environments and the lives of the local population –Ensures that a particular site and its features remain in prime condition –Ensures that the economy, culture and environment of a region are sustained for future generations •Tourist activities should occur without excessive use of resources and without damage to the environment How are the impacts of tourism managed?
  53. 53. How are the impacts of tourism managed? • Sustainable tourism: Form of tourism organised in a way that allows it to continue without causing damage to the environment or without leaving negative impacts on the surrounding society and culture • Sustainable tourism addresses the needs of: –Visitors –Industries –Host communities
  54. 54. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable tourism • Conservation: Careful management and use of resources such that these resources would not be depleted • Fragile environments: Environments that are easily affected by change, e.g. mangroves and coral reefs • Environments can be easily disturbed through: – Dumping of wastes from tourist facilities – Removal of vegetation to build roads and buildings – Disposal of waste into rivers, lakes or coastal environments
  55. 55. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable tourism • Can occur with help of laws and regulations, and support from the local people • A well-protected environment attracts more tourists to visit and previous tourists to return • The arrival of tourists will benefit the locals economically and motivate them to care for the sites properly
  56. 56. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable tourism • Example: Tourism near Australia’s Great Barrier Reef – World’s longest complex of coral reefs and small islands – Stretching 2,300 km along the northeast coast of Australia – Diverse ecosystem and beauty gave the reef its place on UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 1981
  57. 57. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Figure 1.87 [Clockwise from top left] a) Whitsunday Islands in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. b) Map of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. c) Upolu Cay, Great Barrier Reef, Australia  Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable tourism
  58. 58. How are the impacts of tourism managed?  Conservation and sustainable tourism  The Great Barrier Reef receives 14 million tourists every year. It is threatened by tourism activities such as fuel leaks from pleasure boats, particularity in marinas and harbours. It is also threatened by the removal of corals for souvenirs. http://econews.com.au/news-to-sustain-our-world/un-says-shelve-ports-to-save-great-barrier-reef/
  59. 59. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable tourism • Sustainable tourism also involves minimising leakages from tourist revenues • Different strategies are adopted to reduce leakages: – Training locals to perform skilled tourism jobs, e.g. management, marketing – Developing homestay accommodations where visitors can pay local people directly for their accommodation – Promoting local food and drink in restaurants to provide a market for local food producers and distributors
  60. 60. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable tourism • Role of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) –Involved in conservation –Responsible for declaring sites as ‘World Heritage’ –Provides funding to conserve threatened sites –World Heritage sites in 1978: 12 –World Heritage sites in 2012: Almost 1,000
  61. 61. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Figure 1.88 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in selected countries in Southeast Asia. Adapted from: UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2012).
  62. 62. How are the impacts of tourism managed?  Conservation and sustainable tourism  UNESCO provides funding to threatened sites to conserve them – e.g. Angkor Wat, Borobudur Temple
  63. 63. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Tensions in managing the impacts of tourism • Tourism can produce tensions due to the difference between the needs or expectations of different groups: – Tourists and locals – Tourists and the environment • Tensions need to be balanced when managing the impact of tourism
  64. 64. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Tensions between tourists and locals • The needs of tourists may conflict with needs of locals, e.g. Tourists wearing skimpy clothing may go against conservative values of locals
  65. 65. How are the impacts of tourism managed? •Example: Bali, Indonesia – Visited by many tourists for natural landscape and food – World Heritage site – Cultural landscape renowned for its Hindu temples, art, dance and other heritage and customs – In 2012, 2.9 million international tourists visited Bali Figure 1.89 The cultural landscape of Bali, Indonesia. a) The Mother Temple of Besakih. b) Rice terraces near the village of Belimbing.
  66. 66. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Figure 1.90 Traffic congestion in Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. Tensions between tourists and locals • Example: Bali, Indonesia – Tourist sites (e.g. Kuta) are congested due to tourists o Tourist congestion makes it difficult for locals to conduct their daily business
  67. 67. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Tensions between tourists and locals • Example: Bali, Indonesia – Tourist facilities potentially deprive some locals of their water supply o The tourism industry consumes much water and may result in water shortages o Some dug wells have now gone dry, making vulnerable the island’s poorest – Locals expect tourists to respect local customs and values, which tourists sometimes fail to do o Example: Many locals still object to public displays of affection, which some tourists may perceive as all right to do in public
  68. 68. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Tensions between tourists and the environment • Arise when the needs of tourists conflict with the need to conserve the environment • Example: Natural attractions depend on tourist income for their conservation but tourist inflow may damage the attraction itself, e.g. Machu Picchu, Peru
  69. 69. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Tensions between tourists and the environment • Example: Machu Picchu, Peru – City built by Inca Civilisation on Andes Mountains – Located 2,430 metres above sea level – Has stone walls, ramps, pillars and stairways that are now remnants of a once-thriving city – Provides insight into ancient Inca life – Rich history and breath-taking landscape draw 3,300 visitors every day
  70. 70. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Tensions between tourists and the environment • Example: Machu Picchu, Peru – The site’s popularity has caused some tensions between the needs of tourists and that of the environment – Physically able tourists opt to use the ‘Inca Trail’ o Stunning mountain scenery, cloud forests, rivers, Inca ruins o Populated with rare indigenous plant and wildlife o Eroded by more than 75,000 tourists that hike on it each year o Hikers leave behind rubbish, e.g. water bottles, plastic wrappers
  71. 71. How are the impacts of tourism managed? Figure 1.93 A large group of tourists at Machu Picchu, Peru. Tensions between tourists and the environment • Example: Machu Picchu, Peru – Tourists may prefer to reach the site using helicopters for convenience o Helicopters were banned for fear that its noise disturbs the area’s indigenous animal and plant species – Sheer weight and combined footsteps of tourists damage land and artefacts on the site
  72. 72. Measures for managing the tensions • Government authorities play an important role in balancing and resolving tensions • Organisations set up by governments may impose measures to balance needs of tourists, locals and the environment
  73. 73. Measures for managing the tensions • Examples: – Limit number of visitors to minimise congestion and degradation – Withhold permission to proceed with tourism-related projects that could harm the environment – Employ staff to maintain and repair sites and prevent tourists from tampering with it – Hold discussions with locals on their needs and concerns – Restrict tourists from areas where only locals could enter
  74. 74. Measures for managing the tensions • Balancing the needs of various groups can be very difficult • Example: • Needs of residents vs needs of business owners • Need for jobs vs need for conservation • Various groups and stakeholders have a responsibility to ensure balance between conflicting interests
  75. 75. Responsibilities of various groups in conserving and protecting tourist areas Local communities Visitors Tour operators Non-governmental organizations Planning authorities
  76. 76. Responsibilities of various groups Local communities • Example: Candirejo Village – Villagers set up a cooperative in 2003, with support from the government, to manage and implement community tourism-related programmes – Villagers participate in decision-making through discussions and consultations with cooperative about programmes such as: o Developing homestay accommodations o Developing organic farms o Organising local transport – Villagers trained to produce handicrafts, provide catering and work as tour guides
  77. 77. Responsibilities of various groups Figure 1.94 The andong, a type of local transport used at Candirejo Village (village not shown), Central Java, Indonesia. Local communities • Example: Candirejo Village –In 2002: 10 homestays, 5 andongs, no restaurants –In 2004: 22 homestays, 22 andongs, 6 restaurants –Also reported in 2004: 63 new jobs, 5 new businesses, 12.5% increase in average income per villager
  78. 78. Local communities Strengths– Involve locals in decision making with regards to tourism management strategies to be carried out and increase in tourism related employment and business for the local Limitations – difficulty in obtaining external funding in setting up business or investing in vehicles to facilitate tourism in their area. There may not have enough skilled labour such as managers or consultants.
  79. 79. Responsibilities of various groups Figure 1.95 Visitors should be dressed appropriately to visit temples, such as this one at Wat Benchamabophit, a temple in Bangkok, Thailand. Visitors • Have responsibility to respect both the environment and the local population of a place • Should visit without causing damage or offence • Encouraged to select destinations based on conservation efforts and carbon footprint. Some factors to consider: – Amount of water used – Amount of waste recycled • Can have rewarding visits with responsible tourism
  80. 80. Visitors Strengths – visitors’ spending can provide funds to help conserve environments, preserve culture or maintain a tourist attractions. Their spending can also provide locals with income from employment and business. They can also raise awareness about the destination at home by sharing their experience. Limitations – visitors may damage a tourist attraction e.g. by vandalism and littering. Thy might also cause local culture and customs to be diluted.
  81. 81. Responsibilities of various groups Tour operators • Tour operators may belong to associations concerned with conserving and protecting environments visited by tourists • Fewer tourists are likely to visit a place if the unspoilt landscapes, rich biodiversity and unique cultures deteriorate • Example: Phuket Alternative Tours (PAT) – Tour operators have to adhere to the guidelines under the Environmental and Cultural Code of Practice: o Operate in an environmentally sustainable way o Seek to enhance the natural environment and the way that the industry uses it o Create awareness about environmental conservation for visitors to Phuket
  82. 82. Tour Operators Strength – valuable feedback from tour guides used by local communities and planning authorities to plan tourism management strategies as well as help to regulate tourist behavior. Limitation – the need to generate profits can sometimes led to tour operators into conflict with other stakeholders and may also override concerns to preserve the environment when the concerns would reduce their profits.
  83. 83. Responsibilities of various groups Non-governmental organisations • Non-governmental organisations (NGOs): Non-profit organisations operating independently of governments • Concerned with tourism’s impact on natural and human environments • Instrumental in achieving sustainable tourism and for protecting the environments frequented by tourists
  84. 84. Responsibilities of various groups Non-governmental organisations • Example: The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) – Developed guidelines on tourism – Conducted training courses – Provided technical assistance – Published research papers related to tourism and the environment – Works with numerous organisations, including travel associations and conservation groups in 124 countries
  85. 85. Non-governmental organizations Strengths – facilitate communication between various stakeholders such as between local communities and tour operators or between tour operators and planning authorities. NGOs also encourage local communities to actively participate in the managing the impact of tourism. They also support the various stakeholders in the form of additional manpower, expertise or marketing campaigns. Limitation – as NGO are non-profit organisations which rely on donation, they may have difficulty in obtaining external funding.
  86. 86. Responsibilities of various groups Planning authorities • The most important group in ensuring that the tourist areas are protected • Can greatly influence the future quality of environments by: – Determining how many visitors a site can cope with – Allocating space for infrastructure, e.g. roads and hotels • Consider local sensitivities in the area while maintaining its physical and socio-cultural condition • Enforce rules, regulations, values and principles for sustainable tourism in consultation with the industry and community
  87. 87. Responsibilities of various groups Planning authorities • Example: Singapore Tourism Board (STB) – Attracts large numbers of tourists to Singapore even as development plans take into account the need to conserve national heritage – Implemented programmes to conserve the ethnic districts of Singapore, e.g. Chinatown, Kampong Glam and Little India – Helps visitors and locals have a greater appreciation of Singapore’s rich heritage
  88. 88. Planning authorities Strengths – able to successfully develop, approve, fund and maintain infrastructure that help manage the impact of tourism in an area. Able to draft laws and policies that improve the quality of a tourist site Limitations – difficult to plan for unseen factors such as extreme weather, natural disasters or lack of interest from the public.
  89. 89. Figure 1.96 [Clockwise from top left] The ethnic districts of Singapore. a) Arab Street. b) Chinatown. c) Little India Developing tourism at what cost?
  90. 90. Responsibilities of various groups • Important for the different groups to work together to develop strategies to protect tourist areas • Example: Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve • Planning authority built an education centre • NGOs organise displays • Tour operators bring visitors to the centre • Each group has its own strengths and limitations in protecting tourist areas
  91. 91. Case study of Singapore http://www.riverview.com.sg/singapore-guide/where-to-shop Chinatown, Singapore Resort World Sentosa, Singapore Marina Bay, Singapore Integrated resort
  92. 92. Case study of Singapore • Case study will discuss four questions: –What is the nature of the tourist activity? –What is the impact of the development of tourism on the area where they are located as well as the whole country? –How is the impact managed? –Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop? • Case study will focus on two areas in Singapore: –Chinatown (place with rich culture) –Integrated Resorts (place with good facilities)
  93. 93. Case study of Singapore • Chinatown – Rich in Chinese cultural and historical elements – Shows a blend of Chinese culture, local ethnicities and western influences – Convenient location and within walking distance from the Central Business District Figure 1.98 The shophouses and markets of Chinatown showcase the area’s cultural heritage. What is the nature of the tourist activity?
  94. 94. Case study of Singapore What is the nature of the tourist activity? • Chinatown – Chinatown Heritage Centre: Museum that showcases the lives of the people and activities in early Chinatown – Chinatown Street Market: Open for shopping from morning to night – Tourists can observe religious rites at Chinese and Hindu temples – Tourists have option of feasting at the food street on Smith Street or other food centres and restaurants in the vicinity – Commercial activities include boutique hotels, backpacker accommodations, souvenir shops, restaurants, traditional trades
  95. 95. Case study of Singapore What is the nature of the tourist activity? • Integrated Resorts (IRs) – Large-scale developments with a mix of MICE facilities, themed attractions, entertainment and performance venues, hotel, retail, and gaming – Consist of Marina Bay Sands (MBS) and Resorts World Sentosa (RWS) which operate hotels, convention centres, spas, dining outlets, shops and casinos – RWS also operates a maritime museum, a water park and Universal Studios Singapore –Help position Singapore as major centre for entertainment and conventions by catering to both business and leisure tourists
  96. 96. Case study of Singapore – Leisure tourists can engage in a wide range of activities, e.g. visiting theme parks, attending entertainment shows – Business tourists can stay, work and play at the IRs as the MICE facilities are found alongside other services, e.g. spas, numerous accommodations Figure 1.99 An aerial photograph of Sentosa Island. What is the nature of the tourist activity? • Integrated Resorts (IRs)
  97. 97. Case study of Singapore • Impact of Chinatown development – Its development as a tourist attraction has had numerous social and civic impacts: – The place was a residential area for the Chinese during the colonial era o 1980s: Population size grew to a point where overcrowding and hygiene issues became a concern o 1983: Street hawkers were removed and residents were relocated to newly built high-rise flats in the area o Chinatown suffered a decline in pedestrian traffic due to removal of street hawkers
  98. 98. Case study of Singapore – 1998: Chinatown Experience Guide Plan was implemented to bring pedestrians back by attracting businesses to set up shops in the neighbourhood – 2001: Chinatown Food Street opened with support from various government agencies and private stakeholders
  99. 99. Case study of Singapore Impact of Chinatown development – Several brands of food items with a history of more than 30 years continue to operate in Chinatown – The commercial activities have also played a role in eroding the original heritage of Chinatown, e.g. focus on the selling of tourist souvenirs and accommodations
  100. 100. Case study of Singapore What is the impact of the development of tourism? New Businesses that moved in has helped revitalize Chinatown http://phoebettmh.blogspot.sg/2011/04/singapore-shopping.html Conservation buildings preserved as historical icons - Signature shophouses with five-foot wide covered passageways http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Typical-Five-Foot-Way-in-Chinatown- Singapore-South-East-Asia-Posters_i2944377_.htm
  101. 101. Case study of Singapore • Impact of Chinatown development – Many original residents have since moved out – Today: Most of its residential population are the elderly who can be seen playing chess or chatting in the district’s public parks – Chinatown has undergone extensive urban renewal where many national conservation buildings have been preserved as historical icons
  102. 102. Case study of Singapore •Impact of Integrated Resorts development –Created many employment opportunities in hotels, restaurants, theme parks and casino –Contributed to increase in Singapore’s income through taxation revenues from the casinos –Income of the IRs contributed to Singapore’s record- high tourism receipts of US$18.5 billion in 2012 –Contributed between 1.5% – 2% to Singapore’s economy
  103. 103. Case study of Singapore •Impact of Integrated Resorts development –Created many employment opportunities in hotels, restaurants, theme parks and casino –Contributed to increase in Singapore’s income through taxation revenues from the casinos –Income of the IRs contributed to Singapore’s record-high tourism receipts of US$18.5 billion in 2012 –Contributed between 1.5% – 2% to Singapore’s economy
  104. 104. Case study of Singapore • Impact of Integrated Resorts development – Tourism arrivals increased to 14.4 million in 2012 (9% increase) – More positive image for the country – Singapore placed in a more prominent position on the world map as a vibrant city for tourists
  105. 105. Case study of Singapore • Impact of Integrated Resorts development – Concerns about negative social and environmental impacts. – Complaints of rising gambling habits o 200,000 local visitors to casinos in 2011 o Despite number of visitors, probable pathological and problem gambling rates among residents remained largely unchanged o Increase in the number of people receiving counselling from NGOs
  106. 106. Case study of Singapore • Impact of Integrated Resorts development – Complaints about environmental issues o Potential disturbance to Sentosa’s land and maritime ecosystems and habitats o Soil erosion, habitat destruction and waste disposal – Complaints related to animal welfare o Holding dolphins captive at the Marine Life Park for viewing and study o One of the 25 bottlenose dolphins died in transit
  107. 107. Case study of Singapore What is the impact of the development of tourism? IRs contributed to country’s tourism receipt of US$18.5 billion in 2012 which is 1.5 to 2% of country’s overall economy http://smarthomeintegratedsystems.wordpress.com/2011/06/21/the-dream- residence-in-singapore/integrated-resort-singapore-marina-bay/ During the construction of the RWS, the coral reefs at the northern part of the islands were in danger of being destroyed. http://www.flickr.com/photos/wildsingapore/469652240/
  108. 108. Case study of Singapore Figure 1.10 Temple Street, Chinatown How is the impact managed? • Chinatown – Authorities infused authentic and historical elements into the area to retain Chinatown’s cultural heritage – 33 heritage markers were installed throughout Chinatown as part of the Chinatown Experience Guide Plan – Chinatown Heritage Centre was created – Designated as a conservation site
  109. 109. Case study of Singapore How is the impact managed? Retaining Chinatown cultural Heritage http://reginsrealm.blogspot.sg/2012/08/singap ore-redux-chinatown.html 33 Heritage Markers were installed by the STB throughout Chinatown with the help of the National Heritage Board. http://www.singapore-vacation- attractions.com/chinatown-tour.html
  110. 110. Case study of Singapore How is the impact managed? • Integrated Resorts – Strictly managed through various social safeguards o Casino entry levies o Casino exclusion orders o Casino visit limits o Restrictions on access to credit for Singaporeans and permanent residents o Advertising and promotions related to the casinos are strictly regulated and restricted
  111. 111. Case study of Singapore How is the impact managed? • Integrated Resorts – Government pledged to keep a close watch on the industry and introduce stricter rules, if necessary – Both IRs have been fined by the government for disregarding social safeguards such as: o Partially reimbursing the entrance fee to some local patrons o Allowing some Singaporeans and PRs to enter for free o Allowing some individuals below 21 years of age to enter
  112. 112. Case study of Singapore How is the impact managed? • Integrated Resorts – The National Council on Problem Gambling was set up to address problem gambling o Implements casino exclusion and visit limits o Provides advice and feedback to the government on social concerns related to problem gambling o Implements effective programmes for public education o Holds stakeholder consultations o Research, prevention and treatment services for problem gamblers and their families
  113. 113. Case study of Singapore How is the impact managed? Managing negative social impacts of casino on locals – Locals have to pay an entrance fee of S$100
  114. 114. Case study of Singapore Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop? • Tourism has numerous benefits to a country: –It provides employment and business opportunities –It provides a good incentive to improve infrastructure –It increases foreign exchange in a country –It generates tax revenue for the government –It promotes local culture and customs • Most countries rely on tourism to boost their economy • Countries also have to be aware of the negative impacts of increased tourism, e.g. unemployment, pollution
  115. 115. Case study of Singapore Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop?  In Singapore: – International tourism receipts increased 3% to US$18 billion from 2011 to 2012 – Tourism contributed to more than 4% of Singapore’s economy in 2011 – Tourism receipts came from shopping, accommodation, sightseeing, food, health care – Increase in tourism receipts corresponded to increase of tourist arrivals – Growth in tourism arrivals helped increase Singapore’s hotel revenue
  116. 116. Case study of Singapore Figure 1.102 International tourism receipts in Singapore by tourism sector in 2012. Adapted from: Singapore Tourism Board (2013). Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop?
  117. 117. Case study of Singapore Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop? • Tourism is a key industry for the Singapore’s economy • Limited land and resources mean that capacity for tourism growth is restricted, hence the emphasis on ‘quality tourism’ • Quality tourism: Tourism growth that focuses on greater tourism receipts rather than greater tourism arrivals –Raise productivity for tourism growth by enhancing innovation among different sectors and industries –Investing in software that will help existing infrastructure provide more value –Reinvention and rejuvenation of tourist attractions
  118. 118. Case study of Singapore Is tourism a way for the area or country to develop? • In summary: – Tourism has provided many jobs in the past, and is expected to continue to support many jobs in the future – Tourism is vital to Singapore both economically and socially in the medium term – Singapore cannot pursue tourism at all costs to continue to support its development – We need to be cautiously optimistic about tourism’s growth – We need to be aware that increased tourism can bring about negative impacts – Relying on tourism entails managing the impact and the tensions that tourism can bring
  119. 119. Recap 1. Assess the impact of tourism on a country. 2. Explain how tourism can be made sustainable. 3. Compare the roles of various groups in taking care of the tourist areas.

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