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Cross-Cultural Psychology

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  1. 1. TouristsLargest group of people with between-culture experiences
  2. 2. Advent of mass tourism in the 1970s• Rapid growth of recreational travel• Cheaper to travel• Increased wealth• More leisure time• Longer paid holidays• Early retirement• Longer life expectancy in industrialized countries
  3. 3. Dependent Economies in many regions of the world• In Costa Rica, foreign exchange receipts from tourism exceed those earned from exports such as coffee and bananas.
  4. 4. Increased interest in psychological aspects• Motives for travel• Perceptions that tourists have of their destinations• Extent to which they are satisfied with their experiences
  5. 5. Developments in psychological aspects of tourism• Increased work on intercultural interactions between tourists and hosts and the psychological impact of tourism on local residents• More sophisticated measurements that describe tourist characteristics and their effects on the sociocultural and economic aspects of the host country
  6. 6. Developments in psychological inquiry (cont.)• Whether contact between tourists and hosts is stressful or satisfying• Whether motives for travel include learning• How are affects, behavior and cognitions (ABCs) affected by contact• What interventions are available to reduce stress and increase positive outcomes
  7. 7. Impact on world peace and intergroup relations Optimists: international travel promotes tolerance and understandingTravel is the language of peace (Gandhi)Travel is one of the greatest forces for peace andunderstanding (Robert F. Kennedy)Travel for pleasure between countries promotescooperation (Ronald Reagan)
  8. 8. Impact on world peace and intergroup relations• Pessimists: tourist experience is shallow and unlikely to leave any lasting impressions on the traveller (Barthes, Huxley, Turner & Ash)• Research has found little evidence that tourism promotes peace
  9. 9. What constitutes culture contact for tourists?• Is there a particular category of tourists who are exposed to genuine second-culture influences?• What tourist related contacts influence mutual understanding either positively or negatively?
  10. 10. WTO definition• A visitor whose length of stay reaches or exceeds 24 hours, thus spending at least one night in the visited country, and whose main purpose is other than being compensated for work purposes.• Most tourists have minimal contact with their hosts• Many tourists travel in groups in packaged tours• Sizable minority exposed to significant second- culture influences
  11. 11. Perspective of hosts• All interactions with tourists constitute culture- contact episodes
  12. 12. Tourist or Traveller? Visitor or Guest?• Before mass tourism, travel abroad took the form of the ‘Grand Tour,’ with wealthy individuals spending months and sometimes years in foreign places (particularly the British and Americans who travelled to Europe for art and culture, Asia and Africa also attracted western travellers)• These travellers were no doubt changed by their experiences with second-culture contact and influence (modern day: travels memoirs/guidebooks)
  13. 13. The Tourist Experience• Often regarded as pleasurable, relaxing and worthwhile (major reason for saving money)• Boredom, bewilderment, rage, disgust, illness, de pression, excessive alcohol consumption etc. are just as evident as recreation and satisfaction
  14. 14. Tourist stress linked to risk perception• Research confirms that being a tourist can be a stressful experience• Research considers Culture Shock’s impact on intercultural relations• Crime affects perceptions of safety (affected numbers of tourists to New Orleans)• Direct and indirect targets of international terrorism
  15. 15. Tourist stress and Culture Shock• Focus of contemporary research that tried to identify emotions, cognitions and behavioral responses of tourists• ‘Tourist Ratio’ determines amount of ‘shock’ experienced (proportion of tourists to locals)• Particularly disliked in small, simple and isolated communities yet residents in large cities like Paris have become less welcoming as well
  16. 16. Tourist motives and behaviors• Researchers examine ‘niche’ travel markets to determine motives (specific destinations/attractions based on travellers’ special interests)• Provides more direct index of whether tourists have leanings toward culture learning
  17. 17. Visitor categories where culture learning is minimal• Sex tourism• Scenic spots such as waterfalls• Movie-induced tourism to film locations• Overseas sporting events (World Cup)• Wildlife attractions (salt-water crocodiles, animals in captivity)• Bicycle tourism
  18. 18. Heritage Tour Industry• Culture plays at least a modest role in attracting visitors• Cultures tourists want to visit are not the present societies are located but their historical representations such as sites associated with death and disaster like Auschwitz and Pompei, battlefields, memorials, catacombs.
  19. 19. ‘Mythical’ Heritage• Forms a large part of the heritage industry in Britain• Based on archaeological sites like Stonehenge and places linked to ancient events in Britain’s history• Attracted to Britain’s mythical past• Contrived experiences are unlikely to put tourists into contact with mainstream cultural manifestations of visited society but nonetheless tourists are interested in culture learning, even if only historically
  20. 20. Heritage tourism is part of cultural tourism• ‘ethnic’ events like festivals, music and food• cultural attractions like the theatre, concerts, opera, ballet, museums and galleries• Observations of native peoples like the Amish and Australian Aborigines, Native American• Historical and archeological sites, commerations
  21. 21. Ecotourism• Fastest growing tourist segment, involves culture learning• travel to enjoy the world’s diverse natural life and human culture without causing damage to either• Travel to undisturbed areas with specific study objectives (scenery, plants and animals, cultural manifestations)• Ecologically sustainable tourism
  22. 22. Backpackers• Group most likely to come into genuine contact with ordinary members of host society• Modern version of the Grand Tour• Locations off the beaten track, often on a tight budget, use local transport, eat indigenous food, cheap accomodation(see Ward, pg 134, table 6.1 for type/cultural adaption oftourists by Smith, 1989)
  23. 23. Tourism and Intercultural Contact• Tourists have different motives for travel than sojourners, immigrants and refugees• Stay for a short time in an overseas location• Relatively affluent compared to local residents• Placed in the unusual position within the host society that allows them to observe and examine the culture without necessarily adapting to it
  24. 24. Most common contact• Occurs when tourists purchase goods or services by members of host community• Not necessarily ‘equal-status’ encounters as tourists have economic and material advantages (works against Contact Theory)• Uneven with regard to knowledge• Characterized by brevity and superficiality
  25. 25. Most common contact (cont.)• Tourists may consider their intercultural encounters interesting and unique, while hosts view them as fleeting and mundane. This results in an orientation for immediate gratification on the part of both hosts and tourists and in commercial interactions rather than those that could be more spontaneous and natural.
  26. 26. Conflict Theory, Similarity-Attraction, Selective Perception• Social psychology’s Conflict Theory applies intergroup relations to host-tourist interactions to account for residents’ attitudes toward the social impact of tourism• S-A and selective perception hypotheses explain tourists’ attitudes toward hosts• Attribution errors: tourists rely on internal explanations for their positive travel experiences and external for negative experiences
  27. 27. Tourist-host perceptions/interactions• Visitor frequencies lead to negative attitudes toward tourism by the residents affected (Allen et al, 1990)• ‘tourism dependence’ hypothesizes that increasing levels of tourism development generate more negative attitudes among local residents (Smith & Krannich, 1988)• Residents with higher levels of visitors expressed more negative attitudes and perceptions towards tourism than those with lower tourist concentrations
  28. 28. Effects of tourism on host cultures• Tourists have a profound impact on cultures, communities, cities, regions and individuals of the visited countries (Smith, 1992)
  29. 29. Tourism changes the economy of receiving societies• Affects employment and encourages investment• Stimulates infrastructure development such as airports, shipping terminals and highways• Broadens economic base and replaces declining industries (coconut trade in Thailand)• Subsidizes visual and performance arts• Restores and maintains feudal castles• Finances nature and conservation projects
  30. 30. Economic impact of tourism impacts local population• Affects culture, physical surroundings and way of life, not always for the better• Jobs created tend to be menial, in hospitality industry• Expatriate managers of multinational hotels/resorts• Profit goes to shareholders in N.Y., London or Tokyo• Low wages may not compensate for destroyed barter economies, employed but live in worse conditions
  31. 31. Tourism generated problems• Prostitution• Alcohol and substance abuse• May lead to the erosion of traditional value systems, family relationships and collective lifestyles
  32. 32. Tourism generated problems (cont.)• Tourist-related building boom may have diverse effects on the environment, destroy local amenities such as open spaces, free beach access and fishing/hunting grounds• Airports and golf courses utilize scarce agricultural land• Number of visitors may exceed local population putting pressure on the water supply and sewage supply, creating aircraft noise, increasing traffic, and reducing air quality
  33. 33. When number of visitors exceeds local population• Puts pressure on the water supply and sewage disposal• Creates aircraft noise• Increasing traffic• Reduces air quality
  34. 34. Tourist demands on the arts• Increases fake, mass reproduction of souvenirs and objects of religious significance• The sacred rituals of many traditional peoples are stages in a sanitized version to cater to the tastes of international visitors looking for a superficial, quick demonstration or photo opportunity• Great churches and cathedrals have become thoroughfares for non-believing tourists
  35. 35. Effects on heritage sites• Both outdoor places like Stonehenge and great houses and castles in Europe are under threat of destruction from the vast hordes of tourists during the season• High volume tourist destinations makes life inconvenient for the local population