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Social Media Policy
and Law Enforcement
Investigations
          Todd G. Shipley, CFE, CFCE
          President & CEO
          Vere Software
Agenda
• Social Media is changing how some law
  enforcement agencies approach criminal
  investigations.

• A properly written social media investigations
  policy should guide managers and investigators use
  of social media during investigations.
How SM is being adopted by Users




 Law Enforcement
                    The Rest of the World
“I’m from the Government and I am
          here to help…”
Fear of LE use of Social Networking
Why We Use Social Media in Our
          Investigations?
Locate evidence of crimes
Obtain criminal Intelligence
Gain useful background on suspects/victims
Lead Generation

Each of these usually has some department policy
directing this kind of investigation.
General LE Investigation Response

                                 Policeman          Collects
               Policeman
Crime Occurs                  collects witness    evidence on
               Responds
                              and victim info        scene




                                                 Tries to identify
               Case sent to
                               Writes report     Suspect/arrests
                Detectives
                                                 it still on scene
Investigative Response
                   Suspect / Victim
                      / Witness        Local Wants /
Crime analysis                                         NCIC Check
                                      Warrants Check
                      Work Up




                       Additional
   Case                                                Detective
                        Evidence        Interviews
preparation                                            Follow-up
                       Collection




   Case
Submission /
  closure
Where Does SM Fit Into your
             Investigations?
                 Suspect / Victim
                    / Witness        Local Wants /
Crime analysis                                       NCIC Check
                                    Warrants Check
                    Work Up




                     Additional
   Case                                              Detective
                      Evidence        Interviews
preparation                                          Follow-up
                     Collection



   Case
Submission /
  closure
General LE Investigation Response

                                 Policeman          Collects
               Policeman
Crime Occurs                  collects witness    evidence on
               Responds
                              and victim info        scene




                                                 Tries to identify
               Case sent to
                               Writes report     Suspect/arrests
                Detectives
                                                 it still on scene
SM vs. Traditional Investigations

Social Media Enhanced
    Investigations


      Traditional       • Investigative
    Investigations        Information
When SM Could Be Used
• Large Scale Law
  Enforcement
  responses




                    Alberto Martinez/Austin-American Statesman, via Associated Press
When LE is Effectively Using SM
Why a SM Investigation Policy
• Traditional Investigations      • Traditional UC Investigations
   • Supervisor assigns case         • Supervisor on scene
   • Monitors reports                • Listening to wire
   • Dictates case requirements      • Watching operations

• Online Investigations           • UC Investigations Online
   • Supervisor assigns case         • Supervisor isn’t sitting over
   • Monitors reports                  investigators shoulder watching
   • Dictates case requirements        hours of online chat.
                                     • Generally reviews content post
                                       the investigators actions.
Why a SM Investigation Policy
• Traditional Investigations          • Traditional UC Investigations
   • Supervisor assigns case             • Supervisor on scene
   • Monitors reports                    • Listening to wire
   • Dictates case requirements          • Watching operations

                                  P
• Online Investigations               • UC Investigations Online
                                  O
   • Supervisor assigns case             • Supervisor isn’t sitting over
   • Monitors reports             L        investigators shoulder watching
   • Dictates case requirements   I        hours of online chat.
                                  C      • Generally reviews content post
                                  Y        the investigators actions.
Why a SM Investigation Policy
• Traditional Investigations      N
                                      • Traditional UC Investigations
   • Supervisor assigns case             • Supervisor on scene
                                  O
   • Monitors reports                    • Listening to wire
   • Dictates case requirements          • Watching operations
                                  P
• Online Investigations           O   • UC Investigations Online
   • Supervisor assigns case      L      • Supervisor isn’t sitting over
   • Monitors reports             I        investigators shoulder watching
   • Dictates case requirements   C        hours of online chat.
                                  Y      • Generally reviews content post
                                           the investigators actions.
   Policy should clearly lay out guidance for supervision of and
    conduct of investigations.
Designing your SM Investigation
                Policy
• Social Networking investigations have no different
  requirements when it comes to documenting the
  investigations.

• The investigative techniques applied on the Internet
  still require the information be properly collected,
  properly preserved and properly presented in a
  report.
Professional Conduct Online
• Officers realize their obligation to the community and should
  strive to act in a professional manner while investigating
  crimes on the Internet in order to inspire the public trust and
  confidence.
• Maintaining professionalism, even while online, should be a
  primary goal our officers and will ensure the continued trust
  and respect of the community.
• All officers are public servants and shall keep all contacts
  with the public both professional and courteous.
Deciding to Conduct Proactive SM
       Investigations Online
• Requires agency policy decisions
• Evaluation of internal capabilities
• External Opportunities (Task Forces)
• Cost evaluation (equipment and personnel)
Policy for Conducting SM Proactive Ops
• Covert undercover operations on the Internet and Social
  Networking are an effective investigative technique.
• The ultimate goal of any online undercover operation is a
  criminal conviction.
• Every aspect of undercover operations should be well
  planned, deliberate and performed in compliance with all
  applicable policies.
• The actions of undercover officers on the Internet should
  always be appropriate, under the circumstances, and easily
  justified to prosecutors, judges and juries.
Policy for Conducting SM Proactive Ops
• Obtain supervisory approval.
• Corroborate undercover investigations with other
  officers conducting surveillance , use of informants
  and cooperating suspect(s).
• Only utilize investigative computer systems and
  software intended to record data from the internet
  and audio and/or video recording in an evidentiary
  manner when contacting suspects.
Policy for Conducting SM Proactive Ops
• Officers will not transfer or make available for
  download any files that they knowingly contain any
  malicious code or other type of file that would
  disrupt, delay, or destroy another person’s computer
  system,
• Officers will follow all local guidelines and Federal
  law when conducing undercover operation on social
  networking sites.
Proactive Online Investigations
• Online proactive strategies can be as controversial
  as real world operations if you do not consider the
  issue of entrapment.
• Many courts cases have dealt with this issue
   • The basic rule is: A police officer can provide the
     opportunity, or can encourage the offender to act, but
     he cannot compel the behavior.
• A fine line to tread.
Proactive Social Networking
            Investigations
• UC operations will only be used when such use is
  proportionate to the seriousness of the offence(s) being
  investigated (and the history and character of the
  individual(s) concerned).
• Online UC operations should not be used as a speculative
  means of search for the existence of a criminal offense,
  where no other grounds exist to suspect that criminal
  offenses have been or are being committed
Online Proactive Operational Plans
• Operational plans for the conduct of proactive operations on
  social networking are intended to guide officers through the
  execution of an enforcement action.

• They provide for the assignment of personnel, identification
  of suspects, equipment and locations (both physical and
  online) and play a significant role in the safety of officers
  involved.
Deconfliction
• Potential for multiple agencies to be conducting similar
  investigations on the same criminal suspects, website, social
  networking sites or organizations at any given time.
• Safety considerations in such situations that may bring law
  enforcement investigators into high-risk situations without
  realizing the presence of other law enforcement
  Investigators.
• Parallel investigations, conducted independently, are less
  efficient and effective than cooperative law enforcement
  efforts conducted in a coordinated manner.
Terms of Service
• Social networking sites require that users, when
  they sign up, agree to abide by a terms of service
  (TOS) document.

   Agency employees are responsible for reading and understanding
    the TOS of the sites they use during an undercover investigation.
   TOS agreements may ban users who give false names or other false
    information during the registration process which may affect the
    investigation if the use of an undercover identity is discovered by the
    social networking site
Other Policy Considerations for
          Online Operations
• Participation in Otherwise illegal Activity by
  Undercover Employees
• Review of Conduct
• Protecting Innocent Parties Against Entrapment
• Identifying and Managing Employee Stress
Documenting Online Investigations
• All data recorded and video or audio recordings
  made from the social networking site being used in
  the investigation shall be considered as evidence
  and handled as such, regardless of the quality of the
  recording.

• All video and audio recordings will be maintained as
  evidence until the case receives a final disposition.
Social Networking Use Model Policy
• Model Policy For Agency use of SN
• Model Policy For LE Investigative use of SN
• Model Policy For Off-Duty LE use of SN

*Will be available from Vere Software website at
 www.veresoftware.com
“Make
    the
Internet
   your
 regular
  beat.”
Serving and Protecting
 the World Wide Web
                4790 Caughlin Pkwy, #323
                     Reno, Nevada 89519
                                     USA

                    Toll Free: 888.432.4445
           E-mail: info@veresoftware.com
            Web: www.veresoftware.com

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Social Media Policy & Law Enforcement Investigations

  • 1. Social Media Policy and Law Enforcement Investigations Todd G. Shipley, CFE, CFCE President & CEO Vere Software
  • 2. Agenda • Social Media is changing how some law enforcement agencies approach criminal investigations. • A properly written social media investigations policy should guide managers and investigators use of social media during investigations.
  • 3. How SM is being adopted by Users Law Enforcement The Rest of the World
  • 4. “I’m from the Government and I am here to help…”
  • 5. Fear of LE use of Social Networking
  • 6. Why We Use Social Media in Our Investigations? Locate evidence of crimes Obtain criminal Intelligence Gain useful background on suspects/victims Lead Generation Each of these usually has some department policy directing this kind of investigation.
  • 7. General LE Investigation Response Policeman Collects Policeman Crime Occurs collects witness evidence on Responds and victim info scene Tries to identify Case sent to Writes report Suspect/arrests Detectives it still on scene
  • 8. Investigative Response Suspect / Victim / Witness Local Wants / Crime analysis NCIC Check Warrants Check Work Up Additional Case Detective Evidence Interviews preparation Follow-up Collection Case Submission / closure
  • 9. Where Does SM Fit Into your Investigations? Suspect / Victim / Witness Local Wants / Crime analysis NCIC Check Warrants Check Work Up Additional Case Detective Evidence Interviews preparation Follow-up Collection Case Submission / closure
  • 10. General LE Investigation Response Policeman Collects Policeman Crime Occurs collects witness evidence on Responds and victim info scene Tries to identify Case sent to Writes report Suspect/arrests Detectives it still on scene
  • 11. SM vs. Traditional Investigations Social Media Enhanced Investigations Traditional • Investigative Investigations Information
  • 12. When SM Could Be Used • Large Scale Law Enforcement responses Alberto Martinez/Austin-American Statesman, via Associated Press
  • 13. When LE is Effectively Using SM
  • 14. Why a SM Investigation Policy • Traditional Investigations • Traditional UC Investigations • Supervisor assigns case • Supervisor on scene • Monitors reports • Listening to wire • Dictates case requirements • Watching operations • Online Investigations • UC Investigations Online • Supervisor assigns case • Supervisor isn’t sitting over • Monitors reports investigators shoulder watching • Dictates case requirements hours of online chat. • Generally reviews content post the investigators actions.
  • 15. Why a SM Investigation Policy • Traditional Investigations • Traditional UC Investigations • Supervisor assigns case • Supervisor on scene • Monitors reports • Listening to wire • Dictates case requirements • Watching operations P • Online Investigations • UC Investigations Online O • Supervisor assigns case • Supervisor isn’t sitting over • Monitors reports L investigators shoulder watching • Dictates case requirements I hours of online chat. C • Generally reviews content post Y the investigators actions.
  • 16. Why a SM Investigation Policy • Traditional Investigations N • Traditional UC Investigations • Supervisor assigns case • Supervisor on scene O • Monitors reports • Listening to wire • Dictates case requirements • Watching operations P • Online Investigations O • UC Investigations Online • Supervisor assigns case L • Supervisor isn’t sitting over • Monitors reports I investigators shoulder watching • Dictates case requirements C hours of online chat. Y • Generally reviews content post the investigators actions.  Policy should clearly lay out guidance for supervision of and conduct of investigations.
  • 17. Designing your SM Investigation Policy • Social Networking investigations have no different requirements when it comes to documenting the investigations. • The investigative techniques applied on the Internet still require the information be properly collected, properly preserved and properly presented in a report.
  • 18. Professional Conduct Online • Officers realize their obligation to the community and should strive to act in a professional manner while investigating crimes on the Internet in order to inspire the public trust and confidence. • Maintaining professionalism, even while online, should be a primary goal our officers and will ensure the continued trust and respect of the community. • All officers are public servants and shall keep all contacts with the public both professional and courteous.
  • 19. Deciding to Conduct Proactive SM Investigations Online • Requires agency policy decisions • Evaluation of internal capabilities • External Opportunities (Task Forces) • Cost evaluation (equipment and personnel)
  • 20. Policy for Conducting SM Proactive Ops • Covert undercover operations on the Internet and Social Networking are an effective investigative technique. • The ultimate goal of any online undercover operation is a criminal conviction. • Every aspect of undercover operations should be well planned, deliberate and performed in compliance with all applicable policies. • The actions of undercover officers on the Internet should always be appropriate, under the circumstances, and easily justified to prosecutors, judges and juries.
  • 21. Policy for Conducting SM Proactive Ops • Obtain supervisory approval. • Corroborate undercover investigations with other officers conducting surveillance , use of informants and cooperating suspect(s). • Only utilize investigative computer systems and software intended to record data from the internet and audio and/or video recording in an evidentiary manner when contacting suspects.
  • 22. Policy for Conducting SM Proactive Ops • Officers will not transfer or make available for download any files that they knowingly contain any malicious code or other type of file that would disrupt, delay, or destroy another person’s computer system, • Officers will follow all local guidelines and Federal law when conducing undercover operation on social networking sites.
  • 23. Proactive Online Investigations • Online proactive strategies can be as controversial as real world operations if you do not consider the issue of entrapment. • Many courts cases have dealt with this issue • The basic rule is: A police officer can provide the opportunity, or can encourage the offender to act, but he cannot compel the behavior. • A fine line to tread.
  • 24. Proactive Social Networking Investigations • UC operations will only be used when such use is proportionate to the seriousness of the offence(s) being investigated (and the history and character of the individual(s) concerned). • Online UC operations should not be used as a speculative means of search for the existence of a criminal offense, where no other grounds exist to suspect that criminal offenses have been or are being committed
  • 25. Online Proactive Operational Plans • Operational plans for the conduct of proactive operations on social networking are intended to guide officers through the execution of an enforcement action. • They provide for the assignment of personnel, identification of suspects, equipment and locations (both physical and online) and play a significant role in the safety of officers involved.
  • 26. Deconfliction • Potential for multiple agencies to be conducting similar investigations on the same criminal suspects, website, social networking sites or organizations at any given time. • Safety considerations in such situations that may bring law enforcement investigators into high-risk situations without realizing the presence of other law enforcement Investigators. • Parallel investigations, conducted independently, are less efficient and effective than cooperative law enforcement efforts conducted in a coordinated manner.
  • 27. Terms of Service • Social networking sites require that users, when they sign up, agree to abide by a terms of service (TOS) document. Agency employees are responsible for reading and understanding the TOS of the sites they use during an undercover investigation. TOS agreements may ban users who give false names or other false information during the registration process which may affect the investigation if the use of an undercover identity is discovered by the social networking site
  • 28. Other Policy Considerations for Online Operations • Participation in Otherwise illegal Activity by Undercover Employees • Review of Conduct • Protecting Innocent Parties Against Entrapment • Identifying and Managing Employee Stress
  • 29. Documenting Online Investigations • All data recorded and video or audio recordings made from the social networking site being used in the investigation shall be considered as evidence and handled as such, regardless of the quality of the recording. • All video and audio recordings will be maintained as evidence until the case receives a final disposition.
  • 30. Social Networking Use Model Policy • Model Policy For Agency use of SN • Model Policy For LE Investigative use of SN • Model Policy For Off-Duty LE use of SN *Will be available from Vere Software website at www.veresoftware.com
  • 31. “Make the Internet your regular beat.”
  • 32. Serving and Protecting the World Wide Web 4790 Caughlin Pkwy, #323 Reno, Nevada 89519 USA Toll Free: 888.432.4445 E-mail: info@veresoftware.com Web: www.veresoftware.com