COM 101 | Chapter 1: Communication Mass and Other Forms (Update SP 14)


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COM 101 | Chapter 1: Communication Mass and Other Forms (Update SP 14)

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Communication, Mass and Other Forms
  2. 2. The communication process
  3. 3. The communication process • • • • • • • • a source a process of encoding a message a channel a process of decoding a receiver potential for feedback the chance for noise
  4. 4. Source • starts with a thought • wants to share that thought with some other entity • can be anyone: an individual, group, or organization
  5. 5. Encoding • what a source goes through to take that idea, and express it in a way that can be perceived • speech, words, image -- any form of expression
  6. 6. Message • the actual physical product encoded by the source • Article, TV show, speech
  7. 7. Channels • the ways the message travels to the receiver • our senses: vision, hearing, smell
  8. 8. Receiving the message: decoding • opposite of encoding, this means how you translate and interpret the message • examples of decoders: tv set, radio, phone, YOU
  9. 9. The receiver • the target for the message, the ultimate goal • the audience
  10. 10. Feedback • responses from the receiver, expressing their interpretation of the message • positive & negative
  11. 11. Noise • anything that interferes with the delivery of the message • Semantic, Mechanical & Environmental • Semantic: Soda vs. pop Words & phrases can have different meanings to different people • Mechanical: decoder malfunction TV broken, phone drops a call, pen runs out of ink • Environmental: “noise” that’s external to the communication process, e.g noisy restaurant, distracted receiver
  12. 12. Interpersonal communication • when a person, or group, is interacting with another person or group • w/o the aid of a mechanical device • having a conversation, participating in class
  13. 13. Machine assisted Interpersonal Communication • Combines characteristics of both the interpersonal and mass communication situations. • email • ATM • Power point
  14. 14. Mass Communication • complex organization with the aid of one or more machines produces and transmits public messages that are directed at large groups, and scattered audiences • TV, Radio, Advertising, Print Media <--- media vehicles • Media vehicle: single component of the mass media
  15. 15. Gatekeepers • a person or group who has control over what material eventually reaches the public • Movies: Motion Picture Association of America, directors, producers • Radio & TV: FCC, program directors • Print: Editors
  16. 16. The internet and mass communication • Mass communication or machine assisted interpersonal communication? • offers the potential to reach ....EVERYBODY • new type of mass communicator....YOU
  17. 17. Publishing on the web • really, anyone with the knowledge & access can publish on the web • blogs, personal websites, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube • Just because the potential for mass communication is there -- doesn’t mean you’re actually reaching anyone! • i.e. if no one visits your website, no mass communication has taken place
  18. 18. Segmenting the mass audience • 1930’s, everyone listened to Amos & Andy, today the top rated radio stations only represents about 3% of the total audience (How many choices were there?) • Demographics: breakdowns based on age/gender • Many choices for the audience, leads to increased audience control. Example: radio/satellite/iPod; TV/Tivo/ video; Movies in the theater/Netflix
  19. 19. Convergence • Convergence: the process of coming together or uniting in a common interest or focus • Corporate convergence: This trend started in the 1980s with synergy. Companies that were content providers, such as movie studios and record labels, acquired distribution channels such as cable TV. As digital technologies emerged, synergy turned into convergence, a vision of one company delivering every service imaginable. Example: Microsoft purchased Skype, will package with Xbox
  20. 20. Convergence • Operational Convergence: This occurs when owners of several media properties in one market combine their separate operations into a single effort. Example: in Florida, TV station WFLA, the Tampa Tribune, and operate a converged news department. In the end it saves money by co-opping resources. What does it do to jobs? • Device Convergence: combining the functions of two or three devices into one mechanism. Example: iPhone -- is a phone, an MP3 player, and a camera, and it can connect to the Internet.
  21. 21. Important Trends • Multiple platforms: “everything, everywhere” Newspapers with a print edition, website, app, social media. • User-generated content: YouTube, Flickr, Facebook – the users create the content. News stations asking for and airing cell phone pics, video. Article: NBC makes a bet on getting user-generated content from citizen
  22. 22. Important Trends • Mobile media: 91% of adults own a cell phone, the cell phone is the most quickly adopted consumer technology in the history of the world, 56% of American adults own a smartphone • Social media: online communications that use special techniques that involve participation, conversation, sharing, collaboration, and linkage.  73% of online adults now use a social networking site of some kind.  Facebook is the dominant social networking platform in the number of users  42% of online adults now use multiple social networking sites (Pew Research Center, June 2013)