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Media Impact


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This presentation discusses the impact different types of media content have on society. Also covered are several media theories and studies that have been conducted over time.

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Media Impact

  1. 1.  Video Game Trailer  Who’s played this game?  What did you think?
  2. 2. Chapter Outline History Theory and Research Controversies MEDIA IMPACT: Understanding Research and Effects
  3. 3. Why would anyone care about or even do research on the effects media have on society?
  4. 4. Early Studies  Concerns about media are as old as media themselves. ▪ Church leaders thought bibles would corrupt society ▪ Parents felt the same about the first novels. ▪ Consistent research on media begin in the 1920s.
  5. 5.  Payne Fund Studies conducted ▪ 13 separate investigations on the influence movies had on youth behavior  Modeling (Payne Fund Study) ▪ The imitation of behavior from media examples ▪ Parents worry children may pick up antisocial habits from media consumption ▪ Video Clip Clip 2 Clip 3 ▪ Do violent games Increase Violence in Society? ▪ Why/Why not
  6. 6. Would these media influence negative behavior? How?
  7. 7.  Content analyses (Payne Fund Study) ▪ Observers analyze media subject matter ▪ (TV, Magazines, Radio, Web, Newspaper)  Laboratory experiment (Payne Fund Study) ▪ Variables are isolated and observed in a controlled environment
  8. 8.  Survey methods (Payne Fund Study) ▪ Research that relies on questionnaires to collect data  Payne Fund studies as a whole ▪ Instrumental in developing public support for the 1930 Motion Picture Production code
  9. 9.  Random sample ▪ When members of population have equal chance of being selected  Selective exposure ▪ When people seek out messages that are consistent with their attitudes ▪ Where do you get your News, What is your favorite TV show, What type of movies do you like?
  10. 10.  People’s Choice study ▪ Selective perception ▪ When people with different attitudes interpret the same messages differently  Selective retention ▪ When people with different views remember the same event differently
  11. 11. ▪ Opinion leaders ▪ Certain well-informed members of families and neighborhoods ▪ Two-step flow ▪ Process where media effects travel through opinion leaders ▪ From radio and print to the opinion leaders and from them to the less active sections of the population.
  12. 12.  Television and violence ▪ National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence ▪ Found that ▪ Desensitization  Effect of long-term exposure to mass-media violence.  Prevented onlookers from helping victims of crimes
  13. 13.  Powerful effects model,  Media will have an immediate & potent influence on audiences. (Youth acting out scenes after violent movie)  Minimal effects model  Media will have little influence on behavior. ▪ People not changing voting behavior
  14. 14.  Researchers today accept ▪ Mixed effects model, ▪ Sometimes media will have  Powerful effects,  Minimal effects, ▪ Sometimes  A mixture of both.  The mixed-effects model makes the most sense.
  15. 15. ▪ Bullet theory ▪ Media effects flowed directly from media to individual. ▪ Multi-step flow, ▪ Effects travel from high to lower level opinion leaders then to us.  Politicians to community leaders to clergy to public ▪ There is no simple answer to how media affects behavior. ▪ The best answer usually is “It depends.”
  16. 16.  Social Science Perspectives  Social learning theory, aka modeling theory,  Social modeling is an important part of socialization, ▪ Where expectations, norms, and values of society are learned ▪ What is an example of being “cool”? ▪ How did you learn what “cool is”?
  17. 17.  Diffusion of innovations theory ▪ Five types of people have different levels of willingness to accept new ideas from the media: 1. Innovators tend to be politically liberal extroverts who are venturesome and eager to try new ideas. 2. Early adopters make quick but informed choices.
  18. 18.  Diffusion of innovations theory  Five types of people have different levels of willingness to accept new ideas from the media:1. - 2. - 3. Early majority makes careful, deliberate decisions. 4. Late majority tends to be skeptical. 5. Laggards tend to be conservative, traditional & resistant to change.
  19. 19.  George Gerbner’s cultivation theory ▪ States media use will “cultivate” a particular view of the world within users.  Agenda-setting, ▪ Not telling people what to think, but what to think about ▪ Is the main effect of media. Homicide report
  20. 20.  Cumulative effects theory ▪ Media messages are driven home through redundancy  Uses and gratification theory ▪ Based on how consumers choose & use media to meet their own needs.