SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 19
Download to read offline
PHYSICS
B.Sc. III Sem V (2020-21)
“
Dr. Vaishali V. Deshmukh
Assistant professor
Department of physics
Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati (MS)
2
1.
MULTIVIBRATORS
Let’s start with the types of Multivibrators
3
Switching action of Transistor
4
5
What is an multivibrator?
➢ These devices are very useful as pulse generating, storing and
counting circuits.
➢ According to the definition, A Multivibrator is a two-stage resistance
coupled amplifier with positive feedback from the output of one
amplifier to the input of the other.
➢ Two transistors are connected in feedback so that one controls the
state of the other. Hence the ON and OFF states of the whole circuit,
and the time periods for which the transistors are driven into
saturation or cut off are controlled by the conditions of the circuit.
6
Block diagram of a Multivibrator
7
8
Clock Signal Waveform
Active HIGH – if the state change occurs from a
“LOW” to a “HIGH” on the clock’s pulse rising edge
or during the clock width.
Active LOW – if the state change occurs from a
“HIGH” to a “LOW” on the clock’s pulses falling
edge.
Clock Width – this is the time during which the
value of the clock signal is equal to a logic “1”, or
HIGH.
Clock Period – this is the time between successive
transitions in the same direction, ie, between two
rising or two falling edges.
Duty Cycle – this is the ratio of the clock width to
the clock period.
Clock Frequency – the clock frequency is the
reciprocal of the clock period, frequency = 1/clock
period. ( ƒ = 1/T )
Types of Multivibrators
Astable
9
10
Transistor Astable Multivibrator
11
12
Transistor Monostable Multivibrator
13
Transistor Bistable Multivibrator
14
Difference
15
1. Astable - It is a free-running multi-vibrator which
does not have any stable states and keeps switching
in between the 2 states due to which square wave
pulses at a fixed frequency are produced.
2. Monostable – It is a 1-shot multi-vibrator which
has only 1 stable state. When an external trigger is
applied, it returns back to its 1st stable state.
3. Bistable – It is a kind of flip-flop which has 2
stable states. It produces a single pulse with a
positive or a negative.
Applications
16
The astable or free running multivibrator is used as a square wave frequency generator
As a timing oscillator or clock of a computer system.
It is also used for a flashing lights, switching and power supply circuits.
The monostable multivibrator is used as delay and timing circuits.
It is also used for temporary memories.
It is often used to trigger another pulse generator.
It is used for regenerating old and worn out pulses.
The bistable multivibrator or Flip Flop is of great importance in digital operation in
computers, digital communications.
It is also used for reversing to the supply to a given circuit or change supply to two circuit
at regular intervals.
Reference books
1. Priciple of Electronics by V. K. Mehta
2. Basic Electronics by B. L. Theraja
17
“This is my belief: that
through difficulties and
problems God gives us the
opportunity to grow. So
when your hopes and
dreams and goals are
dashed, search among the
wreckage, you may find a
golden opportunity hidden
in the ruins”.
18
Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
(15 Oct 1931 - 27 Jul 2015)
Thanks!
Any questions?
You can find me at:
vaishalideshmukh27@gmail.com
19

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

DAC-digital to analog converter
DAC-digital to analog converterDAC-digital to analog converter
DAC-digital to analog converter
 
Power Electronics - DIAC & TRIAC
Power Electronics - DIAC & TRIACPower Electronics - DIAC & TRIAC
Power Electronics - DIAC & TRIAC
 
Multivibrators
MultivibratorsMultivibrators
Multivibrators
 
Transistor notes
Transistor notesTransistor notes
Transistor notes
 
Tuned amplifire
Tuned amplifireTuned amplifire
Tuned amplifire
 
Instrumentational Amplifier
Instrumentational Amplifier Instrumentational Amplifier
Instrumentational Amplifier
 
Emi unit iii ppt
Emi unit iii pptEmi unit iii ppt
Emi unit iii ppt
 
Transistors ppt by behin
Transistors ppt by behinTransistors ppt by behin
Transistors ppt by behin
 
Instrumentation amplifier
Instrumentation amplifierInstrumentation amplifier
Instrumentation amplifier
 
Power amplifiers
Power amplifiersPower amplifiers
Power amplifiers
 
Voltage Follower
Voltage Follower Voltage Follower
Voltage Follower
 
TRIAC Working
TRIAC WorkingTRIAC Working
TRIAC Working
 
Physiological transducers
Physiological transducersPhysiological transducers
Physiological transducers
 
Multivibrators
MultivibratorsMultivibrators
Multivibrators
 
555 timer as Astable Multivibrator
555 timer as Astable Multivibrator555 timer as Astable Multivibrator
555 timer as Astable Multivibrator
 
Rec101 unit iii operational amplifier
Rec101 unit iii operational amplifierRec101 unit iii operational amplifier
Rec101 unit iii operational amplifier
 
Differential amplifier
Differential amplifierDifferential amplifier
Differential amplifier
 
Mosfet Operation and Charecteristics.
Mosfet Operation and Charecteristics.Mosfet Operation and Charecteristics.
Mosfet Operation and Charecteristics.
 
Transistor
TransistorTransistor
Transistor
 
TRIAC
TRIACTRIAC
TRIAC
 

Similar to Introduction to multivibrators

multivibrators-170406164230 (1).pdf
multivibrators-170406164230 (1).pdfmultivibrators-170406164230 (1).pdf
multivibrators-170406164230 (1).pdfvams939
 
AISWARYATV 3rd sem seminar
 AISWARYATV 3rd sem seminar AISWARYATV 3rd sem seminar
AISWARYATV 3rd sem seminarAISWARYA TV
 
Automatic room light contoller without microcontroller
Automatic room light contoller without microcontrollerAutomatic room light contoller without microcontroller
Automatic room light contoller without microcontrollerDeepak Yadav
 
Special Devices
Special DevicesSpecial Devices
Special DevicesDr.YNM
 
Presentation - RMAE - Copy(1)-final (1).pptx
Presentation - RMAE - Copy(1)-final  (1).pptxPresentation - RMAE - Copy(1)-final  (1).pptx
Presentation - RMAE - Copy(1)-final (1).pptxVishalPurohit30
 
Presentation on 132/33 KVSubstation Training
Presentation on 132/33 KVSubstation Training Presentation on 132/33 KVSubstation Training
Presentation on 132/33 KVSubstation Training Sakshi Rastogi
 
Unit - 3 Switching Characteristics of Diodes and Transistors.pdf
Unit - 3 Switching Characteristics of Diodes and Transistors.pdfUnit - 3 Switching Characteristics of Diodes and Transistors.pdf
Unit - 3 Switching Characteristics of Diodes and Transistors.pdfRGPV De Bunkers
 
The bistable multivibrator hani prasetyo_universitastidar
The bistable multivibrator hani prasetyo_universitastidarThe bistable multivibrator hani prasetyo_universitastidar
The bistable multivibrator hani prasetyo_universitastidarhani_prasetyo
 
Power quality of PV Inverters,Related To Topology & Control
Power quality of PV Inverters,Related To Topology & ControlPower quality of PV Inverters,Related To Topology & Control
Power quality of PV Inverters,Related To Topology & Controlseema appa
 
Design of transducer to measure comparative rotation in 3 d using lvdt
Design of transducer to measure comparative rotation in 3 d using lvdtDesign of transducer to measure comparative rotation in 3 d using lvdt
Design of transducer to measure comparative rotation in 3 d using lvdtransherraj
 
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROLDISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROLyohannes feleke
 
Measurement of motion, force and torque
Measurement of motion, force and torqueMeasurement of motion, force and torque
Measurement of motion, force and torqueARKA JAIN University
 
Design and Implementation of Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer
Design and Implementation of Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer Design and Implementation of Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer
Design and Implementation of Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer IOSRJEEE
 
33/11 KV SUB-STATION, VIBHUTI KHAND, GOMTI NAGAR, LUCKNOW
33/11 KV SUB-STATION, VIBHUTI KHAND, GOMTI  NAGAR, LUCKNOW33/11 KV SUB-STATION, VIBHUTI KHAND, GOMTI  NAGAR, LUCKNOW
33/11 KV SUB-STATION, VIBHUTI KHAND, GOMTI NAGAR, LUCKNOWSatya Prakash Chaurasia
 
132 kv g.s.s chambal jaipur
132 kv g.s.s chambal jaipur132 kv g.s.s chambal jaipur
132 kv g.s.s chambal jaipurmonga786
 
Relaxation oscillators
Relaxation oscillatorsRelaxation oscillators
Relaxation oscillatorsTouqeer Jumani
 

Similar to Introduction to multivibrators (20)

multivibrators-170406164230 (1).pdf
multivibrators-170406164230 (1).pdfmultivibrators-170406164230 (1).pdf
multivibrators-170406164230 (1).pdf
 
AISWARYATV 3rd sem seminar
 AISWARYATV 3rd sem seminar AISWARYATV 3rd sem seminar
AISWARYATV 3rd sem seminar
 
lubricants
lubricantslubricants
lubricants
 
K21EL011.pptx
K21EL011.pptxK21EL011.pptx
K21EL011.pptx
 
Automatic room light contoller without microcontroller
Automatic room light contoller without microcontrollerAutomatic room light contoller without microcontroller
Automatic room light contoller without microcontroller
 
Special Devices
Special DevicesSpecial Devices
Special Devices
 
Presentation - RMAE - Copy(1)-final (1).pptx
Presentation - RMAE - Copy(1)-final  (1).pptxPresentation - RMAE - Copy(1)-final  (1).pptx
Presentation - RMAE - Copy(1)-final (1).pptx
 
Presentation on 132/33 KVSubstation Training
Presentation on 132/33 KVSubstation Training Presentation on 132/33 KVSubstation Training
Presentation on 132/33 KVSubstation Training
 
Unit - 3 Switching Characteristics of Diodes and Transistors.pdf
Unit - 3 Switching Characteristics of Diodes and Transistors.pdfUnit - 3 Switching Characteristics of Diodes and Transistors.pdf
Unit - 3 Switching Characteristics of Diodes and Transistors.pdf
 
The bistable multivibrator hani prasetyo_universitastidar
The bistable multivibrator hani prasetyo_universitastidarThe bistable multivibrator hani prasetyo_universitastidar
The bistable multivibrator hani prasetyo_universitastidar
 
Power quality of PV Inverters,Related To Topology & Control
Power quality of PV Inverters,Related To Topology & ControlPower quality of PV Inverters,Related To Topology & Control
Power quality of PV Inverters,Related To Topology & Control
 
Design of transducer to measure comparative rotation in 3 d using lvdt
Design of transducer to measure comparative rotation in 3 d using lvdtDesign of transducer to measure comparative rotation in 3 d using lvdt
Design of transducer to measure comparative rotation in 3 d using lvdt
 
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROLDISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
 
Measurement of motion, force and torque
Measurement of motion, force and torqueMeasurement of motion, force and torque
Measurement of motion, force and torque
 
Design and Implementation of Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer
Design and Implementation of Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer Design and Implementation of Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer
Design and Implementation of Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer
 
33/11 KV SUB-STATION, VIBHUTI KHAND, GOMTI NAGAR, LUCKNOW
33/11 KV SUB-STATION, VIBHUTI KHAND, GOMTI  NAGAR, LUCKNOW33/11 KV SUB-STATION, VIBHUTI KHAND, GOMTI  NAGAR, LUCKNOW
33/11 KV SUB-STATION, VIBHUTI KHAND, GOMTI NAGAR, LUCKNOW
 
Lvdt
LvdtLvdt
Lvdt
 
132 kv g.s.s chambal jaipur
132 kv g.s.s chambal jaipur132 kv g.s.s chambal jaipur
132 kv g.s.s chambal jaipur
 
Oscillators (1)
Oscillators (1)Oscillators (1)
Oscillators (1)
 
Relaxation oscillators
Relaxation oscillatorsRelaxation oscillators
Relaxation oscillators
 

More from Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati (MS) (13)

Electrochemical technique 1: Cyclic Voltammery
Electrochemical technique 1: Cyclic VoltammeryElectrochemical technique 1: Cyclic Voltammery
Electrochemical technique 1: Cyclic Voltammery
 
Lecture 3: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 3: Solid State Devices II.pdfLecture 3: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 3: Solid State Devices II.pdf
 
Lecture 1: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 1: Solid State Devices II.pdfLecture 1: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 1: Solid State Devices II.pdf
 
Lecture 2: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 2:  Solid State Devices II.pdfLecture 2:  Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 2: Solid State Devices II.pdf
 
Lecture 5: Semiconductor Diode.pdf
Lecture 5: Semiconductor Diode.pdfLecture 5: Semiconductor Diode.pdf
Lecture 5: Semiconductor Diode.pdf
 
Lecture 4: PN-Junction.pdf
Lecture 4: PN-Junction.pdfLecture 4: PN-Junction.pdf
Lecture 4: PN-Junction.pdf
 
Lecture3: Fermi Level and Fermi Energy.pdf
Lecture3: Fermi Level and Fermi Energy.pdfLecture3: Fermi Level and Fermi Energy.pdf
Lecture3: Fermi Level and Fermi Energy.pdf
 
Lecture 2: Types of Semiconductors.pdf
Lecture 2: Types of Semiconductors.pdfLecture 2: Types of Semiconductors.pdf
Lecture 2: Types of Semiconductors.pdf
 
Lecture 1: Introduction to Seiconductor.pdf
Lecture 1: Introduction to Seiconductor.pdfLecture 1: Introduction to Seiconductor.pdf
Lecture 1: Introduction to Seiconductor.pdf
 
Introduction to Oscillators
Introduction to OscillatorsIntroduction to Oscillators
Introduction to Oscillators
 
Feedback in amplifier
Feedback in amplifierFeedback in amplifier
Feedback in amplifier
 
Op-Amp 2
Op-Amp 2Op-Amp 2
Op-Amp 2
 
Op-Amp 1
Op-Amp 1Op-Amp 1
Op-Amp 1
 

Recently uploaded

Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological CorrelationsTimeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological CorrelationsDanielBaumann11
 
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptxLoudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptxpriyankatabhane
 
Unit-V-Introduction to Data Mining.pptx
Unit-V-Introduction to  Data Mining.pptxUnit-V-Introduction to  Data Mining.pptx
Unit-V-Introduction to Data Mining.pptxHarsha Patel
 
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep LearningCombining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learningvschiavoni
 
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...jana861314
 
Oxo-Acids of Halogens and their Salts.pptx
Oxo-Acids of Halogens and their Salts.pptxOxo-Acids of Halogens and their Salts.pptx
Oxo-Acids of Halogens and their Salts.pptxfarhanvvdk
 
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongenaProduction technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongenajana861314
 
EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Lecture by Dr Abeer Zahana
EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Lecture by Dr Abeer ZahanaEGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Lecture by Dr Abeer Zahana
EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Lecture by Dr Abeer ZahanaDr.Mahmoud Abbas
 
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPRPirithiRaju
 
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWSTInterpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWSTAlexander F. Mayer
 
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...Chiheb Ben Hammouda
 
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...Chayanika Das
 
AICTE activity on Water Conservation spreading awareness
AICTE activity on Water Conservation spreading awarenessAICTE activity on Water Conservation spreading awareness
AICTE activity on Water Conservation spreading awareness1hk20is002
 
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxRole of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxjana861314
 
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptxAbnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptxzeus70441
 
Environment modelling and its environmental aspects
Environment modelling and its environmental aspectsEnvironment modelling and its environmental aspects
Environment modelling and its environmental aspectsMansi Rastogi
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological CorrelationsTimeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
 
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptxLoudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
 
Unit-V-Introduction to Data Mining.pptx
Unit-V-Introduction to  Data Mining.pptxUnit-V-Introduction to  Data Mining.pptx
Unit-V-Introduction to Data Mining.pptx
 
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep LearningCombining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
 
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
 
PLASMODIUM. PPTX
PLASMODIUM. PPTXPLASMODIUM. PPTX
PLASMODIUM. PPTX
 
Oxo-Acids of Halogens and their Salts.pptx
Oxo-Acids of Halogens and their Salts.pptxOxo-Acids of Halogens and their Salts.pptx
Oxo-Acids of Halogens and their Salts.pptx
 
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongenaProduction technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
 
EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Lecture by Dr Abeer Zahana
EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Lecture by Dr Abeer ZahanaEGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Lecture by Dr Abeer Zahana
EGYPTIAN IMPRINT IN SPAIN Lecture by Dr Abeer Zahana
 
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
 
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWSTInterpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
 
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
 
Bioenergetics and the role of ATP to drive the beats of life.
Bioenergetics and the role of ATP to drive the beats of life.Bioenergetics and the role of ATP to drive the beats of life.
Bioenergetics and the role of ATP to drive the beats of life.
 
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
 
AICTE activity on Water Conservation spreading awareness
AICTE activity on Water Conservation spreading awarenessAICTE activity on Water Conservation spreading awareness
AICTE activity on Water Conservation spreading awareness
 
Interferons.pptx.
Interferons.pptx.Interferons.pptx.
Interferons.pptx.
 
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxRole of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
 
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptxAbnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
 
Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of AlkaloidsIntroduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
 
Environment modelling and its environmental aspects
Environment modelling and its environmental aspectsEnvironment modelling and its environmental aspects
Environment modelling and its environmental aspects
 

Introduction to multivibrators

  • 1. PHYSICS B.Sc. III Sem V (2020-21)
  • 2. “ Dr. Vaishali V. Deshmukh Assistant professor Department of physics Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati (MS) 2
  • 3. 1. MULTIVIBRATORS Let’s start with the types of Multivibrators 3
  • 4. Switching action of Transistor 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. What is an multivibrator? ➢ These devices are very useful as pulse generating, storing and counting circuits. ➢ According to the definition, A Multivibrator is a two-stage resistance coupled amplifier with positive feedback from the output of one amplifier to the input of the other. ➢ Two transistors are connected in feedback so that one controls the state of the other. Hence the ON and OFF states of the whole circuit, and the time periods for which the transistors are driven into saturation or cut off are controlled by the conditions of the circuit. 6
  • 7. Block diagram of a Multivibrator 7
  • 8. 8 Clock Signal Waveform Active HIGH – if the state change occurs from a “LOW” to a “HIGH” on the clock’s pulse rising edge or during the clock width. Active LOW – if the state change occurs from a “HIGH” to a “LOW” on the clock’s pulses falling edge. Clock Width – this is the time during which the value of the clock signal is equal to a logic “1”, or HIGH. Clock Period – this is the time between successive transitions in the same direction, ie, between two rising or two falling edges. Duty Cycle – this is the ratio of the clock width to the clock period. Clock Frequency – the clock frequency is the reciprocal of the clock period, frequency = 1/clock period. ( ƒ = 1/T )
  • 10. 10
  • 12. 12
  • 15. Difference 15 1. Astable - It is a free-running multi-vibrator which does not have any stable states and keeps switching in between the 2 states due to which square wave pulses at a fixed frequency are produced. 2. Monostable – It is a 1-shot multi-vibrator which has only 1 stable state. When an external trigger is applied, it returns back to its 1st stable state. 3. Bistable – It is a kind of flip-flop which has 2 stable states. It produces a single pulse with a positive or a negative.
  • 16. Applications 16 The astable or free running multivibrator is used as a square wave frequency generator As a timing oscillator or clock of a computer system. It is also used for a flashing lights, switching and power supply circuits. The monostable multivibrator is used as delay and timing circuits. It is also used for temporary memories. It is often used to trigger another pulse generator. It is used for regenerating old and worn out pulses. The bistable multivibrator or Flip Flop is of great importance in digital operation in computers, digital communications. It is also used for reversing to the supply to a given circuit or change supply to two circuit at regular intervals.
  • 17. Reference books 1. Priciple of Electronics by V. K. Mehta 2. Basic Electronics by B. L. Theraja 17
  • 18. “This is my belief: that through difficulties and problems God gives us the opportunity to grow. So when your hopes and dreams and goals are dashed, search among the wreckage, you may find a golden opportunity hidden in the ruins”. 18 Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (15 Oct 1931 - 27 Jul 2015)
  • 19. Thanks! Any questions? You can find me at: vaishalideshmukh27@gmail.com 19