SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Download to read offline
1
Shri Shivaji Education Society, Amravati’s
Shri Shivaji Science College
Shivaji Nagar, Nagpur Road, Amravati (MS) 444603
Affiliated to Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS) India.
Short Term Course on
Nanomaterial Synthesis and
Charachrization Techniques (NSCT-
2021)
Cyclic
Voltammetry
Dr. Vaishali Deshmukh
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Physics
Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati (MS)
Outline
3
Electrochemical Technique.
Introduction
01
Types of Voltammetric Techniques
Electrochemical Characterizations
02
Principle, Experimental Set Up: Electrochemical Cell, Applications
Cyclic Voltammetry
03
Conclusion and References
04
4
Introduction
CV is the basic electrochemical test for materials. In this, the current
is recorded by sweeping the potential back and forth (from positive to
negative and negative to positive) between the chosen limits. The
information obtained from CV can be used to learn about the
electrochemical behaviour of the material.
It is an important technique to characterize the electrochemical
performance and reaction kinetics in electrical and electrochemical
energy storage devices under various conditions.
During a scan, the chemical either loses an electron (oxidation) or
gains an electron (reduction) depending on the direction of the
ramping potential.
In the general sense, voltammetry is any technique where the current
is measured while the potential between two electrodes is varied.
Types of Voltammetry
◈ Polarography
◈ Differential Pulse
Voltammetry
◈ Hydrodynamic Voltammetry
◈ Stripping Voltammetry
◈ Square-Wave Voltammetry
◈ Staircase Voltammetry
◈ Cyclic Voltammetry
Electrochemical Characterization
Electrochemical Techniques
◈ Voltammetry Technique
◈ Electrochemical Impedance
Spectroscopy
◈ Galvanostatic ChargeeDischarge
◈ Chronopotentiometry
◈ Chronoamperometry Coulometry
◈ Chronocoulometry
◈ Scanning Electrochemical Microscope
5
6
1
Linear Sweep and Cyclic Voltammetry: The Principles
✓Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) is a voltammetric method where the current at a working electrode is
measured while the potential between the working electrode and a reference electrode is swept linearly
in time.
✓The voltage scan rate (v) is calculated from the slope of the line. The characteristics of the linear
sweep voltammogram recorded depend on a number of factors including: 1. The rate of the electron
transfer reaction(s). 2. The chemical reactivity of the electroactive species. 3. The voltage scan rate
7
If the scan rate is altered the current response also changes. The figure below shows a series of
linear sweep voltammograms recorded at different scan rates. Each curve has the same form but it
is apparent that the total current increases with increasing scan rate.
8
Cyclic Voltammetry: Principle
✓Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is very similar to LSV. In this
case the voltage is swept between two values at a fixed
rate, however now when the voltage reaches V2 the scan
is reversed and the voltage is swept back to V1.
✓For a reversible electrochemical reaction the CV recorded
has certain well defined characteristics,
✓I) The voltage separation between the current peaks is
✓II) The positions of peak voltage do not alter as a function
of voltage scan rate
✓III) The ratio of the peak currents is equal to one
✓IV) The peak currents are proportional to the square root
of the scan rate
9
Cyclic Voltammogram
As voltage is applied to a supercapacitor, ions in
the electrolyte solution diffuse into the pores of
the electrode of opposite charge. Charge
accumulates at the interface between the
electrodes and the electrolyte, forming two
charged layers (double layer) with an extremely
small separation distance. This is the distance
between the electrode surfaces to the center of
the ion layer.
The Nernst equation can be used to determine the relative concentration of analyte X
that can be reduced to X– at the electrode at every electrode potential (E) encountered on
the sweep (if the wave is reversible).
10 Fig: Electron transfer at the electrode
X + e– ⇆ X–
Where E is the electrode
potential (in Volts), E0 is the
standard reduction potential
of the X/X– couple (in Volts),
R is the gas constant (8.315
J K–1 mol–1), T is the
temperature (in Kelvin), n is
the number of electrons
transferred (1 in this case),
and F is Faraday’s constant
(96,485 C mol–1), and CX (or
CXˉ) is the concentration of
the respective species (X or
X–) at the electrode (mol L–1).
11
Experimental Setup
The Electrochemical Cell
An electrochemical cell is a device in which a
chemical reaction generates an electrical
response or, conversely, an electrical current is
used to trigger a chemical reaction. The
simplest possible electrochemical cell consists
of two connected electrodes in an electrolyte
solution. In cyclic voltammetry, three
electrodes are used.
The working electrode, where the compound
of interest is reduced (C n+ → C (n−1)+ ) or
oxidised (Cn+ → C(n+1)+).
The counter electrode, which completes the
circuit with the potentiostat.
The reference electrode, used to measure the
potential.
12
Reference Electrode
A reference electrode is an electrode whose
electrode potential is stable and it is also a
nonpolarizable electrode. It is used as a
reference against which the potential of
other working electrodes can be measured
in an electrochemical cell. The most
common reference electrodes are the
standard calomel electrode, the normal
hydrogen electrode, the silver/silver
chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode in saturated
potassium chloride and the Ag/Ag+ (0.01M,
usually AgNO3) electrode in acetonitrile.
13
Counter and working Electrode
◈ The counter electrode is used in an electrochemical
cell to complete the electrical circuit. Current is
recorded between the working and counter
electrode. Typical examples of counter electrodes
are large area Pt electrode, mesh type Pt electrode.
◈ A working electrode is the electrode of interest,
where the electrochemical reaction is occurring. A
potentiostat is used to control the applied potential
of the working electrode as a function of the
reference electrode potential. The electrode must
be such that it should not have any redox properties
on its own. Typical examples of working electrodes
are Gold electrode, Platinum electrode, Glassy
carbon electrode, Graphite electrode,etc.
14
Cyclic Voltammetry uses for…..
Determining the reversibility of a reaction
Determining the formal reduction potential of a species
Measuring electron transfer kinetics
Determining the energy levels of semiconducting polymers
Assignment and characterisation of coupled reaction
15
Applications
Supercapacitors
& Batteries
Sensors Coatings
16
17
Conclusion
Various basic electrochemical characterization techniques are used for the analysis of
electrochemical parameters. Electrochemical reactions taking place during the
electrochemical characterization are responsible for the various phenomena that take place in
the cell.
During electrochemical characterization, the nature of the material, the local environment,
and the reaction parameters are responsible for the various output responses.
Cyclic voltammetry is very frequently used because it offers a wealth of experimental
information and insights into both the kinetic and thermodynamic details of many chemical
systems.
various applications of electrochemical characterizations, such as supercapacitors,
batteries, sensor studies, and coatings, where these characterizations prove to be really
useful for electrochemical studies.
The future of the relatively recent marriage between voltammetry and materials research
appears bright.
The combination of modern electroanalytical techniques with surface spectroscopy,
microscopy, and diffraction methods provides powerful methodology for the exploration of
redox properties of advanced materials.
References
◈ B.E. Conway, Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Scientific Fundamentals and
Technological Applications, Springer, 1999.
◈ H. Girard, H. Wang, A. Entremont, L. Pilon, J. Phys. Chem. C, 119 (2015) 11349 –
11361.
◈ R. Farma, M. Deraman, Awitdrus, I. A. Talib, R. Omar, J.G. Manjunatha, M. M.
Ishak, N. H. Basri, B. N. M. Dolah, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8 (2013) 257 - 273.
18
19
All Birds find shelter during
a rain. But Eagle avoids rain
by flying above the clouds.
Thank You!
Any questions?
You can find me at:
vaishalideshmukh027@gmail.com
20

More Related Content

Similar to Electrochemical technique 1: Cyclic Voltammery

Electrochemical methods: Environmental Analysis
Electrochemical methods: Environmental Analysis Electrochemical methods: Environmental Analysis
Electrochemical methods: Environmental Analysis Almas Tamake
 
Cyclic voltammetry
Cyclic voltammetryCyclic voltammetry
Cyclic voltammetryAfrin Nirfa
 
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.pptx
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.pptxElectrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.pptx
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.pptxJahanzeb Ahmad
 
Voltametry pharmaceutical Chemistry
Voltametry pharmaceutical ChemistryVoltametry pharmaceutical Chemistry
Voltametry pharmaceutical ChemistryWaqas Ilyas
 
Cyclic Voltammetry: Principle, Instrumentation & Applications
Cyclic Voltammetry: Principle, Instrumentation & ApplicationsCyclic Voltammetry: Principle, Instrumentation & Applications
Cyclic Voltammetry: Principle, Instrumentation & ApplicationsAnu Radha
 
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 (Electrochemistry) | Homi Institute
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 (Electrochemistry) | Homi InstituteCBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 (Electrochemistry) | Homi Institute
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 (Electrochemistry) | Homi InstituteHomi Institute
 
Cyclic voltammetry
Cyclic voltammetryCyclic voltammetry
Cyclic voltammetryDalpat Singh
 
Basics of Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Measurements
Basics of Electrochemistry and Electrochemical MeasurementsBasics of Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Measurements
Basics of Electrochemistry and Electrochemical MeasurementsHalavath Ramesh
 
Electrochemistry and batteries
Electrochemistry and batteriesElectrochemistry and batteries
Electrochemistry and batteriesVishnu Thumma
 
Electrochemistry, electrophoresis, ise
Electrochemistry, electrophoresis, iseElectrochemistry, electrophoresis, ise
Electrochemistry, electrophoresis, iseAngelica Nhoj Gemora
 
CHEM NOTES Syllbus(20216-23)onwards.docx
CHEM NOTES Syllbus(20216-23)onwards.docxCHEM NOTES Syllbus(20216-23)onwards.docx
CHEM NOTES Syllbus(20216-23)onwards.docxjyotidighole2
 

Similar to Electrochemical technique 1: Cyclic Voltammery (20)

Electrochemical methods: Environmental Analysis
Electrochemical methods: Environmental Analysis Electrochemical methods: Environmental Analysis
Electrochemical methods: Environmental Analysis
 
Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistryAnalytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
 
Cyclic voltammetry
Cyclic voltammetryCyclic voltammetry
Cyclic voltammetry
 
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.pptx
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.pptxElectrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.pptx
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.pptx
 
Voltametry pharmaceutical Chemistry
Voltametry pharmaceutical ChemistryVoltametry pharmaceutical Chemistry
Voltametry pharmaceutical Chemistry
 
Cyclic Voltammetry: Principle, Instrumentation & Applications
Cyclic Voltammetry: Principle, Instrumentation & ApplicationsCyclic Voltammetry: Principle, Instrumentation & Applications
Cyclic Voltammetry: Principle, Instrumentation & Applications
 
Polarography
PolarographyPolarography
Polarography
 
Electrochemical method
Electrochemical methodElectrochemical method
Electrochemical method
 
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 (Electrochemistry) | Homi Institute
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 (Electrochemistry) | Homi InstituteCBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 (Electrochemistry) | Homi Institute
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 (Electrochemistry) | Homi Institute
 
BSc Electrochemistry.pptx
BSc Electrochemistry.pptxBSc Electrochemistry.pptx
BSc Electrochemistry.pptx
 
Cyclic voltammetry
Cyclic voltammetryCyclic voltammetry
Cyclic voltammetry
 
Basics of Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Measurements
Basics of Electrochemistry and Electrochemical MeasurementsBasics of Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Measurements
Basics of Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Measurements
 
Electrochemistry and batteries
Electrochemistry and batteriesElectrochemistry and batteries
Electrochemistry and batteries
 
Electrochemistry, electrophoresis, ise
Electrochemistry, electrophoresis, iseElectrochemistry, electrophoresis, ise
Electrochemistry, electrophoresis, ise
 
Cv slides
Cv slidesCv slides
Cv slides
 
PAP
PAPPAP
PAP
 
CHEM NOTES Syllbus(20216-23)onwards.docx
CHEM NOTES Syllbus(20216-23)onwards.docxCHEM NOTES Syllbus(20216-23)onwards.docx
CHEM NOTES Syllbus(20216-23)onwards.docx
 
Potentiometry
PotentiometryPotentiometry
Potentiometry
 
3
33
3
 
potentiometery
potentiometerypotentiometery
potentiometery
 

More from Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati (MS) (13)

Lecture 3: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 3: Solid State Devices II.pdfLecture 3: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 3: Solid State Devices II.pdf
 
Lecture 1: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 1: Solid State Devices II.pdfLecture 1: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 1: Solid State Devices II.pdf
 
Lecture 2: Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 2:  Solid State Devices II.pdfLecture 2:  Solid State Devices II.pdf
Lecture 2: Solid State Devices II.pdf
 
Lecture 5: Semiconductor Diode.pdf
Lecture 5: Semiconductor Diode.pdfLecture 5: Semiconductor Diode.pdf
Lecture 5: Semiconductor Diode.pdf
 
Lecture 4: PN-Junction.pdf
Lecture 4: PN-Junction.pdfLecture 4: PN-Junction.pdf
Lecture 4: PN-Junction.pdf
 
Lecture3: Fermi Level and Fermi Energy.pdf
Lecture3: Fermi Level and Fermi Energy.pdfLecture3: Fermi Level and Fermi Energy.pdf
Lecture3: Fermi Level and Fermi Energy.pdf
 
Lecture 2: Types of Semiconductors.pdf
Lecture 2: Types of Semiconductors.pdfLecture 2: Types of Semiconductors.pdf
Lecture 2: Types of Semiconductors.pdf
 
Lecture 1: Introduction to Seiconductor.pdf
Lecture 1: Introduction to Seiconductor.pdfLecture 1: Introduction to Seiconductor.pdf
Lecture 1: Introduction to Seiconductor.pdf
 
Introduction to multivibrators
Introduction to multivibratorsIntroduction to multivibrators
Introduction to multivibrators
 
Introduction to Oscillators
Introduction to OscillatorsIntroduction to Oscillators
Introduction to Oscillators
 
Feedback in amplifier
Feedback in amplifierFeedback in amplifier
Feedback in amplifier
 
Op-Amp 2
Op-Amp 2Op-Amp 2
Op-Amp 2
 
Op-Amp 1
Op-Amp 1Op-Amp 1
Op-Amp 1
 

Recently uploaded

linear Regression, multiple Regression and Annova
linear Regression, multiple Regression and Annovalinear Regression, multiple Regression and Annova
linear Regression, multiple Regression and AnnovaMansi Rastogi
 
Total Legal: A “Joint” Journey into the Chemistry of Cannabinoids
Total Legal: A “Joint” Journey into the Chemistry of CannabinoidsTotal Legal: A “Joint” Journey into the Chemistry of Cannabinoids
Total Legal: A “Joint” Journey into the Chemistry of CannabinoidsMarkus Roggen
 
DNA isolation molecular biology practical.pptx
DNA isolation molecular biology practical.pptxDNA isolation molecular biology practical.pptx
DNA isolation molecular biology practical.pptxGiDMOh
 
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptxLoudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptxpriyankatabhane
 
Measures of Central Tendency.pptx for UG
Measures of Central Tendency.pptx for UGMeasures of Central Tendency.pptx for UG
Measures of Central Tendency.pptx for UGSoniaBajaj10
 
BACTERIAL DEFENSE SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
BACTERIAL DEFENSE SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika DasBACTERIAL DEFENSE SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
BACTERIAL DEFENSE SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika DasChayanika Das
 
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptxIntroduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptxMedical College
 
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptxEnvironmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptxpriyankatabhane
 
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive starsObservational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive starsSérgio Sacani
 
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...Christina Parmionova
 
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdfKDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdfGABYFIORELAMALPARTID1
 
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPRPirithiRaju
 
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptxGas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptxGiovaniTrinidad
 
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological CorrelationsTimeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological CorrelationsDanielBaumann11
 
whole genome sequencing new and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
whole genome sequencing new  and its types including shortgun and clone by clonewhole genome sequencing new  and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
whole genome sequencing new and its types including shortgun and clone by clonechaudhary charan shingh university
 
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES Chemical Tests Glycosides
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES  Chemical Tests GlycosidesGLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES  Chemical Tests Glycosides
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES Chemical Tests GlycosidesNandakishor Bhaurao Deshmukh
 
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptxAbnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptxzeus70441
 
WEEK 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUARTER 3 FOR G11
WEEK 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUARTER 3 FOR G11WEEK 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUARTER 3 FOR G11
WEEK 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUARTER 3 FOR G11GelineAvendao
 

Recently uploaded (20)

linear Regression, multiple Regression and Annova
linear Regression, multiple Regression and Annovalinear Regression, multiple Regression and Annova
linear Regression, multiple Regression and Annova
 
Total Legal: A “Joint” Journey into the Chemistry of Cannabinoids
Total Legal: A “Joint” Journey into the Chemistry of CannabinoidsTotal Legal: A “Joint” Journey into the Chemistry of Cannabinoids
Total Legal: A “Joint” Journey into the Chemistry of Cannabinoids
 
DNA isolation molecular biology practical.pptx
DNA isolation molecular biology practical.pptxDNA isolation molecular biology practical.pptx
DNA isolation molecular biology practical.pptx
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
 
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptxLoudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
Loudspeaker- direct radiating type and horn type.pptx
 
Measures of Central Tendency.pptx for UG
Measures of Central Tendency.pptx for UGMeasures of Central Tendency.pptx for UG
Measures of Central Tendency.pptx for UG
 
BACTERIAL DEFENSE SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
BACTERIAL DEFENSE SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika DasBACTERIAL DEFENSE SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
BACTERIAL DEFENSE SYSTEM by Dr. Chayanika Das
 
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptxIntroduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
 
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptxEnvironmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
 
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive starsObservational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
 
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
 
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdfKDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
 
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
 
PLASMODIUM. PPTX
PLASMODIUM. PPTXPLASMODIUM. PPTX
PLASMODIUM. PPTX
 
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptxGas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
 
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological CorrelationsTimeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
Timeless Cosmology: Towards a Geometric Origin of Cosmological Correlations
 
whole genome sequencing new and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
whole genome sequencing new  and its types including shortgun and clone by clonewhole genome sequencing new  and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
whole genome sequencing new and its types including shortgun and clone by clone
 
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES Chemical Tests Glycosides
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES  Chemical Tests GlycosidesGLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES  Chemical Tests Glycosides
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES Chemical Tests Glycosides
 
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptxAbnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
Abnormal LFTs rate of deco and NAFLD.pptx
 
WEEK 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUARTER 3 FOR G11
WEEK 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUARTER 3 FOR G11WEEK 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUARTER 3 FOR G11
WEEK 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUARTER 3 FOR G11
 

Electrochemical technique 1: Cyclic Voltammery

  • 1. 1 Shri Shivaji Education Society, Amravati’s Shri Shivaji Science College Shivaji Nagar, Nagpur Road, Amravati (MS) 444603 Affiliated to Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS) India. Short Term Course on Nanomaterial Synthesis and Charachrization Techniques (NSCT- 2021)
  • 2. Cyclic Voltammetry Dr. Vaishali Deshmukh Assistant Professor Dept. of Physics Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati (MS)
  • 3. Outline 3 Electrochemical Technique. Introduction 01 Types of Voltammetric Techniques Electrochemical Characterizations 02 Principle, Experimental Set Up: Electrochemical Cell, Applications Cyclic Voltammetry 03 Conclusion and References 04
  • 4. 4 Introduction CV is the basic electrochemical test for materials. In this, the current is recorded by sweeping the potential back and forth (from positive to negative and negative to positive) between the chosen limits. The information obtained from CV can be used to learn about the electrochemical behaviour of the material. It is an important technique to characterize the electrochemical performance and reaction kinetics in electrical and electrochemical energy storage devices under various conditions. During a scan, the chemical either loses an electron (oxidation) or gains an electron (reduction) depending on the direction of the ramping potential. In the general sense, voltammetry is any technique where the current is measured while the potential between two electrodes is varied.
  • 5. Types of Voltammetry ◈ Polarography ◈ Differential Pulse Voltammetry ◈ Hydrodynamic Voltammetry ◈ Stripping Voltammetry ◈ Square-Wave Voltammetry ◈ Staircase Voltammetry ◈ Cyclic Voltammetry Electrochemical Characterization Electrochemical Techniques ◈ Voltammetry Technique ◈ Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy ◈ Galvanostatic ChargeeDischarge ◈ Chronopotentiometry ◈ Chronoamperometry Coulometry ◈ Chronocoulometry ◈ Scanning Electrochemical Microscope 5
  • 6. 6 1 Linear Sweep and Cyclic Voltammetry: The Principles ✓Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) is a voltammetric method where the current at a working electrode is measured while the potential between the working electrode and a reference electrode is swept linearly in time. ✓The voltage scan rate (v) is calculated from the slope of the line. The characteristics of the linear sweep voltammogram recorded depend on a number of factors including: 1. The rate of the electron transfer reaction(s). 2. The chemical reactivity of the electroactive species. 3. The voltage scan rate
  • 7. 7 If the scan rate is altered the current response also changes. The figure below shows a series of linear sweep voltammograms recorded at different scan rates. Each curve has the same form but it is apparent that the total current increases with increasing scan rate.
  • 8. 8 Cyclic Voltammetry: Principle ✓Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is very similar to LSV. In this case the voltage is swept between two values at a fixed rate, however now when the voltage reaches V2 the scan is reversed and the voltage is swept back to V1. ✓For a reversible electrochemical reaction the CV recorded has certain well defined characteristics, ✓I) The voltage separation between the current peaks is ✓II) The positions of peak voltage do not alter as a function of voltage scan rate ✓III) The ratio of the peak currents is equal to one ✓IV) The peak currents are proportional to the square root of the scan rate
  • 9. 9 Cyclic Voltammogram As voltage is applied to a supercapacitor, ions in the electrolyte solution diffuse into the pores of the electrode of opposite charge. Charge accumulates at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte, forming two charged layers (double layer) with an extremely small separation distance. This is the distance between the electrode surfaces to the center of the ion layer.
  • 10. The Nernst equation can be used to determine the relative concentration of analyte X that can be reduced to X– at the electrode at every electrode potential (E) encountered on the sweep (if the wave is reversible). 10 Fig: Electron transfer at the electrode X + e– ⇆ X– Where E is the electrode potential (in Volts), E0 is the standard reduction potential of the X/X– couple (in Volts), R is the gas constant (8.315 J K–1 mol–1), T is the temperature (in Kelvin), n is the number of electrons transferred (1 in this case), and F is Faraday’s constant (96,485 C mol–1), and CX (or CXˉ) is the concentration of the respective species (X or X–) at the electrode (mol L–1).
  • 11. 11 Experimental Setup The Electrochemical Cell An electrochemical cell is a device in which a chemical reaction generates an electrical response or, conversely, an electrical current is used to trigger a chemical reaction. The simplest possible electrochemical cell consists of two connected electrodes in an electrolyte solution. In cyclic voltammetry, three electrodes are used. The working electrode, where the compound of interest is reduced (C n+ → C (n−1)+ ) or oxidised (Cn+ → C(n+1)+). The counter electrode, which completes the circuit with the potentiostat. The reference electrode, used to measure the potential.
  • 12. 12 Reference Electrode A reference electrode is an electrode whose electrode potential is stable and it is also a nonpolarizable electrode. It is used as a reference against which the potential of other working electrodes can be measured in an electrochemical cell. The most common reference electrodes are the standard calomel electrode, the normal hydrogen electrode, the silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode in saturated potassium chloride and the Ag/Ag+ (0.01M, usually AgNO3) electrode in acetonitrile.
  • 13. 13 Counter and working Electrode ◈ The counter electrode is used in an electrochemical cell to complete the electrical circuit. Current is recorded between the working and counter electrode. Typical examples of counter electrodes are large area Pt electrode, mesh type Pt electrode. ◈ A working electrode is the electrode of interest, where the electrochemical reaction is occurring. A potentiostat is used to control the applied potential of the working electrode as a function of the reference electrode potential. The electrode must be such that it should not have any redox properties on its own. Typical examples of working electrodes are Gold electrode, Platinum electrode, Glassy carbon electrode, Graphite electrode,etc.
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Cyclic Voltammetry uses for….. Determining the reversibility of a reaction Determining the formal reduction potential of a species Measuring electron transfer kinetics Determining the energy levels of semiconducting polymers Assignment and characterisation of coupled reaction 15
  • 17. 17 Conclusion Various basic electrochemical characterization techniques are used for the analysis of electrochemical parameters. Electrochemical reactions taking place during the electrochemical characterization are responsible for the various phenomena that take place in the cell. During electrochemical characterization, the nature of the material, the local environment, and the reaction parameters are responsible for the various output responses. Cyclic voltammetry is very frequently used because it offers a wealth of experimental information and insights into both the kinetic and thermodynamic details of many chemical systems. various applications of electrochemical characterizations, such as supercapacitors, batteries, sensor studies, and coatings, where these characterizations prove to be really useful for electrochemical studies. The future of the relatively recent marriage between voltammetry and materials research appears bright. The combination of modern electroanalytical techniques with surface spectroscopy, microscopy, and diffraction methods provides powerful methodology for the exploration of redox properties of advanced materials.
  • 18. References ◈ B.E. Conway, Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Scientific Fundamentals and Technological Applications, Springer, 1999. ◈ H. Girard, H. Wang, A. Entremont, L. Pilon, J. Phys. Chem. C, 119 (2015) 11349 – 11361. ◈ R. Farma, M. Deraman, Awitdrus, I. A. Talib, R. Omar, J.G. Manjunatha, M. M. Ishak, N. H. Basri, B. N. M. Dolah, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8 (2013) 257 - 273. 18
  • 19. 19 All Birds find shelter during a rain. But Eagle avoids rain by flying above the clouds.
  • 20. Thank You! Any questions? You can find me at: vaishalideshmukh027@gmail.com 20