Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationCourse Purpose<br /><ul><li>This course introduces animal cells based on structure...
Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationTopic Outlines<br />3.1 Movement of molecules in & out of cells<br />	3.1.1 Types ...
Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationCourse Objectives<br /><ul><li>To develop understanding of general biology and gen...
To understand the scope of biology and human genetics which includes the study of cell, structure of cell, division of cel...
To acquire knowledge according diseases caused by genetic mutation.
To understand basic techniques involved in biology laboratory.
To understand laboratory hazards and step to ensure safety in biology procedure.  </li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationLearning Outcomes<br />After completing this lecture, students will be able to:<br...
Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.1 Movement of molecules in & out of cells<br />Types of movement<br />...
 Active Transport
 Vascular Transport</li></ul>(a) Endocytosis<br />(b) Exocytosis<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.1/3.2.2 : Passive Transport/Definition<br /><ul><li>Does not require ...
	- osmosis
	- Facilitated diffusion</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.1/3.2.2 : Passive Transport/Definition<br />Characteristics<br />© 20...
Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />Diffusion<br /...
Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />© 2010 Cosmopo...
Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />The rate of di...
Distance of diffusion
Area of diffusion
 Size of diffusing molecules</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />Facilitated Di...
Follows the concentration gradient& no energyis needed</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />Osmosis<br /><...
Spontaneous, as a result of a downhill energy system called ‘water potential’
Water moves from an area of higher potentialto an area of lower water potential
Water potential= the tendency for water molecules to enter or leave a solution by osmosis</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />A high concent...
Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />Dissolving sol...
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Chapt 03

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Chapt 03

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationCourse Purpose<br /><ul><li>This course introduces animal cells based on structure, characteristics, functions and cellular division. It also emphasises the theory of inheritance including the structure</li></ul>and role gene, DNA, and chromosome. <br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  3. 3. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationTopic Outlines<br />3.1 Movement of molecules in & out of cells<br /> 3.1.1 Types of movement<br />3.2 Passive transport<br /> 3.2.1Definition<br /> 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />3.3 Active Transport<br /> 3.3.1 Principles & example of active transport<br />3.4 Vesicular transport<br /> 3.4.1 Principles & example of active transport<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  4. 4. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationCourse Objectives<br /><ul><li>To develop understanding of general biology and genetics basic principles and definition.
  5. 5. To understand the scope of biology and human genetics which includes the study of cell, structure of cell, division of cells, genetic materials, mutation and common genetic condition.
  6. 6. To acquire knowledge according diseases caused by genetic mutation.
  7. 7. To understand basic techniques involved in biology laboratory.
  8. 8. To understand laboratory hazards and step to ensure safety in biology procedure. </li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  9. 9. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationLearning Outcomes<br />After completing this lecture, students will be able to:<br />(a) List out the types of cell membrane’s transport<br />(b) Describe passive transport<br /> Diffusion<br /> Osmosis<br />(c) Explain active transport<br /> Sodium/Potassium Pump<br />(d) Summarize vesicular transport<br /> Exocytosis<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  10. 10. Chapter 3 : Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.1 Movement of molecules in & out of cells<br />Types of movement<br /><ul><li>Passive Transport
  11. 11. Active Transport
  12. 12. Vascular Transport</li></ul>(a) Endocytosis<br />(b) Exocytosis<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  13. 13. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.1/3.2.2 : Passive Transport/Definition<br /><ul><li>Does not require energy (ATP)from the cell</li></ul>Example include<br /><ul><li> - diffusion of O2 & CO2
  14. 14. - osmosis
  15. 15. - Facilitated diffusion</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  16. 16. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.1/3.2.2 : Passive Transport/Definition<br />Characteristics<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  17. 17. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />Diffusion<br /><ul><li>Net movement of solutes(molecule, ions or atoms) from a region of higher concentrationto a region of lower concentration(down a concentration gradient)</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  18. 18. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  19. 19. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />The rate of diffusion depends on:<br /><ul><li> Concentration gradient (difference of concentration between the two areas)
  20. 20. Distance of diffusion
  21. 21. Area of diffusion
  22. 22. Size of diffusing molecules</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  23. 23. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />Facilitated Diffusion<br /><ul><li>Movement of solutes acrossa membrane, with the help of transport proteins.
  24. 24. Follows the concentration gradient& no energyis needed</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  25. 25. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />Osmosis<br /><ul><li>Passive movementof water across a the fine pores of the semi-permeable membrane
  26. 26. Spontaneous, as a result of a downhill energy system called ‘water potential’
  27. 27. Water moves from an area of higher potentialto an area of lower water potential
  28. 28. Water potential= the tendency for water molecules to enter or leave a solution by osmosis</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  29. 29. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />A high concentration of waterA lower concentration of water<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  30. 30. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />Dissolving solute molecules in pure water will reduce the water potential. <br />Why?<br />Example of osmosis<br /><ul><li>Hypotonic medium – a dilute solution, with a higher water concentration than the cell – the cell will gain water through osmosis
  31. 31. Isotonic medium – a solution with exactly the same water concentration as the cell – there will be no net movement of water across the cell membrane
  32. 32. Hypertonic medium – a concentrated solution, with a lower water concentration if compared with the cell – the cell will loose water by osmosis</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  33. 33. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.2.2 Types of passive transport, principles, example<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  34. 34. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3 : Active Transport<br /><ul><li>The movement of substances across membranes, which requires energyin the form of ATP.
  35. 35. From an area of low concentrationto an area of high concentration
  36. 36. Involves carrier proteinsin membranes
  37. 37. The cell uses active transport in three situations:</li></ul>(a) when a particle is going from low to high concentration<br />(b) when particles need help entering the membrane because they are selectively impermeable<br />(c) when very large particles enter and exit the cell<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  38. 38. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3 : Active Transport<br />Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Carrier proteinsor channel proteinis required
  39. 39. Each type of carrier protein is specific for one type of substance to carry
  40. 40. It will go against concentration gradient
  41. 41. The process will only stopwhen there is no moreof the substance to transport</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  42. 42. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3.1: Principles & example of active transport<br />Sodium Potassium Pump<br /><ul><li>The sodium/potassium pump must break ATP downinto ADP in order to pump three ions sodium outsidethe cell, while it pumps two potassium ions intothe cell. The ATPphosphorylates(adds a phosphate to) the membrane proteinas it binds to the sodium and breaks down, and it dephosphorylates the protein as it binds with the potassium
  43. 43. Cellular respiration must occur to add the phosphate back to ADP, thus restoring the ATP</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  44. 44. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3.1:Principles & example of active transport<br />Sodium Potassium Pump<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  45. 45. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3.1:Principles & example of active transport<br />Sodium Potassium Pump<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  46. 46. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.3.1:Principles & example of active transport<br />Sodium Potassium Pump<br /><ul><li>In order to maintain the cell potential, cells must keep a low concentrationof sodium ions& high levels of potassium ions within the cell (intracellular)
  47. 47. Outside the cells (extracellular), the are high concentrations of sodium & low concentrations of potassium
  48. 48.  diffusion occurs through ion channels in the plasma membrane
  49. 49. Eg. Neuron & muscle</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  50. 50. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4:Vesicular Transport<br /><ul><li>Cytosis – movement with vesicles @ vacuoles
  51. 51. Endocytosis</li></ul>(a) Phagocytosis<br />(b) Pinocytosis<br /><ul><li>Exocytosis</li></ul>Vesicle: relatively small intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  52. 52. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport<br />Endocytosis<br />Uptake of substances by cell en mass or in bulk in the form of <br />vesicle<br />Two types:<br /> (a) phagocytosis<br /> (b) Pinocytosis<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  53. 53. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport<br />Phagocytosis<br /><ul><li>Cellular eating
  54. 54. Solid substances or whole organisms are brought inside the cell by invagination (an infolding of the cell membrane)
  55. 55. A vacuole is formed, the inner surface of which is derived from the outer surface of the cell surface membrane
  56. 56. Eg. Amoeba, white blood cells (phagocytes) perform phagocytosis</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  57. 57. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport<br />Phagocytosis<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  58. 58. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport<br /> Pinocytosis<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  59. 59. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport<br />Exocytosis<br /><ul><li>Reverse of endocytosis in which the cell egests or secretes substances
  60. 60. Transportof materials out of a cell
  61. 61. Materials to be exported must first be enclosed in a membrane vesicle, usually from the rough endoplasmic reticulum & Golgi apparatus eg. hormones & digestive enzymes & residue indigested microorganisms from the intracellular digestion by lysosomes
  62. 62. Eg. Secretion of mucus or hormones</li></ul>© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  63. 63. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport<br />Exocytosis<br />Hormones & digestive enzymes are secreted by exocytosis from the secretory cells of the intestine & endocrine glands. Vesicles & vacuoles move to the cell surface membrane, fuse with it & release their contents to the outside<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />
  64. 64. Chapter 3: Cell Membrane TransportationSub Topic 3.4.1:Principles & example of active transport<br />Summary<br />© 2010 Cosmopoint <br />

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