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Chapt 04


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Chapt 04

  2. 2. CELL DIVISIONLearning Outcomes After completing this topic, students will able to:  Define cell division, cell cycle mitosis and meiosis.  List the phase in mitosis and meiosis.  Describe each events or process that happen in each phase. Slide 2 of 10 Topics © 2010 Cosmopoint
  3. 3. CELL DIVISIONTopic Outlines 1.1. Cell Division 1.2. Cell Cycle (Mitosis & Meiosis) 1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle 1.3. Importance of Mitosis and Meiosis Slide 3 of 10 © 2010 Cosmopoint
  4. 4. CELL DIVISION1.1. Cell Division Cell division is a process by which a cell, called the parent cell, divides into two or more cells, called daughter cells. Cell division is usually a small segment of a larger cell cycle. This type of cell division in eukaryotes is known as mitosis, and leaves the daughter cell capable of dividing again. The corresponding sort of cell division in prokaryotes is known as binary fission. In another type of cell division present only in eukaryotes, called meiosis, a cell is permanently transformed into a gamete and cannot divide again until fertilization. Slide 4 of 10 Topics
  5. 5. CELL DIVISION1.1. Cell Division Slide 5 of 10 Topics
  6. 6. CELL DIVISION1.2. Cell CycleThe cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place ina cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). In cells without anucleus (prokaryotes), the cell cycle occurs via a process termed binary fission.In cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes), the cell cycle can be divided in two briefperiods: interphase—during which the cell grows, accumulating nutrientsneeded for mitosis and duplicating its DNA—and the mitosis (M) phase, duringwhich the cell splits itself into two distinct cells, often called "daughter cells".The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized eggdevelops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin,blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. Slide 6 of 10 Topics
  7. 7. CELL DIVISION1.2. Cell CycleMitosis is the process of chromosome segregation and nucleardivision that follows replication of the genetic material ineukaryotic cells. This process assures that each daughter nucleusreceives a complete copy of the organisms genome. Slide 7 of 10 Topics
  8. 8. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycleMitosis Cell Division Is the type of cell division where two new cells are produced from a single cell. The two new cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell and are identical to it and to each other. Slide 8 of 10 Topics
  9. 9. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Slide 9 of 10
  10. 10. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Interphase The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of the cell cycle. It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell prepares itself for cell division. Interphase is therefore not part of mitosis. Interphase is divided into three phases, G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second gap). During all three phases, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. However, chromosomes are replicated only during the S phase. Thus, a cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2), and finally divides (M) before restarting the cycle. Slide 10 of 10
  11. 11. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of Cell Cycle Prophase  Normally, the genetic material in the nucleus is in a loosely bundled coil called chromatin. At the onset of prophase, chromatin condenses together into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome. Since the genetic material has already been duplicated earlier in S phase, the replicated chromosomes have two sister chromatids, bound together at the centromere by the cohesion complex. Chromosomes are visible at high magnification through a light microscope.  Close to the nucleus are structures called centrosomes, which are made of a pair of centrioles. The centrosome is the coordinating center for the cells microtubules. A cell inherits a single centrosome at cell division, which replicates before a new mitosis begins, giving a pair of centrosomes. The two centrosomes nucleate microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) to form the spindle by polymerizing soluble tubulin. Molecular motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite side of the cell. Although centrosomes help organize microtubule assembly, they are not essential for the formation of the spindle, since they are absent from plants,and centrosomes are not always used in meiosis Slide 11 of 10
  12. 12. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Prometaphase  The nuclear envelope disassembles and microtubules invade the nuclear space. This is called open mitosis, and it occurs in most multicellular organisms. Fungi and some protists, such as algae or trichomonads, undergo a variation called closed mitosis where the spindle forms inside the nucleus or its microtubules are able to penetrate an intact nuclear envelope.  Each chromosome forms two kinetochores at the centromere, one attached at each chromatid. A kinetochore is a complex protein structure that is analogous to a ring for the microtubule hook; it is the point where microtubules attach themselves to the chromosome. Although the kinetochore structure and function are not fully understood, it is known that it contains some form of molecular motor. When a microtubule connects with the kinetochore, the motor activates, using energy from ATP to "crawl" up the tube toward the originating centrosome. This motor activity, coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules, provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosomes two chromatids.  When the spindle grows to sufficient length, kinetochore microtubules begin searching for kinetochores to attach to. A number of nonkinetochore microtubules find and interact with corresponding nonkinetochore microtubules from the opposite centrosome to form the mitotic spindle. Prometaphase is sometimes considered part of prophase Slide 12 of 10
  13. 13. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Metaphase  As microtubules find and attach to kinetochores in prometaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes convene along the metaphase plate or equatorial plane, an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two centrosome poles. This even alignment is due to the counterbalance of the pulling powers generated by the opposing kinetochores, analogous to a tug-of-war between people of equal strength. In certain types of cells, chromosomes do not line up at the metaphase plate and instead move back and forth between the poles randomly, only roughly lining up along the midline. Metaphase comes from the Greek meaning "after."  Because proper chromosome separation requires that every kinetochore be attached to a bundle of microtubules (spindle fibres), it is thought that unattached kinetochores generate a signal to prevent premature progression to anaphase without all chromosomes being aligned. The signal creates the mitotic spindle checkpoint. Slide 13 of 10
  14. 14. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Anaphase  When every kinetochore is attached to a cluster of microtubules and the chromosomes have lined up along the metaphase plate, the cell proceeds to anaphase.  Two events then occur; First, the proteins that bind sister chromatids together are cleaved, allowing them to separate. These sister chromatids, which have now become distinct sister chromosomes, are pulled apart by shortening kinetochore microtubules and move toward the respective centrosomes to which they are attached. Next, the nonkinetochore microtubules elongate, pushing the centrosomes (and the set of chromosomes to which they are attached) apart to opposite ends of the cell. The force that causes the centrosomes to move towards the ends of the cell is still unknown, although there is a theory that suggests that the rapid assembly and breakdown of microtubules may cause this movement.  These two stages are sometimes called early and late anaphase. Early anaphase is usually defined as the separation of the sister chromatids, while late anaphase is the elongation of the microtubules and the microtubules being pulled farther apart. At the end of anaphase, the cell has succeeded in separating identical copies of the genetic material into two distinct populations. Slide 14 of 10
  15. 15. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Telophase Telophase is a reversal of prophase and prometaphase events. It "cleans up" the after effects of mitosis. At telophase, the nonkinetochore microtubules continue to lengthen, elongating the cell even more. Corresponding sister chromosomes attach at opposite ends of the cell. A new nuclear envelope, using fragments of the parent cells nuclear membrane, forms around each set of separated sister chromosomes. Both sets of chromosomes, now surrounded by new nuclei, unfold back into chromatin. Mitosis is complete, but cell division is not yet complete. Slide 15 of 10
  16. 16. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Prophase: The two round objects above the nucleus are the centrosomes. The chromatin has condensed. Slide 16 of 10
  17. 17. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Prometaphase: The nuclear membrane has degraded, and microtubules have invaded the nuclear space. These microtubules can attach to kinetochores or they can interact with opposing microtubules. Slide 17 of 10
  18. 18. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Metaphase: The chromosomes have aligned at the metaphase plate. Slide 18 of 10
  19. 19. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Early anaphase: Kinetochore microtubules shorten. Slide 19 of 10
  20. 20. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle Telophase: The decondensing chromosomes are surrounded by nuclear membranes. Note cytokinesis has already begun, the pinching is known as the cleavage furrow. Slide 20 of 10
  21. 21. CELL DIVISION1.2.1 Stages of cell cycle  Cytokinesis is often mistakenly thought to be the final part of telophase; however, cytokinesis is a separate process that begins at the same time as telophase. Cytokinesis is technically not even a phase of mitosis, but rather a separate process, necessary for completing cell division. In animal cells, a cleavage furrow (pinch) containing a contractile ring develops where the metaphase plate used to be, pinching off the separated nuclei In both animal and plant cells, cell division is also driven by vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus, which move along microtubules to the middle of the cell.In plants this structure coalesces into a cell plate at the center of the phragmoplast and develops into a cell wall, separating the two nuclei. The phragmoplast is a microtubule structure typical for higher plants, whereas some green algae use a phycoplast microtubule array during cytokinesis.Each daughter cell has a complete copy of the genome of its parent cell. The end of cytokinesis marks the end of the M-phase. Slide 21 of 10
  22. 22. CELL DIVISION1.3. Importance of mitosis  Cells divide for growth and for the replacement of old and damaged cells.  Maintenance of the choromosal set, each cell formed receives chromosomes that are alike in composition and equal in number to chromosomes of the parent cell. Slide 22 of 10
  23. 23. CELL DIVISION1.1. Definition of meiosis  In biology, meiosis is a process of reductional division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is halved. In animals, meiosis always results in the formation of gametes.  Divided : Meiosis I Meiosis II Slide 23 of 10 Topics
  24. 24. CELL DIVISION1.1.1:Definition, of meiosis I & II Slide 24 of 10 Topics
  25. 25. CELL DIVISION1.1.1:Definition, of meiosis I & II Meiosis I separates homologous chromosomes, producing two haploid cells (23 chromosomes, N in humans), so meiosis I is referred to as a reductional division. A regular diploid human cell contains 46 chromosomes and is considered 2N because it contains 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. However, after meiosis I, although the cell contains 46 chromatids it is only considered as being N, with 23 chromosomes, because later in anaphase I the sister chromatids will remain together as the spindle pulls the pair toward the pole of the new cell. In meiosis II, an equational division similar to mitosis will occur whereby the sister chromatids are finally split, creating a total of 4 haploid cells (23 chromosomes, N) per daughter cell from the first division. Slide 25 of 10
  26. 26. CELL DIVISION1.1.1:Definition, of meiosis I & IIMeiosis II is the second part of the meiotic process. Much of theprocess is similar to mitosis. The end result is production of fourhaploid cells (23 chromosomes, 1N in humans) from the twohaploid cells (23 chromosomes, 1N * each of the chromosomesconsisting of two sister chromatids) produced in meiosis I. Thefour main steps of Meiosis II are: Prophase II, Metaphase II,Anaphase II, and Telophase II. Slide 26 of 10 Topics
  27. 27. CELL DIVISION1.1.1:Definition, of meiosis I & II Slide 27 of 10
  28. 28. CELL DIVISION1.2 : Stages in cell cycle in Meiosis IProphase IHomologous chromosomes pair (or synapse) and crossing over (or recombination) occurs - a step unique to meiosis. The paired and replicated chromosomes are called bivalents or tetrads, which have two chromosomes and four chromatids, with one chromosome coming from each parent. At this stage, non-sister chromatids may cross-over at points called chiasmata (plural; singular chiasma). Slide 28 of 10 Topics
  29. 29. CELL DIVISION Slide 29 of 10
  30. 30. CELL DIVISION Interphase: Before meiosis begins, genetic material is duplicated. First division of meiosis  Prophase 1: Duplicated chromatin condenses. Each chromosome consists of two, closely associated sister chromatids. Crossing-over can occur during the latter part of this stage.  Metaphase 1: Homologous chromosomes align at the equatorial plate.  Anaphase 1: Homologous pairs separate with sister chromatids remaining together.  Telophase 1: Two daughter cells are formed with each daughter containing only one chromosome of the homologous pair.  Second division of meiosis: Gamete formation  Prophase 2: DNA does not replicate.  Metaphase 2: Chromosomes align at the equatorial plate.  Anaphase 2: Centromeres divide and sister chromatids migrate separately to each pole.  Telophase 2: Cell division is complete. Four haploid daughter cells are obtained. Slide 30 of 10
  31. 31. CELL DIVISION1.2 : Stages in cell cycle in Meiosis IMetaphase IHomologous pairs move together along the metaphase plate: As kinetochore microtubules from both centrioles attach to their respective kinetochores, the homologous chromosomes align along an equatorial plane that bisects the spindle, due to continuous counterbalancing forces exerted on the bivalents by the microtubules emanating from the two kinetochores of homologous chromosomes. The physical basis of the independent assortment of chromosomes is the random orientation of each bivalent along the metaphase plate, with respect to the orientation of the other bivalents along the same equatorial line. Slide 31 of 10 Topics
  32. 32. CELL DIVISION1.2 : Stages in cell cycle in Meiosis I Anaphase I Kinetochore microtubules shorten, severing the recombination nodules and pulling homologous chromosomes apart. Since each chromosome has only one functional unit of a pair of kinetochores, whole chromosomes are pulled toward opposing poles, forming two haploid sets. Each chromosome still contains a pair of sister chromatids. Nonkinetochore microtubules lengthen, pushing the centrioles farther apart. The cell elongates in preparation for division down the center. Slide 32 of 10
  33. 33. CELL DIVISION1.2 : Stages in cell cycle in Meiosis I Telophase I The last meiotic division effectively ends when the chromosomes arrive at the poles. Each daughter cell now has half the number of chromosomes but each chromosome consists of a pair of chromatids. The microtubules that make up the spindle network disappear, and a new nuclear membrane surrounds each haploid set. The chromosomes uncoil back into chromatin. Cytokinesis, the pinching of the cell membrane in animal cells or the formation of the cell wall in plant cells, occurs, completing the creation of two daughter cells. Sister chromatids remain attached during telophase I. Cells may enter a period of rest known as interkinesis or interphase II. No DNA replication occurs during this stage. Slide 33 of 10
  34. 34. CELL DIVISION1.3: Stages in cell cycle in Meiosis II Prophase II Takes an inversely proportional time compared to telophase I. In this prophase we see the disappearance of the nucleoli and the nuclear envelope again as well as the shortening and thickening of the chromatids. Centrioles move to the polar regions and arrange spindle fibers for the second meiotic division. Slide 34 of 10
  35. 35. CELL DIVISION1.3: Stages in cell cycle in Meiosis II Metaphase II The centromeres contain two kinetochores that attach to spindle fibers from the centrosomes (centrioles) at each pole. The new equatorial metaphase plate is rotated by 90 degrees when compared to meiosis I, perpendicular to the previous plate. Slide 35 of 10
  36. 36. CELL DIVISION1.3: Stages in cell cycle in Meiosis II Anaphase II, The centromeres are cleaved, allowing microtubules attached to the kinetochores to pull the sister chromatids apart. The sister chromatids by convention are now called sister chromosomes as they move toward opposing poles. Slide 36 of 10
  37. 37. CELL DIVISION1.3: Stages in cell cycle in Meiosis II Telophase II, Similar to telophase I, and is marked by uncoiling and lengthening of the chromosomes and the disappearance of the spindle. Nuclear envelopes reform and cleavage or cell wall formation eventually produces a total of four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes. Meiosis is now complete and ends up with four new daughter cells. Slide 37 of 10
  38. 38. CELL DIVISION1.3: Stages in cell cycle in Meiosis II  Diagram of the stages of meiosis: two stage division of a cell, producing gametes and halving the number of chromosomes in its nucleus. Prophase I: first phase of meiosis. Metaphase I: second phase of meiosis. Anaphase I: third phase of meiosis. Telophase I: fourth phase of meiosis. Prophase II: fifth phase of meiosis. Metaphase II: sixth phase of meiosis. Anaphase II: seventh phase of meiosis. Telophase II: eight phase of meiosis. Four cells: last phase of meiosis Slide 38 of 10
  39. 39. CELL DIVISION1.4 : Importance of Meiosis Slide 39 of 10
  40. 40. CELL DIVISION1.4 : Importance of Meiosis  Produces haploid gametes so that the diploid number of the species remains constant generation after generation.  Source of genetic variation because crossing over brings together new gene combinations on chromosomes. Slide 40 of 10
  41. 41. CELL DIVISION Slide 41 of 10 Topics