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  1. 1. Child Maltreatment Among Immigrant Chinese Families: Characteristics and Patterns of Placement Researchers: Siyon Rhee, Janet Chang, Dale Weaver and Danette Wong Reviewed By: Dominique Goldring Jaime Watkins Scott Wildesen Psyc 308 – October, 28 2008
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>One-fourth of the nation’s foreign-born residents in the US today are Asian. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 80% of Chinese people who currently live in the US are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>foreign-born or have at least one parent who is foreign-born. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese immigrants, like people of other ethnicities, go through psychosocial </li></ul><ul><li>problems, such as domestic violence, family breakup, parent-child conflict, </li></ul><ul><li>substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, unemployment, and discrimination, </li></ul><ul><li>contrary to misconceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a mistaken belief that Chinese Americans don’t need as much </li></ul><ul><li>governmental assistance, social services and mental health care as other </li></ul><ul><li>ethnicities in the US population. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse in Asian Americans is underrepresented in literature. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CPS agencies do not have adequate post investigation placement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decisions for immigrant Asian American child abuse victims. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The objective of this study was to examine types of child abuse in Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>immigrants and limited-English-speaking perpetrators in Los Angeles, and </li></ul><ul><li>behavioral characteristics of typical victims. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The study wanted to identify some of the variables CPS takes into </li></ul><ul><li>consideration for post investigation placement decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Lastly, it aimed to present effective child welfare practices for Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>immigrant child abuse victims and their families. </li></ul><ul><li>In a previous study by Gong (1985), showed that white Americans rated </li></ul><ul><li>vignettes depicting child physical and verbal abuse more severely than did </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Americans. Asian Americans were more focused on the child sexual </li></ul><ul><li>abuse vignettes. </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Americans also picked the least intrusive measures for intervention. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This may be because of the collectivistic attitudes of the Chinese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>culture. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Chinese Americans have different standards and definitions of child </li></ul><ul><li>maltreatment, so the newer they are to America, the less they know </li></ul><ul><li>about American standards for child maltreatment- acculturation. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asian cultures are generally more accepting of corporal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>punishment. </li></ul></ul></ul>Introduction <ul><li>Courts should look more at cultural practices and the context of the abuse </li></ul><ul><li>when studying immigrant families. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Methods Sampling: <ul><li>221 Chinese cases files maintained by the Asian Pacific unit </li></ul><ul><li>of the Los Angeles County Department Of Children and Family </li></ul><ul><li>Services. </li></ul><ul><li>Monolingual or Limited-English-speaking Chinese families </li></ul><ul><li>Reported for Abuse from July through September 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant families living in Los Angeles County </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methods Instrumentation: <ul><li>Reviewing of Case files to determine information available in the records </li></ul><ul><li>Records included referral source, emergency response status disposition </li></ul><ul><li>of the case and placement decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>A data extract form was created and consisted of four sections measuring </li></ul><ul><li>victims’ sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, perpetrator </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics, family characteristics, and CPS case activities and decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Victim Characteristics – child’s gender, age, language preference, </li></ul><ul><li>behavioral problems, type of abuse, severity and duration </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrator Characteristics – age, gender, marital status, </li></ul><ul><li>relationship to victim, language preference, education, occupation, </li></ul><ul><li>length of residence in US, and living arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Family Characteristics – special circumstances under which the abuse </li></ul><ul><li>occurred and presence of family problems such as domestic </li></ul><ul><li>violence and divorce. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Methods Data Analysis: <ul><li>Data extracted from the case files were analyzed by using </li></ul><ul><li>descriptive statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the odds of children </li></ul><ul><li>being kept in or removed from the home on selected independent variables </li></ul>
  8. 8. Results
  9. 9. Results
  10. 10. Results
  11. 11. Results
  12. 12. Discussion <ul><li>First study of its type </li></ul><ul><li>Study came to same results as Ima and Hohm </li></ul><ul><li>Overall results similar to the study done by Change and his colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>In the study 18.9% of cases were of physical abuse and 27.4% neglect </li></ul><ul><li>and 11 cases were sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. census shows Asian Americans are the second largest ethnic group </li></ul><ul><li>in California and also fastest growing minority in America </li></ul><ul><li>High Physical Abuse rates reflect </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childs expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender roles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Discussion <ul><li>Tang found 3 main types of obedience factors for role expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daughter’s obedience of father </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wife’s obedience of husband </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widows obedience of eldest son </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Only 3.9% sexual abuse cases reported compared to 6.9% </li></ul><ul><li>for non-Asian families </li></ul><ul><li> Some possibilities may be </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taboos </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No sexual interaction until marriage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Close relations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Mothers more likely to use physical abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Fathers more likely to use emotional abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mother primary care taker </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solve problems within </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The shame of loss face </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Discussion <ul><li>Residence length </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11.5 yrs. Was the average number of years the perpetrator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lived in the U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results show time does have an effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer families live in the U.S. the less severe the abuse </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Discussion <ul><li>Asian Pacific Research and Development Council found </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15.8% below poverty level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>35.8% of total population held a professional level job </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15.9% of them were perpetrators </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Perpetrators had fewer years of education than their counterparts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>74% overall has high school degree </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>55.7% had 12 or more years of schooling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10.5% overall speak English only </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32.2% speak English well </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.2% or perpetrators spoke English as first language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Discussion <ul><li>Victims </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>220 sustained victims in study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>162 in home placement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>58 out of home placement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Child Welfare systems reported in 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>35.5% in home placement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>64.5% out of home (relative or foster care) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty and Income </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influences severity and durations of abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study shows not true </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noticed family income wasn’t even recorded in cases </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Discussion <ul><li>Needs for continuing the experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish clear policies of abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help from the community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ways of solve these problems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outreach programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inform immigrant families of situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better teaching of methods to attain from abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better family systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
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