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  1. 1. The impact of culture upon child rearing practices And definitions of maltreatment Researchers: Anne M. Ferrari Reviewed By: Dominique Goldring Jaime Watkins Scott Wildesen Psyc 308 – October, 28 2008
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>This study was done to find a relationship between parents’ history of </li></ul><ul><li>childhood abuse and their cultural views played out in child rearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous studies have found that childhood neglect/abuse is most </li></ul><ul><li>predictive of a parent’s abusive behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>To study the cultural aspect of parenting, familism, machismo, and valuing </li></ul><ul><li>children were looked at. </li></ul><ul><li>This study investigated the possibility that parents who support familism </li></ul><ul><li>and have a higher value for children would be more tolerant of children and </li></ul><ul><li>less likely to physically or verbally abuse their children. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents who had strong machismo attitudes may be more likely to abuse </li></ul><ul><li>their children because it would be seen as more culturally acceptable- just </li></ul><ul><li>normal punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>It was hypothesized that a parents’ cultural views more than race/ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>would be predictive of their abuse towards children. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Methods Participants : <ul><li>75 fathers and 75 mothers, non-traditional students enrolled in evening and weekend classes at local universities and community colleges </li></ul><ul><li>The participants were volunteers who were awarded extra class credit for their participation </li></ul><ul><li>Evenly divided according to their self-defined ethnic identity; 33% of the participants were African American, 33% were Hispanic and 33% were European American. </li></ul><ul><li>Ages ranged from 19 to 60 with a mean of 34 </li></ul><ul><li>56% had completed some college, 26% were college graduates, and 16% had just completed high school </li></ul><ul><li>86% were employed and 83% were full time </li></ul>
  4. 4. Methods Participants (continued) : <ul><li>96% of the fathers were full time employed </li></ul><ul><li>79% of the mothers worked and 68% were full time </li></ul><ul><li>38% lived with their child and their spouse </li></ul><ul><li>14% lived with their child and the child’s grandparents </li></ul><ul><li>15% lived with their child and other relatives </li></ul><ul><li>19% lived with their child and their boyfriend or girlfriend </li></ul><ul><li>15% were single parents and 25% of those single parents were fathers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Methods Measures: <ul><li>Participants completed a demographic information questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variables included Machismo Scale, Familism Scale, Valuing Children Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variables included Conflict Tactics Scale, the Nurturance Scale, and the Vignettes of child maltreatment </li></ul><ul><li>The demographic questionnaire requested information about age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, living arrangements, occupational status, and highest level of education obtained </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methods Procedures: <ul><li>All participants received information about the purpose of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Participants were able to write directly in the booklet to aid administration </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions regarding the research were answered </li></ul><ul><li>Students were told that the goal of the research was to determine parental </li></ul><ul><li>values and characteristics that are associated with parenting styles and </li></ul><ul><li>techniques </li></ul><ul><li>All parents received a referral packet listing local clinics and therapists </li></ul>
  7. 7. Results
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  17. 17. Discussion <ul><li>Ingredients of ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Familism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machismo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuing children </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Predicted components of ethnicity would be associated with outcome </li></ul><ul><li>variables of parents : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of physical punishment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal punishment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing nurturance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severity rating of the abuse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural variables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No moderating effects found </li></ul>
  18. 18. Discussion <ul><li>Familism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fathers low regard familism more likely to use physical punishment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>than those who value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study could only conclude abusive behaviors occur less frequently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when fathers high familism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower frequency of nurturing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to live in a household with an extended member </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low in both possibly because the parents are not the only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>caretaker of the child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies have found co- residence grandmothers are beneficial </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Discussion <ul><li>Machismo </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More use of physical punishment by fathers but not for mothers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical abuse had a strong effect but not as strong as familism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for lack of affection by Latin fathers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negatively correlated with nurturance in Hispanic families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Valuing children </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fathers who valued children more used more verbal punishment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly see verbal punishment as innocuous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t know how fathers perceive verbal punishment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fathers perceive verbal mistreatment less serious than mothers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Discussion <ul><li>Integration Transmission of Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictor for mothers verbal and physical punishment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fathers who were abused are less likely to abuse child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fathers spend less time with child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Differences and Similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giovannoni and Becerra’s sample </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American and Hispanic didn’t differ but European did </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European parents were more tolerant of parental behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fathers perceive verbal mistreatment less serious than mothers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Discussion <ul><li>Differ in Nurturing behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American parents more nurturing than Hispanic but didn’t </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>differ from European American </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American parents used more physical discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American mothers used more physical and verbal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> punishments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American parents tend to be authoritarian </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Discussion <ul><li>Deater-Deckard study found harsh discipline more prevalent among </li></ul><ul><li>African American parents than European </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t cause the aggression as it did in European children </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American parents are also high in nurturing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study found African American males who were disciplined </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>well were likely to succeed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>European Americans less physical than African American parents and </li></ul><ul><li>less verbal than Hispanic parents </li></ul><ul><li>European Americans not any less tolerant of abuse and neglect behaviors </li></ul>
  23. 23. Discussion <ul><li>Parenting behaviors are individualistic </li></ul><ul><li>Finding indicate both ethnicity and gender are complex factors may exert </li></ul><ul><li>a direct influence upon parenting styles and definitions of maltreatment </li></ul><ul><li>Future research should continue attitudinal and behavioral components </li></ul><ul><li>Should address factors that buffer the effects of previous abuse for fathers </li></ul><ul><li>and attempt to discover what factors can buffer effect of maltreatment </li></ul><ul><li>for mothers. </li></ul>
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