Up From Slavery • Booker T. Washington was born a slave in 1856. • Because of his family’s poverty, he was forced to start working at the age of 9, first in a salt furnace then in a coal mine.
Up From Slavery• Realizing the importance of education, he went to the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia in 1872.• In order to pay for it, he worked as a janitor.
Up From Slavery• In 1881, he was called upon to be the leader of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama and turned it into a successful institution.
Up From Slavery• He believed that the interests of African Americans could be best served by learning craft and industrial skills
Up From Slavery• He thought that they should put aside their goal to win full civil rights and political power in order to achieve economic security with industrial and farming skills.
Up From Slavery• So, temporarily, African Americans would accept segregation and discrimination, believing that their achieving wealth would win them the respect and admiration of whites.
Up From Slavery• In 1895, he laid out his plan in his Atlanta Exposition Speech, later called the “Atlanta Compromise” by his critics.
Up From Slavery• In 1901, he published his autobiography, Up From Slavery, in which discussed the importance of learning a trade, as well as proper manners and hygiene, if African Americans were ever going to be accepted by whites.
Read speech and find examples of Washington’s ideas.
Souls of Black Folks • W.E.B. DuBois was born in 1868 and raised in Massachusetts. • He graduated early from Fisk University (one of the schools set up under the Freedman’s Bureau) , finishing his degree work in 1888.
Souls of Black Folks• In 1895, he became the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University in History.
Souls of Black Folks• He wanted to believe that whites would end segregation based on social science, but soon realized that they only way to end it was through agitation.
Souls of Black Folks• He challenged Booker T. Washington’s ideas (calling his speech the “Atlanta Compromise”) and argued in his book The Souls of Black Folks that Washington’s plan kept African Americans down.
Souls of Black Folks• In 1905, he began the Niagara Movement, which advocated for civil rights for African Americans.
Souls of Black Folks• While this failed, it became the first step in forming the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.) in 1909.
Souls of Black Folks• He advocated for further education to improve the leadership abilities of the most able 10% of the African Americans, called “the talented tenth.”
Souls of Black Folks• In the 1930s, during a fight with the leadership of the N.A.A.C.P., he began to advocate for “voluntary segregation,” believing that African American children would learn better from African American teachers.
Read Declaration of Principles and find examples of DuBois’ ideas.