unit2

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Reviews main topics of unit 2 with MC and jeapordy-style vocab questions

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  • unit2

    1. 1. Unit 2 Metabolism & Cells
    2. 2. <ul><li>Which of the following functional groups gives ATP a replenishable form of energy? </li></ul><ul><li>-SH </li></ul><ul><li>-COH </li></ul><ul><li>-COOH </li></ul><ul><li>-PO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>-NH 2 </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>A feature of organic compounds NOT found in inorganic compounds is </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>a. ionizing chemical groups </li></ul><ul><li>b. electrons </li></ul><ul><li>c. carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other </li></ul><ul><li>d. oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>e. hydrogen bonds </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Which of the following two membranes are analogous? </li></ul><ul><li>a. inner mitochondrial membrane </li></ul><ul><li>b. outer mitochondrial membrane </li></ul><ul><li>c. cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>d. thylakoid membrane </li></ul><ul><li>e. inner chloroplast membrane </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Which of the following would classify as an example of anabolism? </li></ul><ul><li>a. the digestion of starch molecules in the intestine </li></ul><ul><li>b. a reaction involving hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>c. protein synthesis (mRNA translation) </li></ul><ul><li>d. cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>e. shortening of microtubules during mitosis </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>The direct purpose of fermentation is </li></ul><ul><li>a. breakdown sugar </li></ul><ul><li>b. restore electron acceptor NAD + </li></ul><ul><li>c. respire in a lack of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>d. makeup for not having mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>e. produce alcohol or lactic acid </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Put the following actions in order as they occur in the process of </li></ul><ul><li>chemiosmosis. Hint: one process is not involved at all - throw it out. </li></ul><ul><li>a. phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>b. reduction/oxidation of ETC proteins </li></ul><ul><li>c. facilitated diffusion of H + </li></ul><ul><li>d. condensation (formation of water) </li></ul><ul><li>e. active transport of H + </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Which organelle is structurally most similar to the Golgi complex? </li></ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>mitochondrion </li></ul><ul><li>cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>lysosome </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>What effect would boiling a chloroplast have on photosynthesis? </li></ul><ul><li>light reactions would occur but Calvin cycle would be disrupted </li></ul><ul><li>reduction of DPIP would be inhibited </li></ul><ul><li>sugar would be formed but not exported from chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>all light would be reflected by reaction centers </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain would be disrupted </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>A drug is formed which inhibits the polymerization of tubulin, the protein subunits that make up microtubules. At what stage would mitosis be affected by this? </li></ul><ul><li>prophase </li></ul><ul><li>metaphase </li></ul><ul><li>anaphase </li></ul><ul><li>telophase </li></ul><ul><li>interphase </li></ul>
    11. 11. BIOCHEMISTRY
    12. 12. Big ideas <ul><li>the whole body is made of cells or the substances cells have made </li></ul><ul><li>cells make 4 substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>metabolism is the sum of all chem rxns going on in the body at once </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>THE BOND THAT JOINS AMINO ACIDS TOGETHER </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>A SMALL INORGANIC SUBSTANCE THAT BINDS ENZYMES, ALLOWING THEM TO FULLY FUNCTION </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>WHEN AN ENZYME CAN DO NO MORE BECAUSE EVERY ENZYME MOLECULE IS CATALYZING A REACTION </li></ul>
    16. 16. DIFFUSION
    17. 17. Big ideas <ul><li>all substances tend to even out </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion is spreading to even out </li></ul><ul><li>membranes create two environments; inside cell & outside </li></ul><ul><li>solutes follow a concentration gradient </li></ul><ul><li>passive vs. active transport </li></ul>
    18. 21. <ul><li>Which of the following processes is coupled with hydrolysis of ATP? </li></ul><ul><li>osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>facilitated diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>sodium ion flow into a nerve cell </li></ul><ul><li>active transport </li></ul>
    19. 22. METABOLISM
    20. 23. Big ideas <ul><li>a single cell can perform all the necessary functions of life </li></ul><ul><li>of all processes, supplying energy to body is most critical </li></ul><ul><li>cells use energy </li></ul>building compounds uses up energy energy released by breaking bonds (hydrolysis) energy stored in bonds of compounds
    21. 24. Big ideas <ul><li>photosynthesis and respiration are complementary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>products of one are reactants of other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at ecosystem level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>structural and chemical similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chemiosmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>membranes divide space </li></ul></ul>
    22. 25. <ul><li>Meiosis </li></ul>
    23. 28. <ul><li>Energy Flows </li></ul><ul><li>Matter recycles </li></ul>
    24. 29. <ul><li>ADP > ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme- </li></ul><ul><li>catalyzed </li></ul>
    25. 31. <ul><li>ETC </li></ul>
    26. 32. <ul><li>ETC (Chemiosmosis) </li></ul>
    27. 33. <ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul>
    28. 34. <ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul>
    29. 35. Light reactions
    30. 36. <ul><li>All of the following statements about cellular respiration are true EXCEPT: </li></ul><ul><li>In the Kreb’s (citric acid) cycle, two molecules of CO2 and one molecule of FADH2 are produced for each acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>ATP is converted to ADP during two of the reactions in glycolysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The metabolic breakdown of glucose yields more energy during fermentation than during aerobic respiration. </li></ul>
    31. 37. <ul><li>DPIP is a blue dye that is colorless when it is reduced. After being mixed with DPIP, which of the following would show the greatest change in color? </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated chloroplasts in the dark </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated chloroplasts in the light </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll extract in the light </li></ul><ul><li>Boiled chloroplasts in the dark </li></ul>
    32. 38. <ul><li>A CELL WITH MEMBRANE-ENCLOSED ORGANELLES </li></ul>
    33. 39. <ul><li>THE ENZYME THAT BINDS CARBON IN CHLOROPLASTS </li></ul>
    34. 40. <ul><li>THE INNER FOLDINGS OF A MITOCHONDRION </li></ul>
    35. 41. <ul><li>“ POISON CONTROL CENTER” OF A LIVER CELL </li></ul>
    36. 42. <ul><li>THE “POWERHOUSE” OF THE CELL </li></ul>
    37. 43. <ul><li>THE ONLY ORGANELLE SHARED BY BOTH PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES </li></ul>
    38. 44. CELL DIVISION
    39. 45. Big ideas <ul><li>cell division accomplishes growth & reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>eukaryotes must split nucleus, move chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>division prefaced by DNA replication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identical copies of every chromosome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mitosis = identical daughter cells (clones) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>start with 2n, end with 2n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start with n, end with n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asexual reproduction </li></ul></ul>
    40. 46. Big ideas <ul><li>Meiosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduction division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>daughter cells unique (genetically) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start with 2n, end with n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only for sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul>
    41. 50. Meiosis <ul><li>Reduction of chromosome # </li></ul><ul><li>2 divisions </li></ul><ul><li>No replication in between </li></ul>
    42. 51. Major accomplishments: M1 <ul><li>reduce chromosome number (2n n) </li></ul><ul><li>separate homologous chromosome pairs </li></ul><ul><li>one of each type of chromosome (from homologous pairs) directed into each daughter cell </li></ul><ul><li>crossing over </li></ul>
    43. 52. Meiosis 1
    44. 53. Major accomplishments: M2 <ul><li>separate sister chromatids </li></ul><ul><li>increase gametic output (2 to 4) </li></ul><ul><li>separate crossed-over chromatids </li></ul>
    45. 54. Independent Assortment
    46. 55. <ul><li>Crossing Over </li></ul>
    47. 56. <ul><li>All of the following are true statements about meiosis in fungi EXCEPT: </li></ul><ul><li>It follows DNA replication. </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs only in reproductive structures. </li></ul><ul><li>It produces four genetically identical gametes. </li></ul><ul><li>It serves to provide variation in fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>It produces haploid cells. </li></ul>
    48. 57. <ul><li>IN MITOSIS, WHEN HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES SEPARATE </li></ul>
    49. 58. <ul><li>FROM THE GREEK WORD FOR “MARRY”, A CELL WITH THIS MANY CHROMOSOMES IS ONLY ENOUGH TO MAKE HALF A HUMAN </li></ul>
    50. 59. <ul><li>THE “HARNESS” THAT PULLS A CHROMOSOME DOWN A MICROTUBULE DURING MITOSIS </li></ul>
    51. 60. <ul><li>IN LATIN, IT MEANS “CELL CUTTING” </li></ul>
    52. 61. <ul><li>THE MEIOTIC PHASE SEX CELLS ARE FIRST CONSIDERED HAPLOID </li></ul>
    53. 62. <ul><li>BAT SPERM HAS 22 CHROMOSOMES. IT’S INTESTINAL CELLS HAVE THIS MANY. </li></ul>
    54. 63. <ul><li>ARMADILLO BONE MARROW CELLS HAVE 64 CHROMOSOMES. FEMALE EGGS HAVE THIS MANY. </li></ul>
    55. 64. <ul><li>RASPBERRY POLLEN CONTAINS 49 CHROMOSOMES. THE FRUIT CELLS YOU EAT GIVE YOU THIS MANY CHROMOSOMES. </li></ul>
    56. 65. CELL COMMUNICATION
    57. 66. Signal Transduction Pathway
    58. 67. Transduction
    59. 68. Transduction <ul><li>signal amplified </li></ul><ul><li>ea. protein activates 10 others </li></ul><ul><li>signal gets “louder” exponentially </li></ul>
    60. 69. Response <ul><li>genes turn on </li></ul><ul><li>make a product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sweat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>product released from cell </li></ul>
    61. 70. Response <ul><li>depends on receptor activated </li></ul><ul><li>SHAPE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>signal molecule > receptor </li></ul></ul>
    62. 71. <ul><li>The process by which a chemical signal is received and responded to by a cell is called the: </li></ul><ul><li>cell signaling cycle </li></ul><ul><li>signal transduction pathway </li></ul><ul><li>telokinesis </li></ul><ul><li>telophase </li></ul><ul><li>interleukinetic chain transmission </li></ul>
    63. 72. <ul><li>Whether a particular signal molecule will trigger a response in a cell depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>the shape of the receptors on the cell’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>genetic compatibility with the signal molecule </li></ul><ul><li>temperature of the cell’s environment </li></ul><ul><li>ion concentration of the cell’s cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>whether the cell likes the signal molecule </li></ul>

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