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Biology review


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Biology review

  1. 1. MCAS Review2012
  2. 2. Chemistry of Life
  3. 3. Define OrganicCompounds that contain carbonatoms that are covalently bonded toother elements, typicallyhydrogen, oxygen, and other carbonatoms C-H-O
  4. 4. All living things are made up of 6essential elements: SPONCHName the 6 elements of life: Sulfur Phosphorus Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon Hydrogen
  5. 5. Elements join together bychemical bonds to formcompounds. Name the 3 types ofchemical bonds Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Hydrogen Bonds
  6. 6. There are 4 major categories oforganic molecules that are madeup of the SPONCH elements. Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids
  7. 7. LipidsElements: Carbon, Hydrogen, OxygenStructure: 3 fatty acid chains linked by a glycerol backboneFunction: Building blocks of the cell membrane, energy storing moleculesExamples: Steroids like cholesterol & fats
  8. 8. CarbohydratesElements: Carbon, Hydrogen, OxygenStructure: Monosaccharides bonded together in long chains (poly)Function: Key source of energy!Examples: Sugar and starch
  9. 9. ProteinsElements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, & NitrogenStructure: Amino acids bonded in long chains that coil around each other into specific shapesFunction: Enzymes (speed up reactions), structural (hair, muscle, skin, etc), antibodies (protect body)Examples: Enzymes, collagen, antibodies
  10. 10. Nucleic AcidsElements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitr ogen & PhosphorusStructure: Long chain of nucleotides bonded togetherFunction: DNA (store genetic info), and RNA (aid in building proteins)Examples: DNA, RNA
  11. 11. Define Chemical Reaction: The process during which chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed, producing one or more different substances AB + CD AC +BD
  12. 12. Write an example of a chemicalreaction and label the reactantsand products: NaCl Na+ + Cl- Reactant Products
  13. 13. Define Activation Energy The energy needed to start a chemical reaction
  14. 14. Define Enzyme: Proteins that increase the speed of a chemical reaction
  15. 15. Any factors that affect the shapeof an enzyme affect the enzyme’sactivity. What effect does pH and temperature have on an enzyme’s function? pH and temp must be within an optimal range for an enzyme to do its job If pH and/or temp are not in the proper range then the enzyme may change shape or become inactive
  16. 16. Cell Biology
  17. 17. Draw a Plant Cell
  18. 18. Draw an Animal Cell
  19. 19. Complete the Table:Cell Part Function (job) Plant/Animal/ BothPlasma Encloses the cell & separates BothMembrane the cytoplasm from its surroundings, regulates what enters & leaves the cellNuclear Separates the nucleus from BothEnvelope the cytoplasmNucleus Stores DNA and makes mRNA BothNucleolus Located inside the nucleus, Both mRNA is made here
  20. 20. Complete the Table:Cell Part Function (job) Plant/Animal/ BothCytoplasm Interior part of the cell made Both up of fluid that cushions all organellesMitochondria Provide energy to the cell BothEndoplasmic Process & modify proteins Bothreticulum that were made in the nucleolusGolgi Package proteins into vesicles Bothapparatus for export throughout the cell
  21. 21. Complete the Table:Cell Part Function (job) Plant/Animal/ BothLysosome Contain digestive enzymes to Both clean up the cellRibosome Aid in protein synthesis BothVacuole Help digestion of materials, Plant store nutrients & keep cell pressureCell Wall Support & maintain shape, Plant protect cell from damage, connect to nearby cells
  22. 22. Complete the Table:Cell Part Function (job) Plant/Animal/ BothChloroplast Use light energy to make Plant food (carbohydrates) through photosynthesisCytoskeleton Help to maintain cell shape & Both aids in movement of materials in the cellCentriole Help the formation of the Animal spindle to move chromosomes during mitosis
  23. 23. Prokaryote vs. EukaryoteProkaryote Eukaryote  True nucleus No nucleus  Organelles No organelles  Reproduce either Reproduce asexually sexually or asexually Small  Larger Example: bacteria  Example: plant, animal, protist, fungi cells
  24. 24. Draw the structure of the cell membrane: What is it called? Phospholipid bilayerImage source:
  25. 25. Diffusion, Osmosis, & Facilitated Diffusion Diffusion – Passive transport across a membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration (downstream) **Does not require energy Osmosis – Diffusion of Water **Does not require energy Facilitated Diffusion - Passive transport across a membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration that requires carrier proteins **Does not require energy
  26. 26. What are the 6 Kingdoms of Life? Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plants Animals
  27. 27. Identify the formulas: Photosynthesis 6H20 + 6CO2 -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6H20 + 6CO2 + energy
  28. 28. Define Photosynthesis The process that captures the sunlight’s energy in the chloroplast of plant cells and converts it to glucose (sugar), the food for life
  29. 29. Define Cellular Respiration The process that breaks down glucose to make energy for the cells to use
  30. 30. How are Photosynthesis &Cellular Respiration related? They are opposites! One makes sugar (photosynthesis) One breaks sugar (respiration)
  31. 31. Humans need oxygen to be ableto perform cellular respirationand gain ATP energy. What would happen to the oxygen levels on Earth if photosynthesis stopped? Oxygen
  32. 32. What happens when a phosphategroup is removed from ATP? Energy is released for the cell to use!
  33. 33. Compare the energy levels ofATP, ADP, and AMP to the energylevels of a battery ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is like a fully charged battery with 3 phosphates ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) is like a partially charged battery with 2 phosphates AMP (Adenosine Monophosphate) is like a dead battery with only 1 phosphate
  34. 34. Draw and label the phases of thecell cycle:What is the functionof the cell cycle? To successfully make new cells for growth of the organisms or replacement of dead or damaged cells
  35. 35. Compare and contrast mitosisand meiosis
  36. 36. Describe fertilization usinghaploid, gamete, diploid, andzygote
  37. 37. Genetics
  38. 38. What is DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid The material that stores the information that determines an organism’s characteristics (traits)
  39. 39. Draw and Label a Nucleotide
  40. 40. How do nucleotides form thestructure of DNA? Nucleotides link together to form a chain Corresponding nucleotides match- up according to the base-pairing rules to form the second chain
  41. 41. Draw a molecule of DNA Hydrogen bondsSugar/PhosphatebackboneNucleotide Nitrogen bases
  42. 42. What is a double helix? 2 strands of nucleotides attached by hydrogen bonds in the middle and twisted together
  43. 43. Base-pairing Rules: Adenine – Thymine Guanine - Cytosine
  44. 44. What is the relationship betweenGene and DNA? Genes are sections of DNA that code for proteins The rest of the DNA codes for nothing!
  45. 45. 3 Steps of DNA Replication:1. DNA helicase unwinds the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds, forming the replication fork2. DNA polymerase adds complementary nucleotides to the separated DNA strands3. DNA polymerase continues until it reaches the end of the molecule, forming 2 identical DNA molecules
  46. 46. Gene expression is the process of turning the genes in the DNA into a phenotype that can be seenDraw and labelthe 2 phases ofgeneexpression, and where theyhappen in thecell
  47. 47. End Products Replication Transcription TranslationStart DNA DNA RNAEnd DNA RNA Protein
  48. 48. Types of DNA Mutations:
  49. 49. What will happen if there is amutation in a gamete? Gametes are egg and sperm cells A mutation would result in a genetic disorder or failure to fertilize (no zygote)
  50. 50. Two parents are heterozygous forbrown eyes Bb x Bb B b Genotype Ratio:B BB Bb 1BB:2Bb:1bbb Bb bb Phenotype Ratio: 3 Brown:1 Blue What Percent of the Offspring have Blue Eyes? 25%
  51. 51. Why do men experience male-pattern baldness more thanwomen? The trait is sex-linked Men only have one X chromosome, so whatever allele they get for hair, whether it is the dominant normal or the recessive allele that causes baldness, it will show. Men have XY and women have XX
  52. 52. Using Mendel’s laws ofsegregation and independentassortment, explain why not alltall people have brown hair. The law of segregation says that during meiosis the alleles separate independently during Metaphase II of meiosis The law of independent assortment says that homologous chromosomes separate independently during Metaphase I of meiosis The two traits are chosen randomly
  53. 53. Describe an example for each ofthe following:Codominance – Polygenic traits - Both forms of the trait are Several genes control one displayed – dalmation dog trait – skin color or hair with black spots colorIncomplete dominance – Multiple alleles -Neither allele for the trait More than 2 alleles for oneis dominant – white flower trait – Blood typesX red flower = pink! A, B, AB, O
  54. 54. Anatomy & Physiology
  55. 55. Describe the 4 levels of structuralorganization in the human body Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems
  56. 56. Digestive SystemFunction Path of Food (all Important major organs) Digestive EnzymesBreaks down and Mouth – pharynx – Amylase – inabsorbs nutrients epiglottis – saliva, breaksfrom food; Esophagus – down sugarremoves waste; stomach – smallmaintains water intestine – large Pepsin – inbalance intestine – rectum stomach, breaks – anus down protein Lipase – in pancreas, breaks down fat
  57. 57. Circulatory System Function Path of Blood (all major organs) Transports nutrients, Capillary drops off wastes, hormones, and nutrients to cell & picks up gases waste – venule – vein – right atrium – right ventricle – pulmonary artery – capillaries (lungs) – pulmonary vein – left atrium – right atrium – aorta – artery – arteriole - capillary
  58. 58. Excretory System Function of Kidneys Function of Liver Regulate the amount of Secretes bile which helps water and salts in the break down fats and blood absorb vitamins; regulates sugar levels in blood
  59. 59. Respiratory System Function Path of oxygen/carbon dioxide (all major organs) Move air into and out of Mouth/nose – pharynx – lungs; controls gas epiglottis – larynx – exchange between blood trachea – bronchi – and lungs bronchioles – alveoli – bronchioles – bronchi – trachea – larynx – epiglottis – pharynx – mouth/nose
  60. 60. Nervous SystemFunction Basic Unit – The Major Neuron (How it Components Works)Regulates Neuron is made up Peripheral NS –behavior; of dendrites that sensory & motormaintains receive an neuronshomeostasis; electrical signalregulates other which is then Central NS – brainorgan systems; carried to the cell & spinal chordcontrols sensory body which is thenand motor carried through thefunctions axon and is then passed on to the next neurons dendrites
  61. 61. Muscular/Skeletal System Function of Muscles 2 functions of bones Help in movement of Provide shape and support bones; contraction of heart to the body and other organs Produce blood cells and platelets in the marrow of the bone
  62. 62. 3 types of muscle tissue Skeletal – muscles that move bones Smooth – involuntarily controlled; the muscles that cause the stomach to contract Cardiac – involuntarily controlled; is the muscle that makes up the heart
  63. 63. 2 Types of Connective Tissue Ligament – attaches bone to bone Tendon – attaches muscle to bone
  64. 64. Define homeostasis The process of maintaining internal stability within an organism
  65. 65. Explain how body temp ismaintained When it is cold out, the sensory neurons (nervous system) send a signal to the spinal cord then the brain The brain interprets the signal and sends a message to the motor neurons The motor neurons trigger the muscles in your body to contract/relax over and over, which causes the bones to move This increases warmth in the body The heart also beats faster sending warm blood more quickly throughout the body to increase warmth
  66. 66. Evolution & Biodiversity
  67. 67. What is Evolution by NaturalSelection? Evolution is the change of a species over time This happens due to some kind of change in the environment of an organism. It must adapt or die If there is a mutation or trait that is advantageous, it will be selected for (natural selection) Organisms with the advantageous trait are picked as mates and reproduce more successfully, passing on the good genes Over time, the build-up of differences is called evolution
  68. 68. Example:
  69. 69. Evidence for EvolutionFossil Comparative Anatomy Genetic &Record Homologous Vestigial molecular Structures Structures similaritiesBones from The forearm Whale used Gorilla andLucy show a of penguin, to be a 4- human haverelationship human, legged an almostbetween apes lizard, and animal on identicaland humans bats all have land and then hemoglobin the same moved into protein in the bones the sea and blood evolved so that the pelvis and legs have lost their function
  70. 70. Speciation Mutation – elephant with NO tusks Reproductive Isolation – does not get hunted by poachers and lives freely Natural Selection – live longer since they are not hunted and are selected by other elephants Divergence – over time if populations stay separated they may continually adapt and develop more and more genetic differences New Species – if the 2 populations become so genetically different that they no longer breed successfully, they are considered 2 species
  71. 71. Define Species: The basic classification of living things
  72. 72. What characteristics areorganisms classified (or grouped)by? Form and structure Behavior Molecular similarities
  73. 73. 8 Levels of Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
  74. 74. Binomial Nomenclature Rules: The first word is the Genus name and is capitalized The second word is the species and is lowercase Humans = Homo sapiens
  75. 75. Define Biodiversity The variety of organisms, their genetic differences, and the communities and ecosystems in which they occur
  76. 76. How does evolution affectbiodiversity? Evolution by natural selection offers a means by which organisms can become more and more different over time to a point where they become new species. Every living thing experiences evolution at some speed The large biodiversity of life on Earth can be attributed to the process of evolution
  77. 77. Ecology
  78. 78. What is Ecology? The study of interaction of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment
  79. 79. What are the components of anecosystem? Biotic factors (living) – plants, animals, bacteria, fungi Abiotic factors (non-living) – soil, water, weather, climate
  80. 80. Define Community All the living things in one ecosystem
  81. 81. Flow of energy Energy begins with the producers who take the sun’s energy and turn it into food Primary consumers (herbivores) obtain their energy by eating the producers Energy moves to the secondary consumers (omnivores/carnivores) who obtain their energy by eating the herbivores Lastly, when all organisms die, decomposers obtain their energy and recycle it back into the ecosystem
  82. 82. What does a food chain show? The path of energy flow in a specific ecosystem Grass -> Rabbit -> Fox -> Wolf
  83. 83. How do food chains relate to foodwebs? A food web is made up of many interconnected food chains
  84. 84. Why are energy pyramids usuallyno more than 4 trophic levels? As you go up the trophic levels in an energy pyramid, energy is lost as heat from the organisms that are not eaten (die) Once you reach the top there is very little energy available
  85. 85. Decomposers Decomposers belong anywhere outside the pyramid. This is because of their niche. Decomposers niche in an ecosystem is to obtain energy from any dead organism and then to recycle the nutrients back into the ecosystem
  86. 86. Water Cycle Water starts in the nonliving as vapor in the atmosphere (clouds) then falls as rain, goes into soil, is taken up by the roots of plants (now part of the living) and then transpired back into the atmosphere
  87. 87. Carbon Cycle Carbon in form of carbon dioxide (CO2)Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Carbon in form of food and living things
  88. 88. Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen in the non-usable form of nitrogen gasDenitrifying Nitrogen-fixing bacteria bacteria Nitrogen in the usable form of nitrates and ammonia
  89. 89. Biological CommunitiesCommensalism CompetitionInteraction between 2 When 2 organisms use theorganisms where 1 benefits same resources and there isand the other is neither a struggle to obtain thehelped nor harmed resourcesParasitism MutualismInteraction between 2 Interaction between 2organisms where 1 benefits organisms where bothand the other is harmed benefit Predator/PreyInteraction between 2 organisms where the predator needsto hunt and kill the prey for food/energy in order to survive
  90. 90. Define Population A group of organisms of the same species living in one area
  91. 91. Factors that affect population sizeand biodiversity: Climate change Loss of resources Changes in symbiotic relationships Pollution due to human activity
  92. 92. Good Luck on the MCAS Biology Exam! You can do it!