Tour of the Cell 1 2007-2008
Types of cells Prokaryote bacteria cells Eukaryote animal cells - no organelles - organelles Eukaryote plant cells
Why organelles? <ul><li>Specialized structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specialized functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Cells gotta work to live!  <ul><li>What jobs do cells have to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Building Proteins 2007-2008
Proteins do all the work!  cells DNA proteins organism Repeat after me… Proteins do all the work!
Cells functions  <ul><li>Building proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>read DNA instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build pr...
Building Proteins <ul><li>Organelles involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes </li></ul...
<ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protects  DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nuclear envelo...
production of mRNA from DNA in nucleus mRNA travels from nucleus to ribosome in cytoplasm through nuclear pore 1 2 DNA Nuc...
 
Nucleolus <ul><li>Function   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosome production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>build ribosome subun...
Ribosomes  <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protein production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Types of Ribosomes <ul><li>Free   ribosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suspended in cytosol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesi...
Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Function  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processes proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manufactures m...
Types of ER rough smooth
Smooth ER function <ul><li>Membrane production </li></ul><ul><li>Many metabolic processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesis ...
Membrane Factory <ul><li>Build new membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesize phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Rough ER function <ul><li>Produce proteins for export out of cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protein  secreting  cells </li></u...
Synthesizing proteins ribosome cytoplasm cisternal space mRNA ribosome membrane of endoplasmic reticulum polypeptide signa...
Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>finishes, sorts, tags & ships cell products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Golgi Apparatus
Vesicle transport vesicle budding from rough ER  fusion of vesicle with Golgi apparatus migrating transport vesicle protei...
DNA RNA ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Golgi  apparatus vesicle protein on its way! protein finished protein Maki...
Making proteins Putting it together… proteins transport vesicle Golgi apparatus vesicle smooth ER rough ER nuclear pore nu...
 
 
Making Energy 2007-2008 ATP
Cells need power!  <ul><li>Making energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>take in food & digest it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take in...
Lysosomes <ul><li>Function  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little “stomach” of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digests macr...
Lysosomes  white blood cells attack & destroy invaders = digest them in lysosomes 1974 Nobel prize: Christian de Duve Lyso...
Cellular digestion <ul><li>Lysosomes fuse with food vacuoles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polymers  digested into  monomers  </li...
Lysosomal enzymes  <ul><li>Lysosomal enzymes work best at pH 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organelle creates custom pH </li></ul...
When things go bad…  <ul><li>Diseases of lysosomes are often fatal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzyme not working in l...
Lysosomal storage diseases <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaucher’s disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Niemann-Pick ...
But sometimes cells need to die… <ul><li>Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed </li><...
Fetal development 15 weeks 6 weeks syndactyly
Apoptosis <ul><li>programmed destruction of cells in multi-cellular organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>programmed development...
Making Energy <ul><li>Cells must convert incoming energy to forms that they can use for work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mitocho...
Mitochondria & Chloroplasts <ul><li>Important to see the similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transform energy </li></ul></u...
Mitochondria <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP  </li></u...
Mitochondria <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smooth outer membrane  </l...
Mitochondria
Membrane-bound Enzymes glucose + oxygen    carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  + + +
Dividing Mitochondria Who else divides like that? What does this tell us about the evolution of eukaryotes?
Mitochondria <ul><li>Almost all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there may be 1 very large mitocho...
Mitochondria are everywhere!! animal cells plant cells
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Chloroplasts are  plant  organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>class of plant structures =  plastids </li>...
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stroma  = internal fluid-fille...
Membrane-bound Enzymes + water + energy    glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  ...
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>photosynthesis   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP & synthesize ...
Chloroplasts  <ul><li>Why are chloroplasts green? </li></ul>
 
Mitochondria & chloroplasts are different <ul><li>Organelles not part of  endomembrane  system </li></ul><ul><li>Grow & re...
Endosymbiosis theory <ul><li>Mitochondria & chloroplasts were once free living bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engulfed by ...
Endosymbiosis theory Evolution of eukaryotes
Compare the equations Photosynthesis Respiration glucose  +  oxygen    carbon  +  water  +  energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6...
The Great ENERGY Circle of Life sun ATP Photosynthesis Respiration O 2 glucose sugar CO 2 H 2 O + + plants animals & plant...
Food & water storage plant cells central vacuole  contractile vacuole  food vacuoles  animal cells
Vacuoles & vesicles <ul><li>Function  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little “transfer ships” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food va...
Vacuoles in plants <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stockpiling proteins or ...
Peroxisomes <ul><li>Other digestive enzyme sacs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in both animals & plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Making New Cells 2007-2008
Cytoskeleton  <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structural support   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maintains shape o...
Cytoskeleton  <ul><li>actin </li></ul><ul><li>microtubule </li></ul><ul><li>nuclei </li></ul>
Centrioles  <ul><li>Cell division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in animal cells, pair of  centrioles   organize  microtubules </li...
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Tour of the_cell(chpt6)

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Tour of the Cell Chapter 6

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  • Why organelles? There are several reasons why cells evolved organelles. First, organelles can perform specialized functions. Second, membrane bound organelles can act as containers, separating parts of the cell from other parts of the cell. Third, the membranes of organelles can act as sites for chemical reactions. Organelles as specialized structures An example of the first type of organelle is cilia, these short filaments act as &amp;quot;paddles&amp;quot; to help some cells move. Organelles as Containers Nothing ever invented by man is as complex as a living cell. At any one time hundreds of incompatible chemical reactions may be occurring in a cell. If the cell contained a uniform mixture of all the chemicals it would not be able to survive. Organelles surrounded by membranes act as individual compartments for these chemical reactions. An example of the second type of organelle is the lysosome. This structure contains digestive enzymes, these enzymes if allowed to float free in the cell would kill it. Organelle membranes as sites for chemical reactions An example of the third type of organelle is the chloroplast. The molecules that conduct the light reactions of photosynthesis are found embedded in the membranes of the chloroplast.
  • The genes for rRNA have the greatest commonality among all living things. There is very little difference in the DNA sequence of the rRNA genes in a humans vs. a bacteria. Means that this function (building of a ribosome) is so integral to life that every cell does it almost exactly the same way. Change a base and this changes the structure of the RNA which causes it to not function.
  • accounts for 50% membranes in eukaryotic cell
  • Which cells have a lot of ER? protein production cells like pancreas = production of digestive enzymes (rough endoplasmic reticulum from a cell of exocrine pancreas (88000X))
  • Cells specialized for secretion? endocrine glands: produce hormones pituitary, pancreas, adrenal, testes, ovaries exocrine glands: produce digestive enzymes &amp; other products pancreas, mammary glands, sweat glands
  • lysosomes create a space where cell can digest macromolecules safely rupturing a few lysosomes has little impact on a cell (pH of cytosol affects functionality of the lysosomal enzymes), but massive leakage from lysosomes can destroy cell why evolve digestive enzymes which function at pH so different from cytosol? digestive enzymes won’t function well if leak into cytosol = most times don’t want to digest yourself! low pH = acid environment cause oxidation (removing electrons) &amp; promotes hydrolysis
  • Feedback mechanism There are sensors in the cell that monitor growth. They trigger self-destruct when they sense processes. Brown spots on leaves too. Virus infected plant cell auto-destructs and even cells around it to wall off virus.
  • Feedback mechanism There are sensors in the cell that monitor growth. They trigger self-destruct when they sense processes gone awry. Brown spots on leaves too. Virus infected plant cell auto-destructs and even kills cells around it to wall off virus.
  • Lynn Margulis From hypothesis to theory! Paradigm shifting ideas in evolutionary biology.
  • Tour of the_cell(chpt6)

    1. 1. Tour of the Cell 1 2007-2008
    2. 2. Types of cells Prokaryote bacteria cells Eukaryote animal cells - no organelles - organelles Eukaryote plant cells
    3. 3. Why organelles? <ul><li>Specialized structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specialized functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cilia or flagella for locomotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Containers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>partition cell into compartments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create different local environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>separate pH, or concentration of materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distinct & incompatible functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosome & its digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Membranes as sites for chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unique combinations of lipids & proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embedded enzymes & reaction centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chloroplasts & mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul>mitochondria chloroplast Golgi ER
    4. 4. Cells gotta work to live! <ul><li>What jobs do cells have to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins control every cell function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for daily life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make more cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>repair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>renewal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Building Proteins 2007-2008
    6. 6. Proteins do all the work! cells DNA proteins organism Repeat after me… Proteins do all the work!
    7. 7. Cells functions <ul><li>Building proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>read DNA instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>process proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>folding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>modifying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>removing amino acids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adding other molecules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g, making glycoproteins for cell membrane </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>address & transport proteins </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Building Proteins <ul><li>Organelles involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>endoplasmic reticulum (ER) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vesicles </li></ul></ul>nucleus vesicles ribosome ER Golgi apparatus The Protein Assembly Line
    9. 9. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protects DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nuclear envelope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>double membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>membrane fused in spots to create pores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows large macromolecules to pass through </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Nucleus What kind of molecules need to pass through? nuclear pores nuclear pore nuclear envelope nucleolus histone protein chromosome DNA
    10. 10. production of mRNA from DNA in nucleus mRNA travels from nucleus to ribosome in cytoplasm through nuclear pore 1 2 DNA Nucleus mRNA nuclear membrane small ribosomal subunit large ribosomal subunit cytoplasm mRNA nuclear pore
    11. 12. Nucleolus <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosome production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>build ribosome subunits from rRNA & proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exit through nuclear pores to cytoplasm & combine to form functional ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul>rRNA & proteins nucleolus small subunit large subunit ribosome
    12. 13. Ribosomes <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protein production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rRNA & protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 subunits combine </li></ul></ul>small subunit large subunit 0.08  m Ribosomes Rough ER Smooth ER
    13. 14. Types of Ribosomes <ul><li>Free ribosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suspended in cytosol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesize proteins that function in cytosol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bound ribosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attached to endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesize proteins for export or for membranes </li></ul></ul>membrane proteins
    14. 15. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processes proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manufactures membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesis & hydrolysis of many compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>membrane connected to nuclear envelope & extends throughout cell </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Types of ER rough smooth
    16. 17. Smooth ER function <ul><li>Membrane production </li></ul><ul><li>Many metabolic processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synthesize lipids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oils, phospholipids, steroids & sex hormones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrolyze glycogen into glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in liver </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detoxify drugs & poisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in liver </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. alcohol & barbiturates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Membrane Factory <ul><li>Build new membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesize phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>builds membranes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ER membrane expands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bud off & transfer to other parts of cell that need membranes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Rough ER function <ul><li>Produce proteins for export out of cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protein secreting cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>packaged into transport vesicles for export </li></ul></ul>Which cells have lot of rough ER?
    19. 20. Synthesizing proteins ribosome cytoplasm cisternal space mRNA ribosome membrane of endoplasmic reticulum polypeptide signal sequence
    20. 21. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>finishes, sorts, tags & ships cell products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like “UPS shipping department” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ships products in vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>membrane sacs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ UPS trucks” </li></ul></ul></ul>Which cells have lots of Golgi? transport vesicles secretory vesicles
    21. 22. Golgi Apparatus
    22. 23. Vesicle transport vesicle budding from rough ER fusion of vesicle with Golgi apparatus migrating transport vesicle protein ribosome
    23. 24. DNA RNA ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Golgi apparatus vesicle protein on its way! protein finished protein Making Proteins TO: nucleus TO: TO: TO:
    24. 25. Making proteins Putting it together… proteins transport vesicle Golgi apparatus vesicle smooth ER rough ER nuclear pore nucleus ribosome cell membrane protein secreted cytoplasm
    25. 28. Making Energy 2007-2008 ATP
    26. 29. Cells need power! <ul><li>Making energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>take in food & digest it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take in oxygen (O 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remove waste </li></ul></ul>ATP
    27. 30. Lysosomes <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little “stomach” of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digests macromolecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ clean up crew” of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cleans up broken down organelles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vesicles of digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul>only in animal cells synthesized by rER, transferred to Golgi Where old organelles go to die !
    28. 31. Lysosomes white blood cells attack & destroy invaders = digest them in lysosomes 1974 Nobel prize: Christian de Duve Lysosomes discovery in 1960s 1960 | 1974
    29. 32. Cellular digestion <ul><li>Lysosomes fuse with food vacuoles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polymers digested into monomers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pass to cytosol to become nutrients of cell </li></ul></ul></ul>vacuole <ul><li>lyso– = breaking things apart </li></ul><ul><li>– some = body </li></ul>
    30. 33. Lysosomal enzymes <ul><li>Lysosomal enzymes work best at pH 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organelle creates custom pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins in lysosomal membrane pump H + ions from the cytosol into lysosome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes are very sensitive to pH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes are proteins — pH affects structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>why evolve digestive enzymes which function at pH different from cytosol? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzymes won’t function well if some leak into cytosol = don’t want to digest yourself! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 34. When things go bad… <ul><li>Diseases of lysosomes are often fatal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzyme not working in lysosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>picks up biomolecules, but can’t digest one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosomes fill up with undigested material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grow larger & larger until disrupts cell & organ function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosomal storage diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more than 40 known diseases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example : Tay-Sachs disease build up undigested fat in brain cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 35. Lysosomal storage diseases <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaucher’s disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Niemann-Pick disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tay Sachs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glycogen & other poylsaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farber disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Krabbe disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schindler’s disease </li></ul></ul>
    33. 36. But sometimes cells need to die… <ul><li>Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some cells have to die for proper development in an organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>apoptosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ auto-destruct” process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosomes break open & kill cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex : tadpole tail gets re-absorbed when it turns into a frog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex : loss of webbing between your fingers during fetal development </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 37. Fetal development 15 weeks 6 weeks syndactyly
    35. 38. Apoptosis <ul><li>programmed destruction of cells in multi-cellular organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>programmed development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control of cell growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example : if cell grows uncontrollably this self-destruct mechanism is triggered to remove damaged cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cancer must over-ride this to enable tumor growth </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 39. Making Energy <ul><li>Cells must convert incoming energy to forms that they can use for work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mitochondria : from glucose to ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chloroplasts : from sunlight to ATP & carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATP = active energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates = stored energy </li></ul></ul></ul>ATP ATP +
    37. 40. Mitochondria & Chloroplasts <ul><li>Important to see the similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transform energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>double membranes = 2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semi-autonomous organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>move, change shape, divide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal ribosomes, DNA & enzymes </li></ul></ul>
    38. 41. Mitochondria <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from breakdown of sugars, fats & other fuels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in the presence of oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>break down larger molecules into smaller to generate energy = catabolism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generate energy in presence of O 2 = aerobic respiration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 42. Mitochondria <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smooth outer membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>highly folded inner membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cristae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid-filled space between 2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal fluid-filled space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mitochondrial matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA, ribosomes & enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul>Why 2 membranes? increase surface area for membrane-bound enzymes that synthesize ATP
    40. 43. Mitochondria
    41. 44. Membrane-bound Enzymes glucose + oxygen  carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  + + +
    42. 45. Dividing Mitochondria Who else divides like that? What does this tell us about the evolution of eukaryotes?
    43. 46. Mitochondria <ul><li>Almost all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there may be 1 very large mitochondrion or 100s to 1000s of individual mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of mitochondria is correlated with aerobic metabolic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more activity = more energy needed = more mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul>What cells would have a lot of mitochondria? active cells: • muscle cells • nerve cells
    44. 47. Mitochondria are everywhere!! animal cells plant cells
    45. 48. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Chloroplasts are plant organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>class of plant structures = plastids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>amyloplasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>store starch in roots & tubers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chromoplasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>store pigments for fruits & flowers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chloroplasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>store chlorophyll & function in photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in leaves, other green structures of plants & in eukaryotic algae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 49. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stroma = internal fluid-filled space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA, ribosomes & enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thylakoids = membranous sacs where ATP is made </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grana = stacks of thylakoids </li></ul></ul></ul>Why internal sac membranes? increase surface area for membrane-bound enzymes that synthesize ATP
    47. 50. Membrane-bound Enzymes + water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    48. 51. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate ATP & synthesize sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transform solar energy into chemical energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produce sugars from CO 2 & H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-autonomous </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moving, changing shape & dividing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can reproduce by pinching in two </li></ul></ul></ul>Who else divides like that? bacteria!
    49. 52. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Why are chloroplasts green? </li></ul>
    50. 54. Mitochondria & chloroplasts are different <ul><li>Organelles not part of endomembrane system </li></ul><ul><li>Grow & reproduce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>semi-autonomous organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins primarily from free ribosomes in cytosol & a few from their own ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Own circular chromosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>directs synthesis of proteins produced by own internal ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes like bacterial ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul>Who else has a circular chromosome not bound within a nucleus? bacteria
    51. 55. Endosymbiosis theory <ul><li>Mitochondria & chloroplasts were once free living bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engulfed by ancestral eukaryote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endosymbiont </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell that lives within another cell (host) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as a partnership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evolutionary advantage for both </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one supplies energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the other supplies raw materials & protection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Lynn Margulis U of M, Amherst 1981 | ??
    52. 56. Endosymbiosis theory Evolution of eukaryotes
    53. 57. Compare the equations Photosynthesis Respiration glucose + oxygen  carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  + + + + water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    54. 58. The Great ENERGY Circle of Life sun ATP Photosynthesis Respiration O 2 glucose sugar CO 2 H 2 O + + plants animals & plants ATP
    55. 59. Food & water storage plant cells central vacuole contractile vacuole food vacuoles animal cells
    56. 60. Vacuoles & vesicles <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little “transfer ships” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food vacuoles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phagocytosis, fuse with lysosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contractile vacuoles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in freshwater protists, pump excess H 2 O out of cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central vacuoles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in many mature plant cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 61. Vacuoles in plants <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stockpiling proteins or inorganic ions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depositing metabolic byproducts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>storing pigments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>storing defensive compounds against herbivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>selective membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control what comes in or goes out </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    58. 62. Peroxisomes <ul><li>Other digestive enzyme sacs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in both animals & plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>breakdown fatty acids to sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>easier to transport & use as energy source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detoxify cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detoxifies alcohol & other poisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must breakdown H 2 O 2  H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul>
    59. 63. Making New Cells 2007-2008
    60. 64. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structural support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maintains shape of cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides anchorage for organelles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protein fibers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>microfilaments , intermediate filaments , microtubules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell locomotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cilia , flagella , etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organizes structures & activities of cell </li></ul></ul></ul>
    61. 65. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>actin </li></ul><ul><li>microtubule </li></ul><ul><li>nuclei </li></ul>
    62. 66. Centrioles <ul><li>Cell division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in animal cells, pair of centrioles organize microtubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spindle fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guide chromosomes in mitosis </li></ul></ul>

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