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Bio final review game 10 2 (1)


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Bio final review game 10 2 (1)

  1. 1. Biology Exam Review Basic Chem. Cell Biology Genetics Evolution Microscope Ecology Lab safety Life Processes
  2. 2. Let's Put all the Pieces Together
  3. 3. Vocabulary
  4. 4. compounds that contain carbon (derived from living things ) organic compound
  5. 5. Starch form in which store glucose plants A Carbohydrate
  6. 6. glycogen form in which store glucose animals A Carbohydrate
  7. 7. region on an enzyme that can bind with a specific substrate or substrates Active site
  8. 8. ATP adenosine triphosphate <ul><li>compound that stores energy in cells </li></ul><ul><li>consists of </li></ul><ul><li>- adenine </li></ul><ul><li>- ribose </li></ul><ul><li>- 3 phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>groups </li></ul>
  9. 9. unicellular organism that consists of only one cell
  10. 10. osmosis diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
  11. 11. active transport movement of substances in to or out of cells against a concentration gradient Needs energy= ATP
  12. 12. tissue group of similar cells that perform a common function Ex – muscle tissue
  13. 13. organ <ul><li>several types of tissues that interact to perform </li></ul><ul><li>a specific function </li></ul><ul><li>example – heart </li></ul>
  14. 14. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen
  15. 15. enzyme Proteins that are catalysts in cells <ul><li>speed up a reaction </li></ul><ul><li>by lowering activation energy </li></ul>2) allow reactions to take place at lower temperatures
  16. 16. glucose supplies energy for the cell’s metabolic activities sugar
  17. 17. How are you doing? Let’s continue
  18. 18. replication process by which DNA is duplicated before a cell divides
  19. 19. Eukaryote a multicelllular organism whose cells contain complex structures inside the membranes. ...
  20. 20. living things that make their own food by building organic molecules from inorganic substances autotrophic Producers
  21. 22. heterotrophic living things that take in food from other sources Consumers
  22. 23. Evolution theory that species change over time
  23. 24. Ecosystem Community Population habitat consumer producer decomposer predator Prey Carrying capacity niche Ecological Balance
  24. 25. ecosystem a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
  25. 26. population group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed
  26. 27. community group of various species that live in the same place and interact with each other
  27. 28. decomposer breakdown of complex organic substances in to simpler ones
  28. 29. Carrying capacity <ul><li>prevents populations from growing at their reproductive potential </li></ul>largest population that an environment can support at any given time
  29. 30. isotonic concentration of water inside cell concentration of water outside cell Equal
  30. 31. hypotonic concentration of water outside cell concentration of water inside cell greater than More solute inside cell
  31. 32. Hypertonic concentration of water inside cell concentration of water outside cell greater than More solute outside cell
  32. 33. Protein <ul><li>organic compounds - contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen </li></ul>
  33. 34. Amino acid <ul><li>proteins are made of basic units called…. amino acids </li></ul>(Triplet) A C G
  34. 35. human sex cells Haploid ( n ) cell that has only one chromosome of each homologous pair 23 Total
  35. 36. Diploid ( 2n ) cell that contains both chromosomes of a homologous pair 46 Total human body cells or 23 Pairs
  36. 37. Natural selection living things come only from other living things Biogenesis
  37. 38. living things that affect an organism plants animals dead parts nonliving parts air water rocks light temperature biotic factors abiotic factors
  38. 39. Cancer abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells that can spread from one part of the body to another
  39. 40. Concepts
  40. 41. <ul><li>- controls the activities of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>- contains chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>(made of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>and protein) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- usually contains a nucleolus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( assembles ribosomes ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the functions of the following </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell organelles and structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Nucleus
  41. 42. <ul><li>Outer boundary of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps insides in and </li></ul><ul><li>outside out! </li></ul><ul><li>Separates the cell </li></ul><ul><li>from its surroundings </li></ul>Cell Membrane <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the functions of the following </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell organelles and structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 43. surrounds organelles inside the cell <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the functions of the following </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell organelles and structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Cytoplasm
  43. 44. Mitochondrion carry out chemical reactions that release energy from nutrients taken into the cell (respiration) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the functions of the following </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell organelles and structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. provides passageways for the movement of materials throughout the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul><ul><li>no ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>attached to it </li></ul><ul><li>Rough ER </li></ul><ul><li>has ribosomes attached to it </li></ul><ul><li>Know the functions of the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell organelles and structures </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Ribosome organelles where proteins are made <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the functions of the following </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell organelles and structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Know the functions of the following </li></ul><ul><li>cell organelles and structures </li></ul>prepares and packages materials for secretion outside the cell
  47. 48. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the functions of the following </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell organelles and structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stores </li></ul>- food, - wastes, - water vacuole
  48. 49. Cell wall <ul><li>surrounds the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>gives shape and rigidity to plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Know the functions of the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell organelles and structures </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know the functions of the following cell organelles and structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>organelle where food is made Chloroplast <ul><li>Photosynthesis takes place </li></ul><ul><li>Contains chlorophyll </li></ul>
  50. 51. XY Male X X Female 2. What are the sex chromosomes of a normal human male and female?
  51. 52. 3. List the steps of the scientific method 1. State the Problem 2. Form a Hypothesis 3. Test the Hypothesis 5. Form a Conclusion 4 . Record and Analyze Data (repeat) work Educated guess Answer Question Experiment charts, graphs, tables 6. Replicate
  52. 53. 4. How do enzymes affect the rate of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>An enzyme is a molecule that increases the speed of biochemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes hold molecules close together and in the correct orientation and lowers the activation energy needed </li></ul>By assisting enzymes help organisms maintain homeostasis
  53. 54. 5. How is energy released from ATP? A P P ADP P A P P P ATP + + Energy To another molecule Phosphorylation
  54. 55. magnification Eyepiece X Objective lens = 6. How is the total magnification of a microscope calculated?
  55. 56. 7. List the three parts of the Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are composed of </li></ul><ul><li>one or more cells </li></ul>2) Cells are organisms’ basic units of structure and function 3) Cells come only from existing cells
  56. 57. 8. What are the functions of proteins? <ul><li>structural and functional compounds in cells </li></ul><ul><li>form chemicals essential for life processes in plants and animals (enzymes) </li></ul>
  57. 58. 9. Give examples of the following carbohydrates. Polysaccharides starch cellulose glycogen Monosaccharide glucose Disaccharides lactose found in milk sucrose table sugar
  58. 59. 10. What factor limits cell size? Surface to Volume Ratio ratio between its volume and outer surface area <ul><li>As a cell grows, its </li></ul><ul><li>volume increases </li></ul><ul><li>more rapidly than </li></ul><ul><li>its surface area </li></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>List the steps of mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>and describe what occurs </li></ul><ul><li>during each step (PMAT) </li></ul>P rophase M etaphase A naphase T elophase
  60. 61. 1. Prophase <ul><li>chromosomes become visible </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear membrane disappears </li></ul><ul><li>centrioles move to opposite ends of cell and form the spindle fibers </li></ul>
  61. 62. 2. Metaphase <ul><li>chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell </li></ul>
  62. 63. 3. Anaphase <ul><li>chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell </li></ul>
  63. 64. 4. Telophase <ul><li>chromosomes become threadlike form ing chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>nucleus forms in each cell </li></ul>
  64. 65. 12. How does the cell membrane maintain homeostasis? cell membrane is selectively permeable only certain materials pass in and out of the cell cell maintains homeostasis
  65. 66. <ul><li>. What are the levels of organization </li></ul><ul><li>in a multicellular organism? </li></ul>Cell Tissue Organ Organ system a. b. c. d.
  66. 67. <ul><li>What are the two </li></ul><ul><li>types of gametes? </li></ul>Egg Sperm
  67. 68. <ul><li>List the reactants and </li></ul><ul><li>products of photosynthesis . </li></ul>6O 2 oxygen C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose 6H 2 O water 6CO 2 carbon dioxide + + light energy Products Reactants
  68. 69. <ul><li>What are the products </li></ul><ul><li>of respiration? </li></ul>6CO 2 carbon dioxide + 6H 2 O water
  69. 70. <ul><li>What information is encoded in </li></ul><ul><li>the DNA molecule? </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the production of proteins within the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Controls all chemical processes of the cell </li></ul>
  70. 71. <ul><li>What are the base </li></ul><ul><li>paring rules for DNA? </li></ul>T C G A A T C G Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Nitrogen Bases Base Pairing A-T T-A C-G G-C
  71. 72. <ul><li>list three differences </li></ul><ul><li>between DNA and RNA </li></ul>1. DNA is a double chain of nucleotides. 2. DNA has the 5-carbon sugar deoxyribose. 3. DNA has the nitrogen base thymine. 1. RNA is a single chain of nucleotides. 2. RNA has the 5- carbon sugar ribose. 3. RNA has the nitrogen base uracil. DNA RNA
  72. 73. 20. How many chromosomes does a normal human body cell contain? 23 pairs 46
  73. 74. 21. Who developed the Theory of Evolution? Charles Darwin
  74. 75. 22. What type of genetic disorder is hemophilia? <ul><li>alleles appear only on the X chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>males express recessive sex-linked alleles </li></ul>Sex-Linked Traits
  75. 76. 23. Explain Mendel’s principle of dominance and recessiveness. <ul><li>Each trait is controlled by 2 factors , one factor ( dominant ) may mask the other factor ( recessive ) preventing it from having an effect . </li></ul>P 1 F 1 F 2
  76. 77. <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Homozygous dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Homozygous recessive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Heterozygous dominant </li></ul></ul>24. Using the letters A and a , write the alleles for the following AA aa Aa
  77. 78. 25. What happens to the number of chromosomes during meiosis? division of the nucleus that reduces the number of chromosomes by half reduces the number of chromosomes by half 46 X 23
  78. 79. <ul><li>26. Arrange the following organisms in the </li></ul><ul><li>correct sequence showing the path of </li></ul><ul><li>energy flow in a meadow food chain </li></ul><ul><li>(snake, grass, mouse, hawk ) </li></ul>grass mouse snake hawk
  79. 80. 27. What happens to the number of chromosomes during mitosis? 46 (2N) 46 (2N) 46 (2N) It Remains The Same 2 identical Daughter cells are created
  80. 81. <ul><ul><li>27. What limits the number of trophic levels in an ecological pyramid? </li></ul></ul>Energy less Energy Less biomass
  81. 82. 29. How many nitrogen bases code for one amino acid in a protein? 3 (Triplet) A C G each DNA triplet codes for an amino acid
  82. 83. <ul><ul><li>30 a. What type of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>division produces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gametes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. How many gametes are produced as a result? </li></ul></ul></ul>Mitosis Meiosis
  83. 84. 31. What must organisms do in a changing environment if they are to survive? Move away Adapt
  84. 85. 32. What is the ultimate source of energy for most living things? SUN The
  85. 86. <ul><ul><li>3 In guinea pigs, rough fur (R) is dominant over smooth fur (r). What would be the genotype and phenotype ratio of a cross between a heterozygous dominant guinea pig and a recessive guinea pig? </li></ul></ul>phenotype genotype r R r r r r r r r r R R 2 Rr 2 rr 2 rough 2 smooth
  86. 87. 34. What happens to the amount of available energy in an energy pyramid as it moves from lower to higher trophic levels? shows the loss of energy from one trophic level to the next trophic level
  87. 88. 35. Describe how a test cross is used to determine the genotype of an individual whose phenotype is dominant. Test cross – an individual with unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual
  88. 89. 36. How are the offspring produced by asexual reproduction different from the offspring produced by sexual reproduction? Only needs one parent Binary fission Budding
  89. 90. 37. What is the relationship between genotype and phenotype? Genotype genetic makeup of an organism physical characteristics of an organism ( genes ) Phenotype External Internal
  90. 91. This is The Finale 9th Beethoven's