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FAST実験6:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による観測報告とピエールオージェ観測所への設置計画

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2018, September 14th, Shinshu University, Japan Physics Society

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FAST実験6:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による観測報告とピエールオージェ観測所への設置計画

  1. 1. , fujii@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp Max Malacari, Justin Albury, Jose Bellido, Ladislav Chytka, John Farmer, Petr Hamal, Pavel Horvath, Miroslav Hrabovsky, Dusan Mandat, John Matthews, Xiaochen Ni, Libor Nozka, Miroslav Palatka, Miroslav Pech, Paolo Privitera, Petr Schovanek, Stan Thomas, Petr Travnicek The FAST Collaboration, http://www.fast-project.org 2018 9 14 2018 1 FAST 6
  2. 2. Fine pixelated camera Low-cost and simplified telescope ✦ Target : > 1019.5 eV, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and neutral particles ✦ Huge target volume ⇒ Fluorescence detector array Too expensive to cover a huge area 2 Single or few pixels and smaller optics Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes Segmented mirror telescope Variable angles of elevation – steps. 15 deg 45 deg
  3. 3. 3 20 km Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes ✦ Each telescope: 4 PMTs, 30°×30° field of view (FoV) ✦ Reference design: 1 m2 aperture, 15°×15° FoV per PMT ✦ Each station: 12 telescopes, 48 PMTs, 30°×360° FoV. ✦ Deploy on a triangle grid with 20 km spacing, like “Surface Detector Array”. ✦ With 500 stations, a ground coverage is 150,000 km2. ✦ 100 million USD for detectors 5 years: 5100 events (E > 57 EeV), 650 events (E > 100 EeV) ce Detectors ope Array:700 km2 ale) 3 Pierre Auger: 3000 km2 Telescope Array:700 km2 (not drawn to scale) 3 TA 700 km2 Auger 3000 km2 57 EeV (same scale) 16 56 EeV zenith 500 1 2 3 1 3 2 PhotonsatdiaphragmPhotonsatdiaphragm Photonsatdiaphragm 60 stations 17,000 km2
  4. 4. FAST - progress in design and construction UV Plexiglass Segmented primary mirror8 inch PMT camera (2 x 2) 1m2 aperture FOV = 25°x 25° variable tilt Joint Laboratory of Optics Olomouc – Malargue November 20153 Prototype - October 2015 15° 45° UV band-pass filter Installation and observation with FAST prototypes 4 ‣ 4 PMTs (20 cm, R5912-03MOD, base E7694-01) ‣ 1 m2 aperture of the UV band-pass filter (ZWB3), segmented mirror of 1.6 m diameter ‣ 2 telescopes has been installed to cover 30°× 60° FoV ‣ remote operation and automatic shutdown TA FD FAST prototypes (2 telescopes) Real-time cloud monitor by all sky-camera monitor camera for shutters Clear Cloudy JSPS grant-in-aid for scientific research 15H05443 D. Mandat, TF et al., JINST 12, T07001 (2017)
  5. 5. Observation time and sky monitor 5 Bright Dark All sky camera Sky quality monitor 2018/Aug/12 ‣ 421 hours operation by 2018/Sep
  6. 6. DAQ setup for the FAST prototypes 6 ✦ Receiving the external triggers from TA FD ✦ Common field-of-view (FoV) with FAST and TA FD ✦ Observe a UV vertical laser at the distance of 21 km. ✦ Implemented internal trigger (2 adjacent PMTs), successful to detect a vertical laser in a test operation Time (100 ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 -30 -20 Time (100 ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 -30 -20 Time (100 ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 /(100ns)p.e.N -20 -10 0 10 20 30 PMT 2 Time (100 ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 /(100ns)p.e.N -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 PMT 4 Time window 80 µs p.e./100ns TA FD FoV A vertical laser at 21 km away FAST1FAST2
  7. 7. Time (100 ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 /(100ns)p.e.N 0 5 10 15 20 25 PMT1 PMT2 PMT3 PMT4 Simulation (Preliminary) Data/MC comparison with vertical UV laser 7 Time (100 ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 /(100ns)p.e.N 0 5 10 15 20 PMT 1 PMT 2 PMT 3 PMT 4 11 imulation - example ) aperture input 0.5W 0.43W/PMT1, <0.001W/PMT234 (eff: 86%) (PMT 4)Directional characteristic (PMT2) A UV vertical laser at 21 km awaySpot-size 50 mm offsetfocal plane
  8. 8. Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -10 0 10 20 30 40 PMT1 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 PMT3 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000/(100ns)p.e.N 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 PMT2 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 PMT4 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 PMT5 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -20 0 20 40 60 80 PMT7 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 PMT6 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -10 0 10 20 30 PMT8 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -10 0 10 20 30 40 PMT1 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 PMT3 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 PMT2 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 PMT4 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 PMT5 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -20 0 20 40 60 80 PMT7 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 PMT6 Time(100ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /(100ns)p.e.N -10 0 10 20 30 PMT8 Atmospheric monitoring, UHECR detections 8 Time (100 ns) 200 250 300 350 400 450 /(100ns)p.e.N -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 PMT 1 PMT 2 PMT 3 PMT 4 PMT 5 PMT 6 PMT 7 PMT 8 Event 283 UHECR event search 25 events (201 hours), in time coincidence with TA FD and significant signals of > 2PMTs with FAST rtant source of systematic uncertainty in the energy scales of both experiments. A minary comparison between a set of 250 laser shots measured at the TA site and ations of the expected laser signal under varying aerosol attenuation conditions, is n in Fig. 7. (Note that this series of laser shots has been correctly calibrated to the aser energy, as there is a seasonal drift in the pulse energy of the TA CLF laser of ⇠ 40%.) While this comparison is preliminary, it demonstrates FAST’s excellent tivity to vertical laser shots and highlights the potential for FAST contributions to bservatory’s atmospheric monitoring e↵orts. Time bin [100 ns] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 /100nsp.eN 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Rayleigh = 0.04∞VAOD = 0.1∞VAOD Measured trace e 7: Average signal from 250 CLF traces measured at the TA site, compared with xpectation from simulations for 3 di↵erent aerosol atmospheres. An aerosol scale t of 1 km was assumed for all atmospheres, consistent with the TA assumption. Infrastructure Requirements; Site Selection T has a number of requirements for a candidate site: AC power, a container or ing for housing, a network connection, and a view of the CLF. An external trigger an existing FD building would also be useful. Placing FAST adjacent to an existing uilding meets all these requirements, provided conduits for the necessary cabling. this in mind, we are considering two possible locations for the installation of the Atmospheric monitor Clear Dirty log(E/eV)= 18.30, Rp: 2.3 km 2018/01/18 (Preliminary) Preliminary Time [100 ns] 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 /100nsp.e.N -50 0 50 100 150 200 PMT 1 PMT 2 PMT 3 PMT 4 PMT 5 PMT 6 PMT 7 PMT 8 log(E/eV)= 19.28, Rp: 6.1 km 2018/05/15 (Preliminary)
  9. 9. ✦ Install the FAST prototypes at Auger and TA for a study of systematic uncertainties and a cross calibration. ✦ Profile reconstruction with geometry given by surface detector array (1° in direction, 100 m in core location). ✦ Energy: 10%, Xmax : 35 g/cm2 at 1019.5 eV ✦ Independent check of Energy and Xmax scale between Auger and TA Possible application of the FAST prototypes 9 1. Introduction The hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory [1] consists of 1600 surface stations – water Cherenkov tanks and their associated electronics – and 24 air fluorescence telescopes. The Observatory is located outside the city of Malarg¨ue, Argentina (69◦ W, 35◦ S, 1400 m a.s.l.) and the detector layout is shown in Fig. 1. Details of the construction, deployment and maintenance of the array of surface detectors are described elsewhere [2]. In this paper we will concentrate on details of the fluorescence detector and its performance. Figure 1: Status of the Pierre Auger Observatory as of March 2009. Gray dots show the positions of surface detector stations, lighter gray shades indicate deployed detectors, while a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 25 December 2011 Received in revised form 25 May 2012 Accepted 25 May 2012 Available online 2 June 2012 Keywords: Ultra-high energy cosmic rays Telescope Array experiment Extensive air shower array a b s t r a c t The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simulta shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower trac detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008 describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector. & 2012 Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction The main aim of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment [1] is to explore the origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) using their energy spectrum, composition and anisotropy. There are two major methods of observation for detecting cosmic rays in the energy region above 1017.5 eV. One method which was used at the High Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes) experiment is to detect air fluorescence light along air shower track using fluorescence detectors. The other method, adopted by the AGASA experiment, is to detect air shower particles at ground level using surface detectors deployed over a wide area ( $ 100 km 2 ). The AGASA experiment reported that there were 11 events above 1020 eV in the energy spectrum [2,3]. However, the existence of the GZK cutoff [4,5] was reported by the HiRes experiment [6]. The Pierre Auger experimen suppression on the cosmic ray flux at energy a [7] using an energy scale obtained by fluores scopes (FD). The contradiction between results f detectors and those from surface detector arrays be investigated by having independent ener both techniques. Hybrid observations with SD us to compare both energy scales. Information ab and impact timing from SD observation impro reconstruction of FD observations. Observatio detectors have a nearly 100% duty cycle, which especially for studies of anisotropy. Correlations directions of cosmic rays and astronomical objec region should give a key to exploring the origin o their propagation in the galactic magnetic field. Fig. 1. Layout of the Telescope Array in Utah, USA. Squares denote 507 SDs. There are three subarrays controlled by three communication towers den three star symbols denote the FD stations. T. Abu-Zayyad et al. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 689 (2012) 87–9788 Auger collab., NIM-A (2010) ]2 [g/cmmaxReconstructed X 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 Entries 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 eV19.5 10 f = 1.17 Proton EPOS Iron EPOS Including Xmax resolution ProtonIron TA collab., NIM-A (2012) Identical simplified FD Telescope Array Experiment Pierre Auger Observatory log(E(eV)) 18 18.2 18.4 18.6 18.8 19 19.2 19.4 19.6 Efficiency 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Proton Iron log(E(eV)) 18 18.2 18.4 18.6 18.8 19 19.2 19.4 19.6 EnergyResolution[%] 0 5 10 15 20 25 Proton Iron log(E(eV)) 18 18.2 18.4 18.6 18.8 19 19.2 19.4 19.6 ]2 Resolution[g/cmmaxX 0 20 40 60 80 100 Proton Iron Energy Xmax TF et al., Astropart.Phys., 74, pp64-72 (2016)
  10. 10. Installation plan in Auger ✦ Location: Los Leones site at Auger ✦ Uninstall MIDAS and install FAST telescope to detect distant lasers ✦ Official approval is expected in next Auger collaboration meeting in November 2018. ✦ The telescopes are being constructed in Czech republic. ✦ Plan to install 1st telescope in February 2019 10 FAST meeting 2018/Jun @ Olomouc d detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory [1] consists of 1600 ns – water Cherenkov tanks and their associated electronics – and cence telescopes. The Observatory is located outside the city of gentina (69◦ W, 35◦ S, 1400 m a.s.l.) and the detector layout is 1. Details of the construction, deployment and maintenance of urface detectors are described elsewhere [2]. In this paper we will n details of the fluorescence detector and its performance. s of the Pierre Auger Observatory as of March 2009. Gray dots show the ace detector stations, lighter gray shades indicate deployed detectors, while es empty positions. Light gray segments indicate the fields of view of 24 scopes which are located in four buildings on the perimeter of the surface wn is a partially completed infill array near the Coihueco station and the Central Laser Facility (CLF, indicated by a white square). The description also the description of all other atmospheric monitoring instruments of the servatory is available in [3]. tion of ultra-high energy ( 1018 eV) cosmic rays using nitrogen mission induced by extensive air showers is a well established d previously by the Fly’s Eye [4] and HiRes [5] experiments. It is he Telescope Array [6] project that is currently under construction, en proposed for the satellite-based EUSO and OWL projects. articles generated during the development of extensive air showers heric nitrogen molecules, and these molecules then emit fluores- the ∼ 300 − 430 nm range. The number of emitted fluorescence oportional to the energy deposited in the atmosphere due to ic energy losses by the charged particles. By measuring the rate 7 FDLIDAR MIDAS Mirror polishing JSPS grant-in-aid for scientific research, 18H01225 LIDAR MIDAS
  11. 11. Summary and future plans 11 Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes (FAST) Optimization to detect UHECR with economical fluorescence telescopes. 10×statistics compared to Auger and TA×4 with Xmax UHECR astronomy for nearby universe, directional anisotropy for energy spectrum and mass composition Time (100 ns) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 /(100ns)p.e.N 0 5 10 15 20 PMT 1 PMT 2 PMT 3 PMT 4 Time [100 ns] 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 /100nsp.e.N -50 0 50 100 150 200 PMT 1 PMT 2 PMT 3 PMT 4 PMT 5 PMT 6 PMT 7 PMT 8 Laser UHECR ✦ Stable remote observation with two FAST telescopes at TA site. ✦ 421 hours observation by 2018/Sep ✦ A distant laser and 1019.3 eV shower detected ✦ Continue to operate the prototype and search for UHECRs in a coincidence with the TA detectors. ✦ Installing 3rd telescope in Telescope Array site in October 2018 ✦ Plan to install 1st telescope in Pierre Auger Observatory in 2019 http://www.fast-project.org
  12. 12. 12 Backup pockets
  13. 13. http://www.fast-project.org 13

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