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In Need For A Linux Kernel Maintained For A Very Long Time? CIP Linux Kernel Maintenance Overview.


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Problem statement that led CIP to go for the LTS model and process and overview of the CIP kernel maintenance process followed by the CIP kernel maintainers.

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In Need For A Linux Kernel Maintained For A Very Long Time? CIP Linux Kernel Maintenance Overview.

  1. 1. Systems Software Experts
  2. 2. In Need Of A Linux Kernel Maintained For A Very Long Time? CIP kernel maintenance overview Agustín Benito Bethencourt Principal Consultant - Codethink Ltd OSSJ, Tokyo, 20th June 2018 CC BY-SA
  3. 3. About the speaker
  4. 4. The speaker: @toscalix ● Principal Consultant at Codethink Ltd ● Agustín represents Codethink Ltd at CIP. ● Experienced managing the development, delivery and maintenance of complex Linux-based systems, platforms and distributions. ● Contributor in several FOSS communities (KDE, openSUSE…). ● More about Agustín at his professional site.
  5. 5. About Codethink
  6. 6. About Codethink ● Founded 2007 as an expert provider of Open Source, Linux and embedded software services. ● Headquartered in Manchester, UK. ● 90+ staff, mostly systems software engineers and technical consultants. ● Supporting 10 customers today - including global brands in automotive, finance, medical devices, consumer electronics, semiconductors. ● Owner-managed, independent, unbiased and ethical.
  7. 7. ● We deliver in reliable, transparent, honest relationships. ● We provide high-calibre people, and continuity. ● We are experts in Open Source and embedded software. ● We can slot into existing projects, adopt existing procedures. ● We hand over all IP and documentation. ● You can stand us down if demand reduces. Services Value Metrics
  8. 8. ● Founded by FOSS engineers. ● Long and successful track record in creating, supporting and exploiting Open Source initiatives. ● Our people have been heavily involved in the development and integration of FOSS components e.g. within Ubuntu, Debian, GNOME, KDE, the Linux Kernel, etc. ● Support corporate customers in making the most of FOSS. ● Affiliated to OIN, GENIVI, The Linux Foundation (CIP and AGL). Open Source experts
  9. 9. ● Scale Microcontrollers to servers Operating systems System components Software tooling ● Technologies Linux, Android, RTOS, bare-metal Qt, GTK+, Wayland, WebKit, GStreamer, OpenStack, OpenGL C, Python, Assembly, C++, C#, Java, Haskell, Lua, Ruby ● Specialist skills Graphics Speech recognition Augmented reality Algorithm optimisation Signal processing Virtualisation and containerisation Systems Software Engineering
  10. 10. ● Open Source Integration with proprietary technology Licensing Upstreaming Long-term maintenance strategy ● Process and Tooling Continuous delivery Build and integration pipelines Chain of custody from design to delivery Automation Metrics ● Technical architecture and system design review Consultancy Services
  11. 11. R&D ● BuildStream - framework for modelling build and CI pipelines. ● MUSTARD - FOSS requirements and architecture tracking tool. ● Trustable Software - forum for the discussion and development of software for safety and security critical applications. ● Baserock - tooling for traceable, reproducible building of software systems.
  12. 12. Why Codethink? Open Source company. + Embedded experience. + Passionate about developing, delivering and maintaining complex Linux systems.
  13. 13. Let’s start!
  14. 14. Session structure 1. About CIP: 5 minutes. 2. CIP problem statement: 5 minutes. 3. CIP kernel: 5 minutes 4. Development, delivery and maintenance process: 10 minutes 5. Takeaways: 5 minutes 6. Q&A: 10 minutes Total: 40 minutes
  15. 15. About CIP
  16. 16. About CIP ● Linux FoundationTM Initiative formed in 2016 by Hitachi, Siemens, Toshiba, Codethink and Plat’Home. ● Open Source project with code first approach. ● Governance: Board of Directors and TSC. ● For further information, check the Links slide.
  17. 17. About CIP ● Linux FoundationTM Initiative formed in 2016. ○ Initially driven by Hitachi, Siemens and Toshiba. Founded together with Codethink and Plat’Home. ● Focused on sharing effort towards creating in the open a common industrial-grade Linux-based core system and maintaining it for a very long time. ● For up to date information, check our CIP blog.
  18. 18. Provide a super long-term maintained industrial-grade embedded Linux platform. Platinum Members Silver Members
  19. 19. CIP at OSSJ 2018 ● Visit our booth! There are cool demos including the CIP kernel. ● Talk: Civil Infrastructure Platform: 2 Years Experience of Industrial-grade Open Source Base Layer Development and its Future. ○ Friday June 22, 2018 16:20 - 17:00 Room 1. ● Talk: Embedded Linux Quality Assurance: How to not lie with Statistics. ○ Thursday June 21, 2018 16:00 - 16:40 Room 6.
  20. 20. CIP problem statement
  21. 21. Product maintenance strategies Open Source based systems delivery + maintenance models: ● Fire and forget: product release and no software maintenance. ● LTS approach: product release and time-boxed service packs including at least bug and security fixes. ● Rolling model: frequent updates. Stay as close as possible to upstream.
  22. 22. Product maintenance strategies CIP chose as initial strategy the one that is expected to better match “CIP users” business requirements in the coming years: LTS approach.
  23. 23. Maintenance in the Linux world
  24. 24. CIP: Railway Control System ● 3 – 5 years development time. ● 2 – 4 years customer specific extensions. ● 1 year initial safety certifications / authorization. ● 3 – 6 months safety certifications / authorization for follow-up releases (depending on amount of changes). ● 25 – 50 years product lifetime.
  25. 25. CIP: Power Plant Control System ● 3 – 5 years development time. ● 0.5 – 4 years customer specific extensions. ● 6 - 8 years supply time. ● 15 years hardware maintenance after latest shipment. ● 20 – 60 years product lifetime.
  26. 26. CIP vs other industries 3 to 4 times longer
  27. 27. CIP challenge ● Can the LTS approach be extended: Super Long Term Support (SLTS)? ● Would it be possible to create SLTS to SLTS transitions? ● Can we have an -rt version of the Linux Kernel as SLTS?
  28. 28. CIP kernel
  29. 29. Kernel maintainers ● 4.4-cip kernel: Ben Hutchings ○ Debian kernel maintainer. ○ Software engineer at Codethink. ● 4.4-cip-rt kernel: Daniel Wagner ○ 4.4 -rt kernel and ConnMan maintainer ○ Software Engineer at Siemens AG.
  30. 30. Current CIP kernel ● Linux kernel 4.4-stable maintained by Greg K-H until Feb. 2022 (6 years). ● CIP kernel based on 4.4-stable. ● Extra patches applied: ○ Platform support changes (from mainline) ○ Security features (from mainline) ○ Fixes for stable regressions (also sent to stable list)
  31. 31. Current CIP kernel ● -cip-rt kernel: -rt patches applied to CIP 4.4 kernel. ● Members kernel configs evaluated. ● Latest version released yesterday: 4.4.138-cip25 ○ The -rt version to be released soon.
  32. 32. CIP kernel development, delivery and maintenance process
  33. 33. CIP kernel overview
  34. 34. CIP kernel maintenance policies ● Very conservative maintenance approach. Simpler process than LTSI. ● Upstream first, including platform support. ● Involvement in -stable review process. ● Synergies: LTS, LTSI, AGL, Debian LTS, -rt, EdgeX, Y2038, etc. ● CIP kernel maintenance policies.
  35. 35. CIP -rt kernel overview
  36. 36. CIP -rt kernel main policies ● Upstream first. ○ Fixes should go through the linux kernel -rt stable process before landing in CIP-rt. ○ No platform specific fixes unless in mainline-rt ● Take ownership of 4.4-rt kernel upstream maintenance.
  37. 37. Next CIP kernel ● The next major CIP kernel version is planned to be selected around the end of 2018 or beginning of 2019. ● The ideal situation would be LTS = LTSI = CIP = Debian LTS
  38. 38. CIP kernel limits to lifetime ● Y2038: 2038 as hard maintenance deadline. ● Hardware: limitations in backports and forward-ports for hardware support. ● Software: ○ Internal API changes over time so backport effort increases over time. ○ -rt: no specific unsolvable limitations detected for now.
  39. 39. Strategies to increase lifetime ● Driven by members’ requirements: CIP kernel is a downstream kernel. ● Scope reduction. ● -rt as first class citizen of the Linux kernel. ● Lower rate of fixes required to backport over time. ● Collaboration.
  40. 40. Takeaways
  41. 41. Takeaways ● CIP users have been maintaining HW/SW platforms for years. ● CIP is about doing it the “Open Source way”. ● As with any downstream project, the closer to upstream, the better.
  42. 42. Takeaways ● Not every limitation to the SLTS is known today, but the model might represent a significant improvement. ● CIP is already adding value to the Linux world. More is yet to come.
  43. 43. Thank you For further information contact: ● General information about the presentation: Agustín Benito Bethencourt. ● CIP 4.4 kernel specifics: Ben Hutchings. ● CIP 4.4-rt kernel specifics: Daniel Wagner.
  44. 44. Q&A
  45. 45. Systems Software Experts
  46. 46. Further content
  47. 47. ● CIP website. ● CIP whitepaper (2017). An update to be published very soon. ● CIP wiki. ● CIP blog. Links ● cip-dev mailing list. ● #cip at ● 4.4-cip kernel. ● 4.4-cip-rt kernel. ● Board at Desk: B@D. ● CIP Core.
  48. 48. ● This presentation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license: CC BY-SA. ● The license does not apply to Trademark affected content like: ○ Codethink: ○ Check the Linux Foundation TM trademark policy. ○ CIP Member and third party organizations commercial brands. © Codethink 2018 License