Chapter2

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Chapter2

  1. 1. Chapter 2: The American Constitution American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship
  2. 2. Learning Objectives 2  Describe the lessons the early Americans learned about establishing effective democratic government during the first decade of independence.  Explain the key controversies that divided the delegates at the Constitutional Convention.  Contrast the political views of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  3. 3. Learning Objectives 3  Assess the extent to which the addition of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution served the goals of both Anti-Federalists and Federalists.  Evaluate whether the original Constitution was pro-slavery or antislavery. Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  4. 4. Introduction 4 Framing the Constitution:  Process took approximately 10 years  Remarkably peaceful  Important early lessons and experiences shaped document  Other influences include political philosophers, and British constitutional and legal history Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  5. 5. 5 The Lessons of the First Decade State Constitutions     Separation of powers Bicameral legislature Weak governors Property restrictions for voting and holding office Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  6. 6. 6 The Lessons of the First Decade Articles of Confederation  First national constitution  Weak national government  Key provisions:  State sovereignty  State equality  Limited powers  Supermajority requirement  Amendments Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  7. 7. 7 The Lessons of the First Decade Weaknesses of the National Government      Underfunded Unequipped army Unable to execute unified foreign policy Poor treatment of some Loyalists Unable to gather quorum to do business Conflicts between the States  Economic  Territorial Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  8. 8. 8 The Lessons of the First Decade Problems within the States:     Shays’s Rebellion Deficiencies of state laws Rage for paper money Questions about majority rule Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  9. 9. 9 The Lessons of the First Decade The Road to Philadelphia  Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation apparent in early days of the document  Annapolis Convention (1786)  Delegates urged Congress to call constitutional convention  Congress asks states to appoint delegates Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  10. 10. The Constitutional Convention 10 May 25, 1787  Washington: presiding officer of Constitutional Convention  Many prominent political figures absent  James Madison, James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris critical in drafting Constitution Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  11. 11. 11 Forms of Government Throughout the World in 1790 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  12. 12. The Constitutional Convention 12 The Nationalists Set the Agenda: The Virginia Plan  Three independent branches  Representation based on state population  Rejected state-based Articles of Confederation and proposed entirely new government Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  13. 13. The Constitutional Convention 13 The Small States Counterattack: The New Jersey Plan  Increase powers of national government  Not willing to alter basic structure of Congress  One state, one vote  Delegates chosen by state legislatures  Hamilton’s speech  Life terms for chief executive  Appointment by national government of state governors Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  14. 14. The Constitutional Convention 14 The Great Compromise  Representation in House based on state population  Each state has equal representation in Senate  Bills for raising and spending money must originate in the House  National and federal principles Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  15. 15. The Constitutional Convention 15 Completing the Constitution  Committee of Detail drafts Constitution  Vests Congress with new powers  Authorizes Congress to make all necessary and proper laws  New restrictions on state power Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  16. 16. The Constitutional Convention 16 Completing the Constitution (continued)  Establishes presidency  Makes independent of legislature  Electoral College  Establishes bicameral Congress  National judiciary  Federal judges serve lifetime terms  Supreme Court Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  17. 17. The Constitutional Convention 17 Final Form  Committee of Style revises draft  Adds three requirements for oaths (public promises)  Sent to states for ratification Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  18. 18. Ratifying the Constitution 18 The Course of Ratification  Required approval from nine state ratifying conventions (not all states)  Combined public opinion and deliberation  Able leaders represent both sides of debate Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  19. 19. Ratifying the Constitution 19 Debating the Constitution  Federalists  Supported ratifying Constitution  Wanted strong national government  Federalist Papers  Argued that large republics use representation and protect minority interests Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  20. 20. Ratifying the Constitution 20 Debating the Constitution  Anti-Federalists  Opposed ratifying the Constitution  Concerned about national government having too much power  Denounced necessity of standing army  Not enough emphasis on civic virtue and accountability Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  21. 21. 21 Methods for Amending the Constitution Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  22. 22. Adding a Bill of Rights 22 Protecting Rights in the Original Constitution  Writ of habeas corpus  Prohibitions on bills of attainder  Ex post facto laws Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  23. 23. Adding a Bill of Rights 23 Fashioning the Bill of Rights  Many proposed by states  Thomas Jefferson supported Bill of Rights  Federalists agree to add, as long as does not limit or alter national government  Madison drafts Bill of Rights Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  24. 24. Adding a Bill of Rights 24 Ratifying the Bill of Rights  Some disagreement, but state legislatures ratified10 of 12 proposed amendments  Bill of Rights added to Constitution  Fundamental rights enumerated  Little structural change or limits on national government  Ended organized opposition to Constitution Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  25. 25. Slavery and the Constitution 25 Debating Slavery at the Constitutional Convention  Three contentious issues:  Counting slaves to determine population for representation  Allowing importation of slaves into U.S.  Obligating states to return runaway slaves Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  26. 26. Slavery and the Constitution 26 The Compromises of the Constitution  Constitution does not use words “slave” or “slavery”  Three-fifths clause  Importation of slaves clause  Fugitive slave clause  But, avoided suggestion in Constitution that slavery was moral or just Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
  27. 27. 27 The Constitution and Deliberative Democracy John Adams stated that the effort to draft Constitution was “the greatest single effort of national deliberation that the world has ever seen.”  Established foundation for future deliberations about national policy Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning

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