The Constitution Chapter 3
The Revolutionary Roots of the Constitution <ul><li>Characteristics of the U.S. Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just 4,...
The Revolutionary Roots of the Constitution <ul><li>Freedom in Colonial America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American colonists i...
The Revolutionary Roots of the Constitution <ul><li>Revolutionary Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By early 1775, the fighting...
From Revolution to Confederation <ul><li>A  republic  was created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A government without a monarch </l...
From Revolution to Confederation <ul><li>The Articles of Confederation failed  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The national governme...
From Confederation to Constitution <ul><li>A convention was convened to revise the Articles in Philadelphia in 1787 </li><...
From Confederation to Constitution <ul><li>The  Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three separate branches of government:...
From Confederation to Constitution <ul><li>The  New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single-chamber legislature has the...
From Confederation to Constitution <ul><li>The Great Compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bicameral legislature </li></ul></...
The Final Product <ul><li>The Basic Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicanism : a form of government in which power r...
The Constitution and the Electoral Process
Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
The Final Product <ul><li>Article I: The Legislative Article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article I, Section 8 establishes the pr...
The Final Product <ul><li>Article II: The Executive Article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes the president’s term of offi...
The Final Product <ul><li>Article III: The Judicial Article   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left purposely vague due to disagreeme...
The Final Product <ul><li>The Remaining Articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires ...
The Final Product <ul><li>The Framers’ Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Beard argued that the Constitution was writte...
The Final Product <ul><li>The Slavery Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question could not have been resolved at the Constitutio...
Selling the Constitution <ul><li>Federalists and Anti-federalists debated the merits of the new Constitution, as evidenced...
Constitutional Change <ul><li>The Formal Amendment Process  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a two-stage process, proposal a...
Amending the Constitution
An Evaluation of the Constitution <ul><li>Constitution lays out simple STRUCTURAL framework for government </li></ul><ul><...
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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

  1. 1. The Constitution Chapter 3
  2. 2. The Revolutionary Roots of the Constitution <ul><li>Characteristics of the U.S. Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just 4,300 words long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides the national government into three branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the powers of those branches and their connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlines the interaction between the government and the governed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the relationship between the national government and the states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the supreme law of the land. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Revolutionary Roots of the Constitution <ul><li>Freedom in Colonial America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American colonists in the 18 th century enjoyed a degree of freedom denied most people around the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But there was a high cost: colonists needed protection from the French and their Native American allies during the Seven Years’ War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The English wanted the American colonists to pay for that protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Road to Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The catalyst: taxation by a government in which the colonists had no representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The First Continental Congress was convened in Philadelphia in September 1774 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Revolutionary Roots of the Constitution <ul><li>Revolutionary Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By early 1775, the fighting had already begun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Second Continental Congress remained in session to serve as government to the colony-states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson took the first official step toward revolution and independence by drafting the Declaration of Independence : the document that proclaimed the right of the colonies to separate from Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Declaration was based in social contract theory : the belieft that the people agree to set up rulers for certain purposes and thus have the right to resist or remove rulers who act against those purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The war lasted until October 1781 with the Lord Cornwallis’ surrender at Yorktown, Virginia </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. From Revolution to Confederation <ul><li>A republic was created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A government without a monarch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A government rooted in the consent of the governed, whose power is exercised by elected representatives responsible to the governed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederation : a loose association of independent states that agree to cooperate on specified matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each state has supreme power within its borders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The central government is weak </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation : the compact among the 13 original states that established the first government of the United States </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. From Revolution to Confederation <ul><li>The Articles of Confederation failed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The national government had no power to tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There was no independent leadership position to direct the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The national government could not regulate interstate and foreign commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation could not be amended without the unanimous agreement of the congress and assent of all state legislatures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disorder Under the Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shays Rebellion highlighted the impotence of the confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government needed to be able to suppress insurrections and maintain domestic order </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. From Confederation to Constitution <ul><li>A convention was convened to revise the Articles in Philadelphia in 1787 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 of the 13 states sent delegates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates were highly educated but also practical politicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost immediately, they began to work on a new document </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. From Confederation to Constitution <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three separate branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative : the law-making branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive : the law-enforcing branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial : the law-interpreting branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A two-house legislature: the lower house chosen by popular election; the upper house chosen from candidates nominated by state legislatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state’s representation in the lower house would be determined in proportion to the taxes it paid to the national government or in proportion to its free population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An executive, consisting of an unspecified number of people, be selected by the legislature and serve for a single term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The national judiciary should include one or more supreme courts and other lower courts, with judges appointed for life by the legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The executive and a number of national judges would serve as a council of revision, to approve or veto legislative acts, subject to override by a vote of both houses of the legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scope of powers of all three branches be far greater than the previous powers under the Articles of Confederation and that the legislature be empowered to override state laws </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. From Confederation to Constitution <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single-chamber legislature has the power to raise revenue and regulate commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That the states have equal representation in the legislature and choose its members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A multiperson executive be elected by the legislature, with powers similar to those in the Virginia Plan, but without the right to veto legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That a supreme tribunal be created, with limited jurisdiction (no national court system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The acts of the legislature be binding on the states with the option of force to compel obedience </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. From Confederation to Constitution <ul><li>The Great Compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bicameral legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Representatives is apportioned according to population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The states are represented equally in the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromise on the Presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates rejected the idea of popular election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the electoral college: a body of electors chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and vice presiden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved both the legislature and the judiciary in the presidential removal process, and demanded an extraordinary majority vote to remove the executive </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Final Product <ul><li>The Basic Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicanism : a form of government in which power resides in the people and is exercised by their elected representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalism : the division of power between a central government and regional units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers : assignment of the lawmaking, law-enforcing, and law-interpreting functions of government to independent legislative, executive, and judicial branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances : a government structure that gives each branch of government some scrutiny of and control over the other branches </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Constitution and the Electoral Process
  13. 13. Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
  14. 14. The Final Product <ul><li>Article I: The Legislative Article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article I, Section 8 establishes the principle of enumerated powers in which Congress may exercise only the powers that the Constitution assigns to it by the “necessary and proper clause” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The last clause of Article I, Section 8 is the “necessary and proper clause,” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes Congress’ implied powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implied powers : those powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerated powers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Final Product <ul><li>Article II: The Executive Article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes the president’s term of office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes the procedure for electing the president through the electoral college </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the qualifications for becoming president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines the president’s duties and powers </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Final Product <ul><li>Article III: The Judicial Article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left purposely vague due to disagreement over its provisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress established a system of federal courts, separate from state courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article III does not explicitly give the courts the power of judicial review or authorize the court to invalidate congressional or presidential actions </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Final Product <ul><li>The Remaining Articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires that the judicial acts and criminal warrants of each state be honored in all other states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forbids discrimination against citizens of one state by another state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the addition of new states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stipulates that the national government will protect the states against foreign invasion and domestic violence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article V: Method for Amending the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article VI: Contains the supremacy clause : national laws take precedence over state and local laws when they conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article VII: Ratification </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Final Product <ul><li>The Framers’ Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Beard argued that the Constitution was written by wealthy men to advance their own interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research has shown that government was not created to protect the wealth of the founders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single most important issue: inability of national or state governments to maintain order under the Articles of Confederation </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Final Product <ul><li>The Slavery Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question could not have been resolved at the Constitutional Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Came to the surface in the debate on representation in the House (resolved by the “3/5 clause”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another central issue: the slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise: it would not be ended before 20 years had elapsed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fugitive slaves would be returned to their masters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The founders essentially condoned slavery without mentioning it by name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many of them agonized over it, but few did anything – they expected it to “wither away” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were unable to transcend the limitations of the age in which they lived </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Selling the Constitution <ul><li>Federalists and Anti-federalists debated the merits of the new Constitution, as evidenced by the writings contained in the Federalist papers </li></ul><ul><li>The Bill of Rights emerged as a concession to gain the required number of votes needed for passage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first ten amendments to the federal constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent the national government from tampering with fundamental rights and civil liberties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the limited character of the national government’s power </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Constitutional Change <ul><li>The Formal Amendment Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a two-stage process, proposal and ratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both are necessary for an amendment to become part of the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpretation by the Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marbury v. Madison (1803) declared courts have power to nullify government acts that conflict with the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has influenced the meaning and application of provisions of the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has altered distribution of power without changing the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: President has come to overshadow Congress </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Amending the Constitution
  23. 23. An Evaluation of the Constitution <ul><li>Constitution lays out simple STRUCTURAL framework for government </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom, Order, & Equality in the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a judicious balance between order and freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pays virtually no attention to equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social equality is implicitly addressed in the 16 th Amendment, permitting national income tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political equality is addressed in 14 th , 15 th , 19 th , 23 rd , 24 th , 26 th and 28 th Amendments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Constitution and Models of Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-suited to pluralist model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often at odds with majoritarian model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a REPUBLIC, based on majority consent -- not a DEMOCRACY, based on majority rule </li></ul></ul>

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