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  1. 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Four E Pluribus Unum: American Citizenship
  2. 2. Chapter Four: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the role of ideas and beliefs in what it means to be an American citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how immigration policy has changed over time and the controversies over assimilation that larger-scale immigration has spawned </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Four: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how controversies over citizenship affected free blacks before the Civil War and Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the requirements that Congress has imposed for the naturalization of foreigners </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Four: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of U.S. citizenship </li></ul>Steve Helber/AP Photo
  5. 5. E Pluribus Unum: “From Many, One” <ul><li>Do you believe the ideas behind “From Many, One” have changed to reflect changes in America since the founding? </li></ul>Bettmann/CORBIS
  6. 6. E Pluribus Unum: Early Americans <ul><li>Characteristics of early America </li></ul><ul><li>Vast, fertile land </li></ul><ul><li>Common ancestry and religious background </li></ul><ul><li>Shared language, customs, and manners </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to shared political beliefs </li></ul>
  7. 7. E Pluribus Unum: Modern Americans <ul><li>Characteristics of modern America </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse ethnic background and origin </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple languages spoken, English dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity in religion, Christianity most prevalent </li></ul><ul><li>Continued commitment to shared political beliefs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Immigration: By the Numbers Source: Immigration and Naturalization Service, “Immigrants, Fiscal Year 2000,” Table 1, at, accessed July 28, 2002.
  9. 9. Immigration: Issues at the Founding <ul><li>America – restrict access or open for all? </li></ul><ul><li>Madison – prosperity linked to open immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin – concerned about the effects of immigration in American communities </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson –unrestricted immigration may undermine important American political values </li></ul>
  10. 10. Immigration: Unrestricted Access <ul><li>Why unrestricted immigration until 1875? </li></ul><ul><li>More land and jobs than residents </li></ul><ul><li>Large influx of European immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Nativism movement and Know Nothing Party emerged in the 1840s and 1850s </li></ul>
  11. 11. Immigration: Restricted Access
  12. 12. Immigration: Restricted Access <ul><li>What do you believe were reasons why our political leaders wanted to restrict immigration beginning in the late 18 th century? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe restricting immigration reflects the principles upon which our country was founded? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Immigration: Modern Issues <ul><li>Features of modern immigration </li></ul><ul><li>More immigration from Asia than ever before </li></ul><ul><li>National origin quotas abolished in 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Recent decrease in number of refugees </li></ul>
  14. 14. Immigration: Modern Issues <ul><li>Do you believe there are problems with legal immigration? If so, what? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe there are problems with illegal immigration? If so, what </li></ul>
  15. 15. Immigration: Modern Issues <ul><li>Issues related to illegal immigration </li></ul><ul><li>As Table 4-4 demonstrates, illegal immigration occurs along all borders, although primarily along the Southern border </li></ul><ul><li>How should the U.S. work to strengthen our borders and relationship with our neighboring countries to solve the problems of illegal immigration? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Table 4-4
  17. 17. Immigration: Modern Issues <ul><li>Legal solutions to illegal immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>REAL ID Act of 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Secure Fence Act of 2006 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Early Citizenship Controversies <ul><li>As the Constitution did not clearly define citizenship in the early years of our country, controversies emerged over the citizenship status of two groups: </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Free blacks before the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>2. Native Americans </li></ul>
  19. 19. Early Citizenship Controversies <ul><li>Free blacks before the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>How was citizenship for free blacks defined through the following actions of government? </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri Compromise (1820) </li></ul><ul><li>Seamen’s protection certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Scott v. Sanford (1857) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Early Citizenship Controversies <ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment by British was based on situation </li></ul><ul><li>The national government has always had the power to manage “all affairs with the Indians” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Early Citizenship Controversies <ul><li>What was the legal status of Native American tribes? </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) </li></ul><ul><li>Worcester v. Georgia (1832) </li></ul><ul><li>Dawes Severalty Act (1887) </li></ul><ul><li>Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock (1903) </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Citizenship Act (1924) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Acquiring American Citizenship <ul><li>There are two ways to become an American citizen: </li></ul><ul><li>Through laws or treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Through naturalization </li></ul>
  23. 23. Acquiring American Citizenship <ul><li>Citizenship through laws or treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana Purchase Treaty (1803) </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) </li></ul><ul><li>Practice has been upheld by the Supreme Court </li></ul>
  24. 24. Acquiring American Citizenship <ul><li>Citizenship through naturalization </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalization Act of 1790 first law </li></ul><ul><li>Some changes to requirements since 1795 </li></ul><ul><li>-Eliminated race as a restriction </li></ul><ul><li>-Language restrictions changed </li></ul><ul><li>-Citizenship oath created </li></ul>
  25. 25. Pledges and Promises <ul><li>The citizenship oath </li></ul><ul><li>Official oath adopted in 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Applicants for citizenship sign oath in a public ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to update the oath in 2003 to simplify language was not approved </li></ul>
  26. 26. Acquiring American Citizenship <ul><li>What do you believe are some of the rights and responsibilities of American citizenship? </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S.C.I.S. has defined some responsibilities of citizenship (page 120) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Myths and Misinformation <ul><li>Are Puerto Ricans American citizens? </li></ul><ul><li>In a 2004 survey 41% of Americans correctly stated that Puerto Ricans are American citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Ricans have been citizens since 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico functions much like a state – should it be granted statehood? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Expatriation <ul><li>How to become a non-citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntarily through expatriation </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntarily through a variety of actions (page 123) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Assimilation: Competing Ideas <ul><li>Two competing ideas in assimilation: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The melting pot </li></ul><ul><li>2. Multiculturalism </li></ul>
  30. 30. Assimilation: The Melting Pot <ul><li>The melting pot </li></ul><ul><li>Leave behind old identity </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt new, common American identity </li></ul><ul><li>What are some positive or negative aspects of the melting pot approach to assimilation? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Assimilation: Multiculturalism <ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes traditions from different cultures </li></ul><ul><li>American culture benefits from diversity </li></ul><ul><li>What are some positive or negative aspects of the multiculturalism approach to assimilation? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Citizenship and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>What are some expectations of citizens? </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty to country and government </li></ul><ul><li>Respect of laws and fellow citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to participate in political process </li></ul>
  33. 33. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>Dual citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Dual citizenship prohibited until mid-twentieth century </li></ul><ul><li>Four ways to claim dual citizenship (page 128) </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe dual citizenship should be allowed? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Summary <ul><li>Citizenship has rights and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Defining citizenship in the U.S. has not always been clear-cut </li></ul><ul><li>There have been and will continue to be debates over the assimilation of immigrants </li></ul>