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  • The words of Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, delivered on November 19, 1863, are etched on the wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC. The speech contains perhaps the best-known short definition of democracy: government of the people, by the people, for the people. (Maurice Savage/Alamy)
  • Figure 1-1
    This shows the original 13 states and the Northwest Territory of the new nation. The four southernmost states later ceded lands to their west that became separate states. (© Cengage Learning 2014)
  • In 1819, John Trumbull completed this 12’ 3 18’ oil-on-canvas painting of the presentation of the draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. The five-member drafting committee faces John Hancock, the president of the Congress. Jefferson is the tall redhead, and John Adams is the third to his left. The painting has hung in the Rotunda of the Capitol Building in Washington, DC, since 1826. The event depicted is often mistaken for the signing of the Declaration. (© Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Alamy)
  • Figure 1-2
    Each year Freedom House publishes a detailed report and map showing the status of political rights and civil liberties throughout the world. Freedom House classifies the countries in green as “free” because they allow open political competition, respect civil liberties, and have independent media. Countries in yellow are “partly free” because there is only limited respect for political rights and civil liberties due to corruption, weak rule of law, single-party dominance, or other factors. Countries in purple are “not free” because they deny basic political rights and civil liberties. Source: Courtesy of
  • A member of the religious police under the Taliban in Afghanistan beats a woman in the capital of Kabul in August 2001 for removing her burqa in public. American-led forces toppled the regime a few months later. (WpN/UPPA/Photoshot)
  • Chapter1

    1. 1. Chapter 1: Deliberation and Citizenship in Service of Freedom and Democracy American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship
    2. 2. Learning Objectives 2  Explain the difference between a “deliberative” democracy and one based entirely on self-interest.  Define democracy and describe the various forms it can take.  Analyze the Declaration of Independence by identifying and describing its key principles. Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    3. 3. Learning Objectives 3  Describe how the principles of the Declaration have influenced American history.  Identify the major characteristics of liberal democracies and contrast liberal democracies to other kinds of political systems in the modern world. Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    4. 4. Learning Objectives 4  Explain the knowledge that citizens should have to contribute to decisions about the common good in the United States. Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    5. 5. Introduction 5 How to study politics:  Politics is “who gets what, when, how”  Government officials don’t always make decisions based on their self-interest  Need to consider political actions that benefit the “public interest” Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    6. 6. Introduction 6 How pursuit of public interest works:    Affects variety of political activities Policymaking relies on voluntary compliance with law Healthy political community requires volunteerism Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    7. 7. Introduction 7 Citizenship and Deliberation  Citizenship is legal status according full membership in political community  Civic virtues important to citizenship:     Self-restraint Self-reliance Civic knowledge Civic participation and service Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    8. 8. Introduction 8 Citizenship and Deliberation  Deliberation is reasoning on the merits of public policy on behalf of public interests    Patriotism Civic culture Civic duty  Deliberative democracy Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    9. 9. Introduction 9 Theories of American Democracy  Group theory/pluralist theory  Elite theory  Rational choice theory Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    10. 10. Democracy 10 Democracy (rule by the people) Other types of rule:  Aristocracy  Direct democracy  Monarchy  Representative democracy  Oligarchy  Plutocracy  Theocracy  Timocracy  Tyranny Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    11. 11. Democracy 11 The Democratic Tradition in the United States  Colonists brought democratic ideals and practices from Britain  Mayflower Compact  Local self government in colonies    Direct democracy not practical beyond local level Representatives sent to colonial legislatures Voting restricted to male property owners Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    12. 12. Democracy 12 Why the Framers Chose Representative Democracy  Direct democracy impractical, dangerous  Representative democracy allows for deliberation  Representative democracy includes “a greater variety of parties or interests”  Majority faction  More practical over large distances Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    13. 13. Democracy 13 Direct Democracy in Modern American Politics     New England town meetings Initiative Referendum Progressive Movement influence of late 19 th and early 20th centuries Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    14. 14. Democracy 14 Apply the Definition: Rule by the People  “Government of the people, by the people, for the people”  Popular sovereignty  U.S. first to embrace this concept  Preamble begins “We the people. . .” Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    15. 15. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address 15 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    16. 16. Democracy 16 Free Elections and Democratic Accountability     People are free to form political parties Free press and media Free elections Elected officials accountable to people Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    17. 17. 17 Freedom and American Democracy Major issues  U.S. founded on set of beliefs about foundations and purpose of government  Declaration of Independence  Life, liberty and pursuit of happiness Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    18. 18. 18 Freedom and American Democracy Choosing Independence  Lexington and Concord, April 1775  Second Continental Congress, May 1775  Publication of Common Sense  Paine attacks nature of monarchy and aristocracy  1776, colonists vote for independence Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    19. 19. 19 Freedom and American Democracy Expressing the American Mind: The Declaration of Independence We hold these truths to be self-evident All men are created equal Life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness To secure these rights, governments are instituted among men  Deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed  It is the right of the people to alter it or abolish it     Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    20. 20. 20 Presentation of Declaration of Independence Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    21. 21. 21 Freedom and American Democracy Concluding Oath  Solemn oath of 56 signers  “And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.” Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    22. 22. 22 Freedom and American Democracy Universal Principles  Fundamental principles of democracy and governance do not change over time  Differs from moral relativism and cultural relativism  Lasting direction and goal for American politics  Founders expected influence beyond U.S. Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    23. 23. 23 Freedom and American Democracy Different Levels of Rights  Natural rights  Civil rights  Political rights Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    24. 24. 24 Democracy and Freedom in the Modern World Liberal democracies:  No guarantee democracies will promote freedom  Majorities may use power to oppress minorities and violate rights  Major problem: how can the majority promote rights and interests of all? Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    25. 25. 25 Democracy and Freedom in the Modern World The Growth of Democratic Institutions  End of Cold War accelerated growth of liberal democracies  Cold War marked by clash of communist regimes and liberal democracies  Communism begins decline in late 1980s, but still totalitarian regimes  Freedom in the World estimates  87 nations are free  60 nations partly free  48 nations not free Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    26. 26. Freedom in the World 2012 26 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    27. 27. 27 Democracy and Freedom in the Modern World Terrorism, Freedom, and Democracy  New threat: radical Islam and terrorism  al Qaeda and associated groups responsible for thousands of deaths Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    28. 28. 28 Democracy and Freedom in the Modern World Public and Private Spheres  Totalitarian ideologies reject freedom as purpose of government and reject limits on government  Line between private and public spheres can be issue in liberal democracies Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    29. 29. 29 Democracy and Freedom in the Modern World The Rule of Law  Individuals must be protected from arbitrary power  Necessary condition for securing rights  Without rule of law, rights can’t be secure Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    30. 30. 30 Democracy and Freedom in the Modern World Embracing New Goals  Promoting social welfare has emerged as important function  Regulating commerce  Promote material well-being  New Deal programs (1930s)  Great Society programs (1960s)  Health care? Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    31. 31. 31 Citizenship and Deliberative Democracy  For democracy to function well, citizens must be educated about rights and responsibilities  Citizens can’t govern themselves without civic knowledge  Five key elements of common good:  Justice  Domestic tranquility  Common defense  General welfare  Liberty Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    32. 32. 32 Citizenship and Deliberative Democracy What Americans need to know: The principles of self-government and just rule that informed the creation of the American nation, decisively influenced its history, and continue to affect its government and politics The rights that American government seeks to secure, including those specified in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of 1787, the Bill of Rights, and later Amendments Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
    33. 33. 33 Citizenship and Deliberative Democracy What Americans need to know (continued): The provisions, principles, and purposes of the U.S. Constitution, including limited government, federalism, separation of powers, and checks and balances The nature and functioning of the major institutions of American national government—especially the Congress, presidency, and federal courts—and whether they effectively meet their broad constitutional responsibilities or display serious deficiencies Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning