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  1. 1. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship Chapter Five Civic Culture
  2. 2. Chapter Five: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain the meaning of civic culture and tell how it helps distinguish the United States from other industrial democracies </li></ul><ul><li>Define the concept of individualism in American life </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Five: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how religion has so much influence despite the separation of church and state </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze how patriotism has both united Americans yet given rise to disputes over free expression </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Five: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Briefly sketch the role of giving and volunteering in American society </li></ul>STAN HONDA/AFP/Getty Images
  5. 5. Introduction to American Civic Culture <ul><li>What are some values you associate with the American civic culture? </li></ul>MATTHEW J. LEE/Boston Globe/Landov
  6. 6. Introduction to American Civic Culture <ul><li>Four elements of American civic culture </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Patriotism </li></ul><ul><li>Civilian community service </li></ul>
  7. 7. Power and the Individual: Individualism <ul><li>Characteristics of American individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reliance and individual responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Favor individual rights </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that economic competition is good </li></ul><ul><li>Modest social programs as compared to other nations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Power and the Individual: Reformism <ul><li>In the 19 th century, people were concerned about the increasing power that political party machines, wealthy financiers, and corporations exerted in government. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, the Progressive movement grew in opposition to those forces. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Power and the Individual: Reformism <ul><li>Progressive movement ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of power was the threat </li></ul><ul><li>Need to reform electoral processes </li></ul><ul><li>Award government jobs based on the civil service system, not political appointees </li></ul>
  10. 10. Religion and American Politics <ul><li>With a constitutional guarantee of the separation of church and state, why do you believe religion has been able to be so influential in American politics? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Myths and Misinformation <ul><li>On America, Alexis de Tocqueville has been quoted as stating that he did not “understand the secret of her genius and power” until he visited American churches. </li></ul><ul><li>Tocqueville was misquoted, but that statement is still used today because of its adaptability to different causes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Religion and American Politics: Born in Mission <ul><li>The Pilgrims came to America seeking religious freedom and drafted the Mayflower Compact to establish a “civil body politick.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Puritans soon followed and many religious denominations have their roots in the Puritan reform movement. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Religion and American Politics: Revolution and Founding <ul><li>Religious ideas in early America </li></ul><ul><li>First Great Awakening </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Deism </li></ul>
  14. 14. Religion and American Politics: Slavery and Civil Rights <ul><li>Religious beliefs influenced both pro-slavery and anti-slavery movements. </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Great Awakening focused on issues related to social improvement and moral reform, and abolishing slavery was an important goal of many during this movement. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Religion and American Politics: Individual Conduct <ul><li>Religious beliefs affected opinions on </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition of alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Plural marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Abortion rights </li></ul>
  16. 16. Religion and Politics
  17. 17. Religion and American Politics: Education <ul><li>How has religion affected education? </li></ul><ul><li>Many private universities have religious backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Northwest Ordinance linked religion with education </li></ul><ul><li>Scopes trial brought issues of religion and public education to national political agenda </li></ul>
  18. 18. Religion and American Politics: Social Welfare <ul><li>The Social Gospel movement stressed the role that religion should play in charitable work and solving social problems such as poverty and child labor. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideas of the Social Gospel movement are still alive in American politics today. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Religion and American Politics: Faith and Votes <ul><li>Have religious beliefs affected voting behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Majority </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Black churches </li></ul>
  20. 20. International Perspectives <ul><li>Views of American religiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Europe has more secular views than America </li></ul><ul><li>2006 poll of the British found that 82% believed that religion causes “division and tension” </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Pew Global Attitudes Project found that many industrial nations thought that Americans were “too religious” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Patriotism Source: Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, “Trends in Political Values and Core Attitudes: 1987–2007—Political Landscape More Favorable to Democrats,” March 22, 2007, at
  22. 22. Patriotism and Civil Religion <ul><li>American civil religion </li></ul><ul><li>Roots are in Judeo-Christian tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Americans should seek a higher power </li></ul><ul><li>Nondenominational references to God prevalent </li></ul>
  23. 23. Patriotism: Symbols and Rituals <ul><li>Many symbols and rituals of patriotism have religious traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Great Seal of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty Bell </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence display </li></ul><ul><li>Opinions on flag desecration and reciting the Pledge of Allegiance </li></ul>
  24. 24. Pledges and Promises <ul><li>The Pledge of Allegiance </li></ul><ul><li>First version created in 1892 with minor changes in 1923 and 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Congress added phrase “under God” in 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>For some, the pledge embodies “the relationship of community, religion and military service” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Patriotism and Military Service <ul><li>Throughout history, many Americans have expressed their patriotism through military service. </li></ul><ul><li>Other motivations for military service </li></ul><ul><li>Job training and employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits for veterans </li></ul>
  26. 26. Problems of Patriotism <ul><li>Do you believe that patriotism places greater importance on one nation over another? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe that cosmopolitism is a better approach? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Community Service <ul><li>Why has community service become such an important component of American civic culture? </li></ul><ul><li>As an American do you feel an obligation to community service? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways have citizens served their community? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Community Service <ul><li>Americans have served in many ways </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in civic organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Charitable giving and volunteering </li></ul>
  29. 29. Community Service: Private Effort and Public Policy <ul><li>How has the government promoted community service? </li></ul><ul><li>White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Peace Corps and AmeriCorps </li></ul><ul><li>Tax exempt status to nonprofit organizations </li></ul>
  30. 30. Civic Culture and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>Issues that have affected civic culture and deliberative democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and social change </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in size of government </li></ul><ul><li>Judeo-Christian religious traditions and emergence of new religious traditions due to immigration </li></ul>
  31. 31. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>Education as responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>President Obama has emphasized the importance of higher education to the country </li></ul><ul><li>Critics have said that job training may be more important than postsecondary education </li></ul><ul><li>Are you pursuing a higher education because of a sense of obligation to the country? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Several characteristics define the American civic culture and have helped make the American experience and history unique </li></ul><ul><li>If we understand these characteristics, we will better understand many of the enduring issues and attitudes in American politics </li></ul>