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  1. 1. Chapter Three Federalism American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy, and Citizenship
  2. 2. Chapter Three: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe briefly how the federal-state balance of power has shifted over the years </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why this balance has often tipped in favor of the federal government </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Three: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Lay out the advantages and disadvantages of America’s complex system of federalism </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze how federalism affects policy deliberation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Three: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand ways in which federalism may encourage or hamper active citizenship </li></ul>BRIAN BAER/MCT/Landov
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>In the United States we have a federal system. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to a federal system include </li></ul><ul><li>Unitary system </li></ul><ul><li>Confederal system </li></ul>
  6. 6. International Perspectives <ul><li>Unitary system </li></ul><ul><li>Power is vested in a central government which grants power to other levels of government </li></ul><ul><li>Confederal system </li></ul><ul><li>Power is vested in sovereign states that grant limited powers to the central government </li></ul>
  7. 7. Growth and Change <ul><li>How has the balance of power shifted over the years? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe that shift has been positive or negative? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Growth and Change: At the Founding <ul><li>The Constitution grants the government certain enumerated powers . </li></ul><ul><li>Through the Tenth Amendment the states and the people possess reserved powers . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Growth and Change: Federalism from Chief Justices Marshall to Taney <ul><li>In this era of dual federalism , two important Supreme Court cases dealt with issues of federalism. </li></ul><ul><li>1. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Growth and Change: Federalism from Chief Justices Marshall to Taney <ul><li>McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary and proper clause </li></ul><ul><li>Implied powers </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy clause </li></ul>
  11. 11. Growth and Change: Federalism from Chief Justices Marshall to Taney <ul><li>Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce clause </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy clause </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pledges and Promises <ul><li>Supporting the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Article VI requires federal and state officials to be bound by oath or affirmation to the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>There has been controversy over oaths and the actions of federal and state officials which appear to conflict with the Constitution </li></ul>
  13. 13. Growth and Change: The Civil War and National Identity <ul><li>The Civil War’s effects on federalism </li></ul><ul><li>Ended discussion of secession and nullification </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened the federal government </li></ul>
  14. 14. Growth and Change: The Civil War and National Identity <ul><li>The Civil War’s effects on federalism </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War Amendments limited the power of the states </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the way Americans saw their country </li></ul>
  15. 15. Growth and Change: Federalism in Flux <ul><li>American federalism in the early twentieth century </li></ul><ul><li>Sixteenth Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Seventeenth Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Eighteenth Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty-first Amendment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Growth and Change: New Deal, War, and New Power for the Federal Government <ul><li>During Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration the powers of the national government grew. </li></ul><ul><li>The federal government expanded its powers in regulating commerce and noncommercial activities through the decision in Wickard v. Filburn (1942). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Growth and Change: The Federal Government Assumes a Dominant Position <ul><li>During the 1960s the federal government gave more funding for programs to state and local governments through categorical grants , which allowed the federal government to give specific instructions for the use of grant funds. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Growth and Change: The Federal Government Assumes a Dominant Position Source: and
  19. 19. Growth and Change: New Federalism: Revival and Turmoil <ul><li>New Federalism created new tools of fiscal federalism </li></ul><ul><li>General revenue sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Block grants </li></ul><ul><li>Mandates and unfunded mandates </li></ul>
  20. 20. Growth and Change: New Federalism: Revival and Turmoil Source: United States Offi ce of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government Fiscal Year 2009 at
  21. 21. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Of Two Minds: Devolution and Preemption <ul><li>In the 1990s, devolution became a common term to refer to the shift of power from the federal government to state and local governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress moved away from devolution through enacting preemption statutes . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Regulation <ul><li>There have been several policy areas where federalism debates have been prevalent. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Garcia v. SAMTA (1976) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Welfare and Education <ul><li>Welfare and education </li></ul><ul><li>1996 end of AFDC </li></ul><ul><li>No Child Left Behind Act </li></ul>
  24. 24. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Crime <ul><li>Crime </li></ul><ul><li>United States v. Lopez (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Printz v. United States (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>United States v. Morrison (2000) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Life, Death, and Health <ul><li>Life, death, and health </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon Death with Dignity Act </li></ul><ul><li>California ballot measure to legalize marijuana </li></ul>JASON REED/Reuters /Landov
  26. 26. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: Lawsuits and Same-Sex Marriage <ul><li>Lawsuits </li></ul><ul><li>Eleventh Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Full faith and credit clause </li></ul>BRIAN BAER/MCT/Landov
  27. 27. Contemporary Issues in Federalism: The National Guard <ul><li>The National Guard </li></ul><ul><li>Who should have power over the national guard – the president or state governors? </li></ul>Alex Wong/Getty Images
  28. 28. Debating Federalism <ul><li>What are some advantages or disadvantages of federalism? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe a federal system allows for a double layer of protection for citizens’ rights? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Debating Federalism <ul><li>Do you believe federalism creates a “race to the bottom”? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe federalism brings government closer to the people? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Myths and Misinformation <ul><li>Knowledge of state governments </li></ul><ul><li>In a 2007 survey, only 66% of Americans could state their governor’s name </li></ul><ul><li>Americans also lack knowledge about their state’s legislative branch and fiscal situation </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you believe Americans know so little about their state governments? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Federalism and Deliberative Democracy <ul><li>In a federal system states are like laboratories of democracy. States allow for policy innovation based on the needs of their residents. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful state policies may influence national policy. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Deliberation, Citizenship, and You <ul><li>States and immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Federal lawmakers have yet to come to a consensus about immigration reform, but some state governments have. </li></ul><ul><li>What are your state’s laws on immigration? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Summary <ul><li>The federal system is complicated </li></ul><ul><li>There has been a trend toward centralization of power </li></ul><ul><li>States still retain much power </li></ul><ul><li>The federalism debate continues </li></ul>