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Analysis Of The Lido Preversity

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Analysis Of The Lido Preversity
In order to explore biological diversity as it occurs at various taxonomic levels, arthropods were taken from a coastal ecosystem for identification and
classification. A field trip was taken to the south shore estuary on Long Island, specifically the Lido Preserve, which is a salt marsh habitat. On the
island, the class of researchers were split into six teams, with each team comprising of four students. Each team followed the same sampling
techniques, indicating an equal sampling effort throughout the process of collecting arthropods. Random samples were not taken, because each team
was designated a specific spot, or transect, in the marsh. Since all groups followed the same sampling procedures, this allowed for accurate and precise
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After the final sweep, the net was flip over to collect the organisms, and i was deposited into the killing jar. As it name implies, the jar was quickly
sealed to kill the insects; this took about 2–3 minutes. Once no movement was observed in the jar, the critters were transferred into their respective
vials. Two additional samples were also taken for each mark and thus, each mark gave three vials of collected arthropods. The next technique we
employed was sampling with the use of beating sheets. All beating samples were taken around area 1, or low marsh. However, the beating sheet were
placed in different spots or under different flora throughout the area. First, the beating sheet was positioned about 30–40 cm under vegetation, such as
salt marsh cordgrass or branches. We then used the handle of a sweep net to beat the grasses or branches forcefully for at least five times. After
that, we used an aspirator to collect all the tiny organisms and transferred them into their respective vials. Similarly to the sweeps, two additional
samples were collected for a total of three vials. The final sampling technique was making pitfall traps. Two pitfall traps were placed at low marsh
and high above the tide. This was accomplished by digging two holes at several feet apart from one another and placing a cup in each hole. The rim of
the cup were positioned so that it was even with the surrounding soil, because the critters
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Randall Arendt Urban Sprawl Summary
3.1 Creative Development Scenario Randall Arendt argued in Rural by Design: Maintaining Small Town Character we experienced urban sprawl in
rural and suburban America because the large density incentive is commonly given, homeowners sometimes are confused by the folly image of larger
lots. "...that the resulting provision of open space is far more important to their community in the long run than the additional public cost associated
with a marginal increase in the number of new residents living in the subdivision. Once land is checkboarded into 'wall–to–wall houselosts', it is nearly
impossible to retrofit greenways, trails, parks and neighborhood playing fields into the established pattern." This development concept encourages
minimizing disturbance to the site and protecting farmland or grassland open spaces. In the process of "preserving" open space, valuable land features
are retained as well, side by side with elements that construct the actual building space, therefore establish a more livable environment. By identifying
subdivisions of the whole site, this "conservation design" strategy creates a network of the open spaces, then allows individual houses to share better
views, resources and recreational potentials in public areas. Furthermore, with an... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
First, "Identifying Conservation Areas", using natural land features to zone building areas. Second, "Locating House Sites", placing approximate
buildings to achieve the desired density. Third, "Aligning Streets and Trails", tracing a logical footpath to provide easy access to buildings. Finally,
"Drawing in the Lot Lines", tying all elements together to finalize the plan. From there, the subdivisions that are distinct from the urban sprawls
because of the "creating value–enhancing open space network" in the
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The Importance Of Species Diversity
Introduction A key component of any ecosystem on Earth is the presence of plants. Within these plants, variation and diversity are abundant. Plants can
vary in many characteristics, such as leaf structure, height, bark structure, and diameter at breast height. The culmination of this variety among plants
is termed the biodiversity of plants, which encompasses three realms: species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity. Species diversity
pertains to the variety of species in a specific ecosystem. Genetic diversity refers to variation in specific traits among individuals of the same
species. Finally, ecosystem diversity refers to the variation of ecosystems in a specific area. For purposes of this study, we will only focus on species
diversity. Studying species diversity of plants entails measuring the amount and size of different species in a given area. The importance of this type of
study stretches far beyond observation and results. Species diversity among plants in an ecosystem is vital to the sustainability of that ecosystem. An
ecosystem with greater species diversity uses its resources more efficiently, making it more productive. In addition, greaterplant diversity leads to
greater community biomass due to reduced nutrient loss and increased carbon reserves (Tilman and Lehman, 1997). Our study primarily focuses on the
species diversity of trees at the Case Western Reserve University farm. More specifically, the area of interest is the wooded area to
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Evolution By Natural Selection By Charles Darwin
Evolution by natural selection, proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859, requires a population to have three necessities. These include variation, which
leads to differences in fitness, and a form of heredity for this variation (Bourrat 2014). Natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive,
and favorable variations and cannot produce great or sudden modifications because it can act only by very short and slow steps (Darwin 1859).
Nevertheless, there are always numerous potential selective pressures in nature that limit a population's evolution and fitness like predation. Plants form
the foundation on which communities and ecosystems are assembled and which food webs are created. Accordingly, the understanding of factors that
establish plant distribution, abundance is essential for our understanding of ecology at large. As major constituents of most ecosystems and chronic
agents of plant damage, consumers have great potential to heavily impact plant abundance and distribution (Maron and Crone 2006). Particularly,
herbivore populations like Eurosta solidaginis typically sustain heavy attacks from tortuous arrays of natural enemies (Bergman and Tingey 1979).
They frequently encounter parasitoid wasps and avian predators, which impact the survival of the gallmakers. If a survivorship varies among
gallmakers with different traits, natural enemy attacks can potentially alter their traits in later generations (Warren et al. 1989). Based upon other
experiments
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Relationship Between Sampling Area, Sampling Size Vs...
Relationship between sampling area, sampling size vs precision, and application of analysis
Introduction
In sampling design, how large an area sampled and how many replicates taken (i.e. sampling size) are important factors to consider. Basic sampling
design takes a large area and high number of randomized replicate samples to aim for a representative sample of the population examined. Precision is
important for the sampling size to be considered representative of the population.
Precision is the degree of concordance among a number of estimates of the same population (repeatability). It is used to estimate the number of
replicate samples required for it to be representative of the population. Precision is defined as Standard Error divided by Mean.
P=SE/x М…
The aim of this experiment is to investigate the relationship between sampling area, sampling size, and precision. The hypothesis of this experiment
is that a larger transect and a higher number of replicates will reduce imprecision. The objective of this experiment is to choose an appropriate
transect size and optimum number of replicates for a study of population density of Holothuria scabra at Trikora Beach based on a pilot study from
Pulau Jemaja, Riau, Indonesia. Holothuria scabra sea cucumbers are harvested in South East Asia for food. They are highly sought after by local
fisheries in the region and are under threat of extinction due to increased levels of harvesting and collection. Hence, precise estimates
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Factors Affecting The Environment Of A Watershed
Introduction: Environmental issues caused by such human activities as farming, agriculture and infrastructural development can negatively affect the
abiotic factors of the local environment. This can disturb water equilibrium and pose implications on the biodiversity of a watershed. Various forms of
pollution, including runoff and erosion, can interfere with the health of its aquatic habitats. The purpose of this lab report is to observe to what extent
the abiotic factors of Yellow Creek correspond with the health status of its ecosystem. This will be done by comparing the levels of turbidity and
acidity and the corresponding level of impairment to four other water streams in the greater Toronto area.
Research Question: How can the abiotic factors of a watershed such as acidity and turbidity indicate the health of Yellow Creek?
Background information: Abiotic factors are nonliving, physical and chemical aspects of the environment. (Rutherford, 2015) The pH level is a
quantitative measure of the hydrogen ions representing the acidity or alkalinity of a water solution. Aquatic life prefer water that has an acidic level of
around 6.5–8.5 pH. pH levels higher than 8.5 become highly basic, while pH levels below 6.5 become highly acidic for water quality. This does not
allow the species to regulate basic life–sustaining processes, primarily the exchanges of respiratory gases and salts within the water in which they live.
BMIs (or Benthic Macroinvertebrates) are tiny animals
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Analysis Of The Lido Preversity

  • 1. Analysis Of The Lido Preversity In order to explore biological diversity as it occurs at various taxonomic levels, arthropods were taken from a coastal ecosystem for identification and classification. A field trip was taken to the south shore estuary on Long Island, specifically the Lido Preserve, which is a salt marsh habitat. On the island, the class of researchers were split into six teams, with each team comprising of four students. Each team followed the same sampling techniques, indicating an equal sampling effort throughout the process of collecting arthropods. Random samples were not taken, because each team was designated a specific spot, or transect, in the marsh. Since all groups followed the same sampling procedures, this allowed for accurate and precise ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... After the final sweep, the net was flip over to collect the organisms, and i was deposited into the killing jar. As it name implies, the jar was quickly sealed to kill the insects; this took about 2–3 minutes. Once no movement was observed in the jar, the critters were transferred into their respective vials. Two additional samples were also taken for each mark and thus, each mark gave three vials of collected arthropods. The next technique we employed was sampling with the use of beating sheets. All beating samples were taken around area 1, or low marsh. However, the beating sheet were placed in different spots or under different flora throughout the area. First, the beating sheet was positioned about 30–40 cm under vegetation, such as salt marsh cordgrass or branches. We then used the handle of a sweep net to beat the grasses or branches forcefully for at least five times. After that, we used an aspirator to collect all the tiny organisms and transferred them into their respective vials. Similarly to the sweeps, two additional samples were collected for a total of three vials. The final sampling technique was making pitfall traps. Two pitfall traps were placed at low marsh and high above the tide. This was accomplished by digging two holes at several feet apart from one another and placing a cup in each hole. The rim of the cup were positioned so that it was even with the surrounding soil, because the critters ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2. Randall Arendt Urban Sprawl Summary 3.1 Creative Development Scenario Randall Arendt argued in Rural by Design: Maintaining Small Town Character we experienced urban sprawl in rural and suburban America because the large density incentive is commonly given, homeowners sometimes are confused by the folly image of larger lots. "...that the resulting provision of open space is far more important to their community in the long run than the additional public cost associated with a marginal increase in the number of new residents living in the subdivision. Once land is checkboarded into 'wall–to–wall houselosts', it is nearly impossible to retrofit greenways, trails, parks and neighborhood playing fields into the established pattern." This development concept encourages minimizing disturbance to the site and protecting farmland or grassland open spaces. In the process of "preserving" open space, valuable land features are retained as well, side by side with elements that construct the actual building space, therefore establish a more livable environment. By identifying subdivisions of the whole site, this "conservation design" strategy creates a network of the open spaces, then allows individual houses to share better views, resources and recreational potentials in public areas. Furthermore, with an... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... First, "Identifying Conservation Areas", using natural land features to zone building areas. Second, "Locating House Sites", placing approximate buildings to achieve the desired density. Third, "Aligning Streets and Trails", tracing a logical footpath to provide easy access to buildings. Finally, "Drawing in the Lot Lines", tying all elements together to finalize the plan. From there, the subdivisions that are distinct from the urban sprawls because of the "creating value–enhancing open space network" in the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. The Importance Of Species Diversity Introduction A key component of any ecosystem on Earth is the presence of plants. Within these plants, variation and diversity are abundant. Plants can vary in many characteristics, such as leaf structure, height, bark structure, and diameter at breast height. The culmination of this variety among plants is termed the biodiversity of plants, which encompasses three realms: species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity. Species diversity pertains to the variety of species in a specific ecosystem. Genetic diversity refers to variation in specific traits among individuals of the same species. Finally, ecosystem diversity refers to the variation of ecosystems in a specific area. For purposes of this study, we will only focus on species diversity. Studying species diversity of plants entails measuring the amount and size of different species in a given area. The importance of this type of study stretches far beyond observation and results. Species diversity among plants in an ecosystem is vital to the sustainability of that ecosystem. An ecosystem with greater species diversity uses its resources more efficiently, making it more productive. In addition, greaterplant diversity leads to greater community biomass due to reduced nutrient loss and increased carbon reserves (Tilman and Lehman, 1997). Our study primarily focuses on the species diversity of trees at the Case Western Reserve University farm. More specifically, the area of interest is the wooded area to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4. Evolution By Natural Selection By Charles Darwin Evolution by natural selection, proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859, requires a population to have three necessities. These include variation, which leads to differences in fitness, and a form of heredity for this variation (Bourrat 2014). Natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, and favorable variations and cannot produce great or sudden modifications because it can act only by very short and slow steps (Darwin 1859). Nevertheless, there are always numerous potential selective pressures in nature that limit a population's evolution and fitness like predation. Plants form the foundation on which communities and ecosystems are assembled and which food webs are created. Accordingly, the understanding of factors that establish plant distribution, abundance is essential for our understanding of ecology at large. As major constituents of most ecosystems and chronic agents of plant damage, consumers have great potential to heavily impact plant abundance and distribution (Maron and Crone 2006). Particularly, herbivore populations like Eurosta solidaginis typically sustain heavy attacks from tortuous arrays of natural enemies (Bergman and Tingey 1979). They frequently encounter parasitoid wasps and avian predators, which impact the survival of the gallmakers. If a survivorship varies among gallmakers with different traits, natural enemy attacks can potentially alter their traits in later generations (Warren et al. 1989). Based upon other experiments ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Relationship Between Sampling Area, Sampling Size Vs... Relationship between sampling area, sampling size vs precision, and application of analysis Introduction In sampling design, how large an area sampled and how many replicates taken (i.e. sampling size) are important factors to consider. Basic sampling design takes a large area and high number of randomized replicate samples to aim for a representative sample of the population examined. Precision is important for the sampling size to be considered representative of the population. Precision is the degree of concordance among a number of estimates of the same population (repeatability). It is used to estimate the number of replicate samples required for it to be representative of the population. Precision is defined as Standard Error divided by Mean. P=SE/x М… The aim of this experiment is to investigate the relationship between sampling area, sampling size, and precision. The hypothesis of this experiment is that a larger transect and a higher number of replicates will reduce imprecision. The objective of this experiment is to choose an appropriate transect size and optimum number of replicates for a study of population density of Holothuria scabra at Trikora Beach based on a pilot study from Pulau Jemaja, Riau, Indonesia. Holothuria scabra sea cucumbers are harvested in South East Asia for food. They are highly sought after by local fisheries in the region and are under threat of extinction due to increased levels of harvesting and collection. Hence, precise estimates ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6. Factors Affecting The Environment Of A Watershed Introduction: Environmental issues caused by such human activities as farming, agriculture and infrastructural development can negatively affect the abiotic factors of the local environment. This can disturb water equilibrium and pose implications on the biodiversity of a watershed. Various forms of pollution, including runoff and erosion, can interfere with the health of its aquatic habitats. The purpose of this lab report is to observe to what extent the abiotic factors of Yellow Creek correspond with the health status of its ecosystem. This will be done by comparing the levels of turbidity and acidity and the corresponding level of impairment to four other water streams in the greater Toronto area. Research Question: How can the abiotic factors of a watershed such as acidity and turbidity indicate the health of Yellow Creek? Background information: Abiotic factors are nonliving, physical and chemical aspects of the environment. (Rutherford, 2015) The pH level is a quantitative measure of the hydrogen ions representing the acidity or alkalinity of a water solution. Aquatic life prefer water that has an acidic level of around 6.5–8.5 pH. pH levels higher than 8.5 become highly basic, while pH levels below 6.5 become highly acidic for water quality. This does not allow the species to regulate basic life–sustaining processes, primarily the exchanges of respiratory gases and salts within the water in which they live. BMIs (or Benthic Macroinvertebrates) are tiny animals ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. What Is Cerastoderma Edule? THE LENGTH FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF CERASTODERMA EDULE FOUND ON THE ISLE OF ANGLESEY, UK. INTRODUCTION Length frequency distribution is a way of showing unorganized data by grouping it together into set categories and showing the occurrence of data for each class. It has been used to record the lengths of intertidal invertebrates (Whitton, et al., 2015) and from this give overviews of the population structure and changes within these populations. It can show an overview of the entire population, as well as individual groups within the population. By doing this factors can be identified that are affecting the population not just as a whole but those that can affect only some of those within the population. This spatial growth is key to understanding... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Density dependent growth in cockles (Cerastoderma edule): evidence from interannual comparisons. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Volume 73, pp. 333–342. Johnstone & Norris, 2000. Not all oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus select the most profitable common cockles Cerastoderma edule: a difference between feeding methods. Ardea, Volume 88, pp. 137 –153. Malham, Hutchinson & Longshaw, 2012. A review of the biology of European cockles (Cerastoderma spp.). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 92(7), pp. 1563–1577. Mascaro & Seed, 2000. Foraging behaviour of Carcinus maenas (L.): comparison of size–selective predation on four species of bivalve prey. Journal of Shellfish Research, Volume 19, pp. 283 –291. Montaudouin & Bachelet, 1996. Experimental evidence of complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in the dynamics of an intertidal population of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule. Oceanologica Acta, 19(3–4), pp. 449–463. O'Conner & Brown, 1977. Prey depletion and foraging in the oystercatch Haematopus ostralegus. Oecologia, Volume 27, pp. 75–92. Reise, 2003. Metapopulation structure in the lagoon cockle Cerastoderma lamarcki in the northern Wadden Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, Volume 56, pp. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8. Bear Creek Ecosystem Lab Report Introduction In stream based ecosystems, there is a rather delicate balance between the life found and the relative levels of particular substances in said stream. We use Bioindicators to give us an idea of the health of a particular ecosystem, which are in turn heavily influenced by the contents of the environment. Keeping this in mind our group set out to investigate two streams that are in two completely different areas. This was organized in attempt to get samples from two streams that would have very distinct contents, serving as a control for our overall hypothesis. Being that the bioindicators found in each stream would evidently coincide with the levels of substances such as oxygen,nitrogen, and phosphate to name a few. Organisms... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is difficult to gauge to what extent many of the substances measured by the chem contributed to the bioindicators considering there was little difference between the majority the meausrments. However conditions such as temp and pH which showed significant differences coincide with what we already know of animal ecology and homeostasis. Though we didn't see a large difference between the ion concentrations, the difference was enough to create slight shifts in pH such that the stream as whole would be more basic at Cherry Creek as opposed to Bear Creek which was closer to a neutral pH. Which for most organism is ideal in a habitat allowing them to regulate their own pH without dangers and thus allowing further reproduction. However our overall results do not completely account for the differences in pH we saw due to the lack of measurements of phosphate in the Bear Creek analysis. This would further be exasperated by any mistakes made in the measurements of oxygen and ammonia.It should also be noted that we also had to account for the fact that it was summer and thus much hotter than what we would normally expect; thus if a higher temperature in conjunction with other factors discourages or incourages bioindicators we would have no way knowing since we cannot create a control for the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Understanding Variable Shortening And The Himalayan Thrust... Understanding variable shortening rates in the Himalayan thrust belt of Sikkim and western Bhutan using various thermochronologic data. An NSF proposal written by Sameer Baral Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Introduction Crustal shortening is the primary result of a continent–continent collision in the orogenic thrust belts. Several techniques have been applied to understand the shortening rates in active collisional belts like the Himalayas. These estimates have been derived by Global Positioning System (GPS) for shorter timescales and balanced cross sections for longer time scales (Long et al., 2012). The preliminary studies conducted in the eastern Himalayas using GPS states that modern shortening rates are in the order of ~15–20 mm/yr to 20–12 mm/yr (Bilhan et al., 1997; Larson et al., 1999; Banerjee and Burgmann, 2002; Zhang et al., 2004). Using balanced cross section techniques DeCelles et al., (2002) and Long et al., (2011b) estimated that close to 400–670 km of crustal shortening has been accommodated in eastern thrust belt during 23–25 Ma range, giving the shortening rate of 16–29 mm/yr. Both of these techniques provides shortening rates that are quite similar and shows the motion along basal dГЁcollement have been constant through time (Herman et al., 2010). While the shortening rates seems constant throughout the Himalayan thrust belt, petrologic, geochronologic, and structure studies suggest ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10. Order Of The Public Realm 1 Order In The Public Realm Isaiah Navies Plan 749 Urban Planning, Exam 1, Kansas City Design Center September 30, 2016 2 Without order in the public realm the world we live in would be a very unorganized environment. When it comes to order within the public realm we have to thank planning, zoning, transects, and urbanism theories, because these strategies shape our environment as to what it is today. Authors such as Leon Krier, Emily Talen, Cliff Ellis, and Douglas Kelbaugh are theorist who have discussed problems withurban design and provide implications on how to make the public realm a better place. With these thoughts on how to better the public realm, cities could become something greater and more cohesive in design that what they currently are today. By simply improving one thing in order to create a good urban framework, we should consider the words of these authors. In this paper I will explain and address there theories of the public realm by, examining planning and zoning, the transect, and the three urbanism theories, and how they are framework to shaping order in the urban environment. In order for space within the public realm to have good urban design, zoning is a major part of organization of a city master plan. Planning should also be considered on a smaller scale such as city blocks. The journal of Planning Education and Research explains, good urban form in the planning practice need to adopted more theories into their decision making methods. "In the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. The Invasion Of Starry Stonewort In The Great Lake Aquatic macroalgae are homes to a diverse assemblage of epifauna. These assemblages vary across different macrolage and substrate. Non–native foundation macroalgae species that invade habitats already occupied by native foundation species can alter the composition and assemblage of native epifauna. With the recent explosion of Starry Stonewort in the Great Lakes, it's important to understand how this invasion can effect native organisms that depend on the native foundation species. In this field observation, we will look into the possibility of a cascading effect that the invasion of Starry stonewort may have in Lake Erie. With observations of areas of varying levels on invasion, abundances of fish can be compared and analyzed to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It can dominate certain areas and create a homogenization of florals by suppressing native plants (Kuhn and Klotz 2006). Nitellopsis obtusa, or Starry stonewort, is a species of macroalgae that can grow up to 2 meters in height and in depths of up to 10 meters (Pullman & Crawford 2010). They form in dense algae beds that stretch across the landscape (Simons and Nat 1996). Though it is beneficial and endangered in its native location of Europe and Asia, it has thrived and become a nuisance since its arrival in North America (Pullman & Crawford 2010). Starry Stonewort is thought to have first arrived in North America during 1978 where it made its way from the St. Lawrence River in New York (Schloesser et al. 1985). It is likely to have arrived from ballast water on ships that enter the Great Lakes; Starry stonewort spreads when plant fragments break off and are dispersed by boats and trailers (Escobar et al. 2016). Due to their distinctive bulbils not appearing until late in the season, it can go unidentified for lengthy periods of time (Pullman & Crawford). Otherwise, it resembles many other plants. Scientists have difficulty controlling this species of macroalgae; Starry Stonewort lacks a vascular system which makes it difficult to kill with an herbicide because the chemicals cannot be carried throughout ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12. Supersequences Of Discussion And Interpretance Of... 6.0Discussion and Interpretation 6.1Source Rock The major source units modelled for both transects include the blue whale supersequence, the upper white point supersequence and the tiger supersequences, these three units are considered to have the highest potential of having sourced hydrocarbons that we preserved in traps. 6.2Reservoir Fluviodeltaic sandstones of the Potoroo Formation have excellent reservoir potential (net to gross ratio of more than 70% and porosities over 35% in Potoroo 1, and well over 20% in Gnarlyknots 1A even below 3000 m), but they may lack an adequate regional seal. However, thick and laterally extensive claystone units within the Hammerhead Supersequence are likely to be present and provide... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Other principal reservoir candidates are deltaic sandstones of the Ceduna and Platypus formations, where porosities of up to 30% have been encountered. Locally, marine sandstones of the Tiger Supersequence (Wigunda and Potoroo formations) also have excellent reservoir quality. Away from regional highs, prodelta mudstone of the Wigunda Formation provides an effective seal for these highly porous intervals. Of secondary interest are fluviolacustrine lithologies intersected within the Loongana and lower Borda formations. Although of highly variable reservoir quality, these intervals have poor to moderate overall porosity, mainly due to the high depth of burial. Shales of the Madura and Toondi formations and intraformational shale of the Loongana Formation can provide adequate seal for these potential reservoirs. Major cap rocks exist in the Borda and Neptune formations. Excellent quality reservoir rocks have been encountered in the overlying Eucla Basin, within the marine Wobbegong Supersequence (Pidinga Formation and Hampton Sandstone). 6.4Timing of Maturation and Migration Present–day maturity levels, based on the constraints described above, are shown in Figure 16. On the northern transect (Fig. 16a), the oil window is typically reached at depths between 2.0 and 2.5 km below sea surface. Thus, along this transect, the lower Tiger Supersequence is mature for oil generation in the central part of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Forest Succession Each type of tree has a different set of specific requirements for growth, and not every type of tree can grow at any point of time or place. However, as time passes, the conditions of that location might change, allowing for a different tree species to grow. This change in conditions is known as forest succession. Forest succession is generally triggered by a disturbance, which is defined in this case as an event that causes mortality. Forest succession is a natural process, and a lot of the time the disturbance is also. In the past, natural disturbances including lightning strikes and resulting fires, winds, tornadoes, disease and insects, ice, and storms. However, as settlers began moving westward through untouched areas, they started... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They are generally broken down into two groups: the early successional species and the late successional species. The early successional trees generally grow fast and have high reproduction rates, but don't live long and are shade intolerant. This group includes the birch family, black cherries, and white pines. As time passes, the forest closes in, and trees begin to die. As the early successional generation of trees die, the late successional group starts to grow and take over. This group has a slow growth rate and long lifespan and includes the American beech, the oaks, and the hemlock. Because of this succession, we develop two different types of forests, young growth and old growth forests. Young growth forests consist of many of the early–successional trees and have more trees overall, yet still tend to have less basal area, or the area taken up by the bases of the trees. Old growth forests, on the other hand, are formed almost completely by late–successional trees with the bases of the trees spaced further apart yet with more basal area. Here in this laboratory experiment, we investigated the differences between an old growth (late–successional) forest and a young (early–successional) forest. We measured the basal area of systematically selected trees, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14. Nudgee Beach Lab Report Abstract The aim of this experiment is to test the changes in and effects o abiotic and biotic factors along a transect line form low tide to high tide in the mangroves at Nudgee Beach. The hypothesis is that at low tide the soil texture would be a brown clay with a pH of 9–10, however; at high tide the soil would be light brown sand with a ph of –8–9. The purpose of this report is to analyze whether the hypothesis true. The results found match with the hypothesis. At low tide the pH was 8 ВЅ , whereas at high tide the pH was 8. At each tide, the air temperatures were similar, except for the low tide, where the temperature was 17.5В°C. The conclusion made was that because mangroves grow better on ecosystems where there is a high level of rainfall ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. Henderson Levee Diversity Diversity of species along an environmental gradient on the Henderson Levee Abstract Habitats that contain an environmental gradient, such as the Henderson Levee, attribute to a diverse speciation of plants. There are multiple factors that determine the assortment of species along a disturbance gradient, including competition and the availability of nutrients, water, and light. This paper focuses on the differences in diversity and composition of species in response to an environmental gradient. Three parallel transects were measured along the Henderson Levee and the stems for each species of plants were counted within sampling intervals along those transects. Statistics were used to calculate diversity and to determine how the species changed along the gradient. The diversity of plant species was determined to be highest at the top of the levee for transects 1 and 3 and highest at the bottom of the levee for transect 2. Introduction The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... For wetlands, it has been found that richness and species composition is related to flooding frequency and seasonal water levels as opposed to the availability of nutrients (2). For floodplain habitats, the composition of species is related to flooding and the availability of light (2). The arrangement of plant species can be explained by the number of floods that occur as well as the texture of the soil, with wetter soil near the canal and moist, dry soil towards the top of the levee (6). In this type of environment, vegetation generally becomes more abundant going up an elevational gradient from the canal to the top of the levee (1). It is hypothesized that if a floodplain wetland habitat has an environmental and elevational gradient, then there is a difference in the diversity of plant species and richness across that gradient, with a higher species composition and richness at higher ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16. Essay on Bateu Bay Rockplatfrom Year 11 Task Abstract: Aim: To investigate the Biodiversity of Wonga Point Rock Platform, through the following: –Examining adaptations of the plants and animals for life of the rock platform –Measuring abiotic characteristics of the rock platform –Examining and comparing the richness of species in sub habitats on the rock platform –Measuring the abundance and distribution of some molluscs and algae on the rock platform During the investigation we undertook four fieldwork activities such as: –Investigation of adaptations to life on a rock platform –Abiotic Factors on and around the rock platform –Species richness of Sub–habitats on the rock platform –Distribution and Abundance of Selected Animals and Plants It was found that the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Count and record the number of individuals of each of the target animals. 4. Estimate and record the percent cover of each target algae in the quadrat. 5. Note other observations eg other animals, elevated, crevice or rock pool etc. 6. Move quadrat to the next position on the transect and repeat steps 3–6. 7. Record results. Procedure for recording observations of human impact: 1. Observe the rock pool and the surrounds for litter, oyster shells, footprints, fishing wire, as well as other forms of human interaction. 2. Record results
  • 17. Results: Abiotic Data: Recent Weather: Warm, Breezy and sunny. Tide: Low Tide 10:37am Ocean Air Bare Rock Rock Pool Crevice Under Cobble Temp Infra–red thermometer 20 15 17 21 9 N/A Salinity % Refractometer 3.9% 3.5% pH Indicator paper 8.5 7.5 Abiotic Data Graphs: Quadrat data and population estimates:
  • 18. Transect Diagram: Flora and Fauna Summary of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. Northeast Transect Line The location of the Northeast Transect Line is shown in the Figure 3. The profile information is shown in Figure 4. According to Figure 4, the length of the Northeast Transect Line is 668 feet. Each plot is 66 feet long or 20 meters long; however, the last plot, plot 10, is longer than the rest at 74 feet. The steepest slope in the Northeast Transect occurs from Plot 1 to Plot 4; the elevation decreases approximately from 1330 feet to 1280 feet. After Plot 5, the slope becomes much more subtle (roughly 1270 feet). The species composition is listed in Table 1. Little Bluestem, Yellow Indiangrass, Switchgrass, and Big Bluestem appear in every plot in the transect line. Ragweed and Heath Aster appear in 9 plots. Prairie Cone Flower, White Sage, Roundhead Lespedeza, St. John's Wort, Hoary Verbena, Leadplant, Prairie Rose, Roughleaf Dogwood, Kansas Gayfeather, Western Silky Aster, Boneset, Pitcher Sage, and Smooth Sumac appear in no more than 3 plots.... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Little Bluestem is one of the most abundant grasses in Kansas, and its roots which grow 5–8 feet long, enable it to resist moderate drought conditions (SITE). Plots 5 and 6 contain co–dominant species; Yellow Indian Grass (20%), Big Bluestem (30%), and Prairie Dropseed (35%) are all dominant. In Plot 7, the dominant species is Prairie Dropseed (40%). The dominant species in Plot 8 is Big Bluestem (25%). In Plot 9 and 10, Little Bluestem becomes dominant again, and Switchgrass is observed to be the co–dominant. Species richness is shown in the Figure 5; there is a higher species richness in Plot 1 through ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20. Methods Used For Monitoring Air Sheds 1. Air Quality Airshed monitoring Methods used for monitoring air sheds: According to the Ministry for the Environment (2014), airshed is improved levels of air quality. A filter dynamic measurement system (FDMS) is used to measure PM10. PM10 is an atmospheric particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micrometres (Вµm) in diameter. The TEOM is a proprietary system that determines particulate concentration by continuously weighing particles deposited on a filter (Aberkane, et al., 2010, p. 4). The Ministry for the environment recommends the amount of volatile of material depends on the composition of aerosol and temperature setting of the TEOM. In New Zealand, the standard temperature for this setting is 40 degrees C. This method is used extensively throughout UK, Australia and New Zealand (Ministry for the environment 2009, p. 31) TEOM (TAPERED ELEMENT OSCILLATING MICROBALANCE) Total suspended particles: This includes measurement of all airborne particles, which are typically in the range of 0– 40Вµm. Figure 1. Illustration of a total suspended particulate matter samples. From "collecting and measuring airborne particles", (2013), http://www.qld.gov.au/environment/pollution /monitoring/air–pollution/samplers/ According to the figure given above illustration of total suspended PM10 sampler shows that the measuring the volume of air sampled and weighing the filters before and after sampling determines the concentration of PM10 particles in the air. TSP sampler described ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Fagus Grandifolia And Acer Saccharum Case Study Prevalence of Fagus grandifolia and Acer saccharum at Case Western Reserve University farm Gowtham Yerneni Case Western Reserve University Introduction A key component of any ecosystem on Earth is the presence of plants. Within these plants, variation and diversity are abundant. Plants can vary in many characteristics, such as leaf structure, height, bark structure, and diameter at breast height. The culmination of this variety among plants is termed the biodiversity of plants, which encompasses three realms: species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity. Species diversity pertains to the variety of species in a specific ecosystem. Genetic diversity refers to variation in specific traits among individuals of the same species. Finally, ecosystem diversity refers to the variation of ecosystems in a specific area. For purposes of this study, we will only focus on species diversity. Studying species diversity of plants entails measuring the amount and size of different species in a given area. The importance of this type of study stretches far beyond observation and results. Species diversity among plants in an ecosystem is vital to the sustainability of that ecosystem. An ecosystem with greater species diversity uses its resources more efficiently, making it more productive. In addition, greaterplant diversity leads to greater community biomass due to reduced nutrient loss and increased carbon reserves (Tilman et al., 1997). Our study primarily ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22. Animal Testing Lab Report The sampling effort used in this experiment was transect sampling. Transect sampling is used here because the gradient is inherent and this type of sampling is used in such situations. It involved using six transects away from the path being sampled, with three transects on the right side of the path and three transects on the left side of the path. The transects on both sides of the path were spaced out evenly from one another; with each transect being 50m in length. Samples were taken at three different points along each transect. The first point of sampling was 5 meters from the trail, the second point of sampling was 30 meters from the trail, and the last point of sampling was 50 meters from the trail. At the first point of sampling... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Each group identified along their transect, what appeared to be a distinct plant species. The plant species was then removed from the marsh and put on a plant press. The location of each distinct plant species was documented. The purpose of doing this experiment the second week was to firstly, collect the pitfall samples, and secondly, avail the largersample size after the second week. The larger sample size ensured that the results of the experiment were more significant, since sampling for two weeks is better than sampling for one week. Each group had a total of 12 vials from the first week and 14 vials from the second week. As a result, the contents of 26 vials were analyzed. The insects in the vials were identified using a book called Insects Their Natural History and Diversity with a photographic guide to insects of eastern North America. The insects were identified initially by seeing if they had wings or not. After that initial determination, other distinctive anatomical features were observed in the insects. Based on those additional anatomical features observed, a key was used to correctly identify the insect family. All insects were identified to family ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. The Correlation Between Tree Dbh And Canopy Coverage Introduction DBH and canopy coverage are two methods of measurement commonly used by ecologists to study an environment. Being able to analyze these two technique's results can is vital in determining what environment is the best fit for a given tree species. For example, a tree that receives greater canopy coverage will interact with the environment in a different way than a tree that has no canopy coverage would. Trees that have bigger DBH sizes are more likely to live in nutrient rich areas in contrast with trees that are smaller in DBH size (Saremi et al. 2009). Likewise, further relationships are yet to be studied between different abiotic factors and the relationship between tree DBH and canopy coverage opens up new questions to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Similar information has been explored in different studies. A previous study conducted showed that trees with smaller DBHs and greater canopy coverage allowed for an increase in species richness (Rannius T 2000). Furthermore, researchers have found that saplings across different species like the sugar maple exhibit greater growth in open canopies than saplings that are in closed canopies (Canndam C. 1998). Although these studies are important, the relationship between canopy size and DBH is still yet to be explored. In response to this lack of knowledge, we have conducted a study to further explore this correlation. Our hypothesis is that the larger the DBH size, the greater the amount of canopy coverage in a given area for the tree being studied. Methods On September 17th, 2015 our group went on the Orange Trail of the State Botanical Garden of Georgia in Athens, Georgia to collect data for our lab. The biome of this area that we explored fit a temperate deciduous forest type. We walked along the trail and picked random spots to start measuring our transects. We measured DBH size and canopy coverage at 10, 20, 30, and 40 meters respectively along each transect for a total of six transects. We used a densitometer to measure the percent of canopy coverage of the tree closest to the center of the sampling points along each of the transects. We used a measuring tape to measure out 10, 20, 30, and 40 meters respectively along each of the six ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24. Ecology Lab 1 Essay Observing Plant Successional Changes in Old–Field Succession in Gatineau Park in Old Chelsea By Ghummaz Bhatti 4909040 Bio 2129 Section A2 Demonstrators: Paul Sokoloff Laura Robson November 11, 2009 Department of Biology University of Ottawa Abstract Patterns of plant successional change in Gatineau Park, Old Chelsea, were studied quantitatively. The relations between different successional stages of plant communities and abiotic factors were descried. To test these, we went to the fields, and worked on two transect in groups of 4. We counted the trees and measured the diameter at breast height (dbh) for tree with a dbh value greater than 2cm. The dbh measurements (cm), percentage of fern cover and percentage of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Materials & Method Refer to "Bio 2129 Ecology Lab Manual", "Lab # 3 – Human modification of temperate forests: Disturbance and succession", pages 4–6. Modification: Where it says to leave the string at the transect (bottom of page 5), was modified since we were given the measuring equipment before the lab began.
  • 25. Results Figure 1 (a) shows that at site 3a (transect 2), sugar maple is the most abundant tree species among tree species with dbh ≥ 2cm. (b) shows glossy buckthorn is the most abundant tree species among tree species with dbh ≤ 2cm. Table 1 show no statistical significance to the t–stat, therefore no significant variation exists among the quadrats 1+2 and 2+3 for the mean dbh (cm) of sugar maple. So we fail to reject the null hypothesis. On the other hand, quadrat 1+ 3 shows variation according to the t stat, therefore the null hypothesis for that quadrat is rejected. Figure 2 shows that among tree species with dbh ≥ 2cm, sugar maple, iron wood, red pine are the most abundant tree species at both sites 1 (transect 2), and site 1 (transect 2). Figure 3 shows that among tree species with dbh ≤ 2cm, sugar maple, glossy buckthorn and red ash are the most abundant tree species at site 3a (transect 2). Sugar maple, iron wood, and white ash are the most abundant tree species at ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26. The Biodiversity At Lido Beach Abstract This study investigated the biodiversity at Lido Beach in Long Island. The objective was to investigate how biodiversity changed for areas away from human habitat. Salt marshes and wetland are under severe threat due to irresponsible actions on the part of humans. There needs to be an awareness and understanding in the general public as to the importance of these natural habitats and their significance to the general ecosystem. There is enough evidence to suggest the degradation has already happened, and how critical it is to protect salt marshes and wetlands. The results were encouraging as they pointed in the general direction that diversity was not impacted close to the pathway that was subjected to human traffic. However, the data collected did not point to any specific conclusions. Nonetheless, it provided valuable information on the subject of the study. The results for the entire class data indicated that for richness, there was a positive correlation between the family richness of the samples and the distance from the path. Specific results for one group for each sample point indicated that for richness, there was more richness observed near the path than away from it. For evenness, the results indicated that as the distance from the path increased, the evenness did not have a clear pattern, even though there was a general increase in evenness away from the path, especially, as shown by the 30m and 50m sampling points. For proportional ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Chaparral and Coastal Sage Scrub Field Investigation... Chaparral and Coastal Sage Scrub Field Investigation Make–up The Chaparral biome is most common in latitudes of 35 degrees North and is seen most often in Southern California. Chaparral plants have special adaptations that help them deal with the unique climate. In addition there are specific characters of a Coastal Sage Scrub and Chaparral community that would help in their identification. Both of these topics, secondary succession, endangered plant species, and the importance of habitat preservation will be discussed. The Chaparral and Coastal Sage Scrub have a variety of different plant species, from Torrey Pine to Cacti. They each contain some helpful adaptations that have resulted from directional selection over... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Chaparral plants are able to regrow very quickly and encroach over the area of the flowers. This is necessary for the stability of that environment and ensures future success. The flowers from the flowers are trapped in the soil and are released next time there is a fire. This entire process is called secondary succession. The Southern California Chaparral is in itself threatened. Fires, overgrazing, and invasive species have disrupted it over the course of many years and it is now in danger. According to the WWF, the Southern California Chaparral " one of the most endangered ecosystems in North America"(California Chaparral and Woodlands).The Chaparral are often close to residential and commercial areas and this can be detrimental. Runoff from the residential areas can contaminate the soil and stop primary production. More land is also revamped and turned into more human expanses.The land is often treated very poorly and the habitat of many animals are destroyed. Unfortunately when fires occur, the brush is able to grow back, but the wildlife is adversely affected.Because of fires and human intervention, there are a few endangered plants and animals. Some endangered animals include the California Gnatcatcher and Heermann Kangaroo mouse. In addition, there are a lot of flora that are very rare and only exist in this area. The Gnatcatcher's habitat has been encroached by shopping malls and homes while the Heermann ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28. The Intertidal Zone And The Air Land Ocean Interface And... Berenice Yang Gonzalez Intertidal Lab Abstract The intertidal zone is characterized as the limited segment of domain which is found at the air–land–ocean interface and lies between the tidemarks on all shorelines. From the about dry high tide line down to the quite often wet low tide line, the intertidal zone exists on rough shores, sandy shorelines, and mud pads. The Intertidal Zone is a harsh environment. The class sample the intertidal zone by placing quadrats in a standardized form and recorded all species who were in the quadrat. The Shannon Index and Evenness were calculated in 4 transects in the mid zone. The Simpson's Index and Richness were calculated in all three sections separately and all values were compare to understand the dynamic of this community. Two species were compare from the sample population to understand the relation of the zones and niches. The sample was too small and many error were made for the sample to have a relevant result. Introduction The intertidal zone is a severe environment that has various stressors and forces which act on organisms that are not found in strictly marine or terrestrial environments. This environment is unique due to the constant fluctuating water levels which exposes organisms to air and the forces of crashing surf that only animals and plants with special adaptations are able to withstand. Despite all of these environmental conditions, these species are able to survive and reproduce within extreme environments. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. Hypothesis Of Ungullate This research project is set out to be able to determine if ungulates have a preference on habitat. This will be based on several data collections done within Mankwe Wildlife Reserve which has multiple habitats. The aim of this project is to determine if ungulates do have a preference and if it is species specific or just for that certain individual. Hypothesises Experimental Hypothesis There will be a significant difference within the ungulates showing there is a preference in habitats. Null hypothesis There will be no difference in the ungulates showing there is no preference to habitats. Objectives To be able to determine a difference within ungulates and their habitat choice within Mankwe Wildlife Reserve. Furthermore to be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Ecology Lab Report Ecology is the study of interaction between living organisms and nonliving environmental factors. The objective of the study is to determine the forest ecology of the Manor House by calculating the density, size, and diversity of the woodlot (Biology 214 Laboratory Handout). Diversity is the degree of the variability among the living organisms. It is important to study diversity because a larger variability of within a community will promote the productivity of an ecosystem. In addition, the knowledge of the number of individual organisms present in a population is important to ecologists. Many methods exist to quantify the numbers of individual organisms in a specific area. It is important to chose a measuring method that is most practical for the sampling area. The point–quarter technique, developed by Cottan and Curtis, is widely used to estimate the area covered by an organism based on random samplings on specific areas. The sample area is chosen at random along a transect, relying on the random distribution of organisms in the area. From the random point, the area is divided into four quadrants and the point–to–plant distance is measured. From this measurement, species density, diversity and importance value can be calculated. Khan and his colleagues (2016) investigated the discrepancy and accuracy of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I hypothesize that the forest woodlot will have moderate density, size, and diversity. Before measuring the characteristics of the woodlot, I observed that the forest was not densely populated and the organisms were spaced apart evenly throughout the forest. However, I predicted that the transects deeper into the forest, 50 feet, would show more diversity than the transects at 25 feet because the forest centralizes deeper into the forest and is less disturbed, which results in a wider diversity of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. Savanna Species Of these 14 species, 57.2% are classified as savanna species (appendix A), 21.4% are native to Wisconsin but not species commonly found in Oak Savannas and 21.4% are species considered exotic in Wisconsin (Figure 7A). When analyzing their frequencies, 90.6% of the species found in the area of study are considered savanna species, 3.4% Wisconsin natives, 5.1% were not identified and 0.9% exotic (Figure 7B). Figure 7. A. Species classification for the 14 different species found in the area of study. B. Percentage based on the relative frequencies of each class in the area of study. These 14 species are distributed differently across the area of study, with some species dominating specific areas while others are distributed scattered around the site (Figure 8).... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Species distribution across the area of study. One hundred and fifty two of the trees surveyed were dead (7.1%), with 81 of those (53.29%) situated in the Green Prairie management unit (Figure 9). Sixty seven out of this 152 trees (44%) were unable to identified and classified as Unknown. Of the percentage that could be identified, Black/Red Oak and Black Cherry presented the bigger frequencies (50 and 16, respectively). Figure 9. Dead trees found in the area of study. 4.2 Percentage of canopy density Sixty five measurements were made for the Southwestern Grady Oak Savanna area and part of the Green Prairie, by sampling 7 of the transects based on the UW Arboretum grid. The first two transects were sampled every 10 meters but the 5 remainings were sampled every 50 meters, due to time concerns (Figure 10). Figure 10. Points sampled for percentage of canopy cover. Based on the data obtained and using the Kriging tool in ArcGIS I created a percentage of canopy density map for the area (Figure 11). This map shows the different percentage of canopy density for the units, diving it into 6 classes ranging from 25.6% to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32. Describe The Differences Between Two Different Streams Results This lab compared two different streams against each other from a biological, physical and chemical bases. From this lab we are able to see the differences and similarities as well as the differences between each streams. For the Tippecanoe river there was a total of 20 organisms, 7 from the upstream transect and 13 from the downstream transect. This differed from Cherry creek have a total of 209 organism. This total was split a 110 down from upstream and 99 from the down stream transect. The physical break down of Tippecanoe river consisted of mostly run and riffle types of flow of water, with only 1 pool. The entire studied area had woody debris, with almost half of the river shaded. The bank erosion was constant from both upstream ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is clear cherry creek had a much higher presents of life between the two streams. This may be a result of the higher nutrient content that was found inside of the river which could support higher levels of life. This could also be a result of higher levels of sunlight found on cherry creek which could also support life. Additionally, at cherry the gravel size greatly differed from the upstream and downstream transect. Downstream the gravel size greatly shifted towards a smaller sample. The reason for this due to being so close to a lake. This may also be a reason for higher nutrient content and life being found. One nutrient I found to be in extremely high quantity was the nitrate level in cherry creek. The reason for this could be because of influence of people who are using it to fertilize their lawn. It is likely the tippacanoe had lower levels because it was further away from human activity. Overall the Dissolved oxygen levels were lower than the upper level of the lake, however showed less differences throughout due to the depth of the water. This is probably a result of turbidity of a stream causing more oxygen to be caught in the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. How To Make Two Appropriate Visual Displays Create at least two appropriate visual displays The first graph I made had outliers, this made it hard to clearly see the trend. The next graph I made I took out the outlier to make in more comprehensible. Neptunes necklaces (percentage) Molluscs (number of individuals) 2.50 0 3 1 0 0 7 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.5 0 1 15.50 0 1 1 0.80 0 5 0 6 0 0 3 1.60 2 0 1 0 1 13 2 1.75 2 0 2 4 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 3 5 2 2.30 1 0 3 1 1 12 1 3 1 2.50 3 6 0 6 1 The outliers have been removed in both displays. Discuss the findings from your visual displays. Your discussion should include: A description of the relationship in answer to the investigative question. A discussion of features to support the explanation, for example, clusters or groups, unusual... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In conclusion, there is a weak negative relationship between the percentage of Neptune's necklaces and the amount of individual molluscs found. This may be because the molluscs and Neptune's necklaces like different parts of the rock pool, the only places we found them where in the water, where no molluscs were, or far up on the sand where dead Neptunes necklaces had been washed up onto dry sand, with no protection. Molluscs like to be in rock pools with not much water flow; so they don't get pulled on there rocks. They don't like to be in the ocean or on the dry sand, which is where Neptunes necklaces tend to be. Discussion and Findings Checkpoint 4: Discussion and findings on 12 June, 2017 (AS90925 Carry out a practical investigation in a biological context, with direction and AS91036 Investigate bivariate numerical data using the statistical enquiry cycle) Discuss the findings from your investigation. Your discussion should include how your specific data relates to the ecology and the science ideas of the organisms involved. The trend line indicates a clear correlation between Neptunes necklaces and molluscs. Meaning that as the percentage of Neptune's necklaces increase, the amount of individual molluscs tend to decrease. This is a surprise because small sea creatures depend on the dense seaweed for protection. You would think that if the amount of Neptune's necklaces increased so would the molluscs, but that is not the case. When I ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34. The Degradation Of Coastal Wetlands Introduction There is rapid destruction of salt marshes and wetlands due to dredging operations and filling. In Boston, almost eighty–one percent of the salt marshes have been lost. For the Canadian Maritimes, almost sixty–four percent of the coastal wetlands have disappeared due to agricultural reclamation. Approximately, ninety–three percent coastal marshes have been lost along the Pacific coast in the United States. In addition, there is a degradation of coastal wetland due to invasive species, nutrient enrichment, and storm water discharge. It is critical to preserve and restore coastal salt marshes so that carbon can be sequestered, and fish and bird populations can be preserved (Roman et. al. 2012). It is estimated that coastal wetlands are being lost at the rate of two times the rate at which they are being restored. Salt marshes are found amid human developments and coastal areas and play an important role in protecting these communities from the threats posed by being close to the coast. Depending on the density of vegetation, production of biomass, and the size of the marsh, salt marshes provide many critical ecosystem services, such as, stabilization of the shoreline, weakening of the waves, and reduction of floodwater (Shepard et. al. 2011). Wetlands include boreal peatlands and tropical mangroves. They provide critical ecosystem services by acting as reserves for carbon, conserving biodiversity, purifying water, enhancing fish production, and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. Ecological Succession At Umass Dartmouth Ecological Succession At Umass Dartmouth Lab # 7 Name: Dominic Siaw Biology 132 Instructor: Marian Wahl Date Performed: 4/27/15 Date Submitted:4/13/15 Abstract The purpose of this experiment is to observe secondary succession at Umass Dartmouth and test the prediction that diversity increases through ecological succession. Students went outside to the lawn underneath the wind mill on campus. 3 transect sites were located by the instructor. Students predicted the species and percent cover of each species on each trail site. Bar charts were made to compare the number of species in each transect. Pi–charts were made to compare the percent coverage of species in each transect. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... All the p–values are greater than 0.05, therefore there is a statistical difference between each transect. Discussion This experiment was a success. The experimental procedure from the lab manual was followed. The right materials needed for this experiment was also used. Each group recorded the data of the name of species and percent cover for species in the three transects. After, the class data was assembled, pie–charts and bar graph were drawn from the data using excel. The bar chart was used to compare the number of species in each transect. In transect A, there were 5 different species. The species in this area were mostly grass, forbs, moss, bugs and beetles. Bugs and beetles made up a small population of this transect. In transect B, there were also 5 species. The species were mostly grass, shrubs, forbs, moss and bugs. In this transect, shrubs were found which makes transect B more diversed than A. In Transect C, 8 species were located in this area. The species included shrubs, grass, fobs, evergreen, trees, dirt, bugs and spiders. New species such as evergreen, trees, dirt and spiders were located in this location. Therefore the test that diversity happens through ecological succession was ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36. Case Study What Location/Habitat Supports The Most... Discussion Questions 1. What location/habitat supports the most diversity? Richness? Evenness? By evaluating the Shannon diversity index, we were able to determine that Location 1 had the most diversity considering the higher the Shannon diversity index, the more diverse the habit. During the transect survey, Location 1 had a diversity index of 2.451 and Location 2 had a diversity index of 2.320. For the point–count surveys, Location 1 had a diversity index of 2.398 and Location 2 had a diversity index of 1.792. These values are represented in Table 1. In terms of richness, Location 1 had the highest number of varying species. When combining both survey methods, Location 1 contained 21 different species while Location 2 contained 13. By viewing Figure 1, it is also clear that the surveys by themselves suggest overall richness to be greatest in Location 1. The location that possessed the most evenness was Location 2. By viewing the nature of the bar graphs in Figures 2 and 3, we can see that Location 2's species had a tendency to occur in equal amounts. In the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This conclusion can be made considering that in both locations the transect survey method consistently produced a higher Shannon diversity index. Using our data specifically, in Location 1 the transect survey had a diversity index of 2.451 while the point–count survey was slightly lower at 2.320 and in Location 2 the transect survey had a diversity index of 2.398 while the point–count survey was only 1.792 (Table 1). The reason behind this relationship may result from how each survey is conducted. When performing a transect survey the surveyor walks on a predetermined path which could allow for a higher possibility of recording species in the area and during a point–count survey surveyors remain stationary and have a smaller area to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. Third Creek Ecosystem Introduction (300 words) Biodiversity is the expression used to define the variety of plant species, animals and micro–organisms within the ecosystems in which they live. The Macquarie University describes biodiversity as "a useful indicator for the overall health and viability of natural environments" (Mq.edu.au.) This investigation will delve into how a creek's ecosystem affects and correlates to the health of the water and the surrounding environment. The investigation will be carried at three individual points along the Third Creek and Fourth Creek water catchments, located in the Adelaide hills. The three points of location will follow the creek from its early formation in the hills to just before it reaches metropolitan Adelaide. Legend ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Transects from the third creek catchment (transects 4–6) severely lack in native biodiversity with transect 4 completely arranged with non–native plant life. This could be attributed to the fact that Fourth creek resides within a state conservation park, thus there less influence of human activity on vegetation. This region of the Adelaide hills has been preserved since colonisation however introduced plant species still grow throughout the region. The anthropogenic biome of this catchment enhances the prominence of native species, contrastingly third creek runs throughout rural settlements, including cherry and grape orchards. These factors alongside the plantation of introduced species by white settlers has fostered a reduction in native fauna and thus an increased prominence of European plant life. Native vegetation within this region is mostly restricted to eucalyptus trees. Regarding the structure of diversity within each transect, there is no major difference when comparing the third creek catchment to the fourth creek catchment. Transects 1 and 5 consists of a large variety of plant layers, from large trees to ground cover. Conversely, transect 2 and 6 comprises of mostly lower–ground vegetation with a lack of large bushes or trees. The diversity of vegetation fluctuated throughout each creek, making results in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38. Creek Scientific Paper Exploring Freshwater Streams: Cherry Creek and Bear Creek Trisha McNiff BIOL 2081В005 Tucker 04/23/2013 Introduction On April 6th 2013, our Biology II lab evaluated the health of two freshwater streams in the Denver area. Both creeks flow to the South Platte River but are situated in different environments (urban and suburban) which cause variance in biotic and abiotic indicators of stream health. The presence or absence of bioindicators is dependent on the water chemistry. Through the study of stream health, we can gain insight on the stress that humans cause to freshwater habitats. I think that Bear Creek is healthier than Cherry Creek because it is in a less urban environment and is less affected by human influences. If the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Bioindicators of stream health include blackfly larvae, caddisflies, and algae. The presence of blackfly larvae indicates sewage pollution. Caddisflies indicate higher O2 concentrations. The presences of algae can indicate different things. If algae is absent, there may not be enough nutrients to support its growth. Thick algae indicates eutrophication. Previous studies by the Colorado Department of Health Water Quality Control Commission in 1981 show comparable amounts of dissolved O2 as well as pH, nitrite, and nitrate levels in both Cherry and Bear creek. The NH 3 levels were much higher in Cherry Creek at .10 mg/L compared to Bear creek where the NH 3 levels were at .06 mg/L (Colorado 1981). In today's society, it is important to find a balance between preserving the natural ecosystem and accommodating the wants, needs, and desires of the humans who affect it. (Meyer 1997). Pollution is inevitable but should be considered and kept as low as reasonably achievable. Materials and Methods The following procedures were carried out carried out at both Cherry Creek and Bear Creek 04/06/2013. The Colorado Department of Health Water Quality Control Commission 1981 provide abiotic standards for both creeks will be used as control for the chemical data collected. The first task was to seek out an area that included a pool and a riffle. The pool was identified as an area that is fairly deep with slowВflowing water. A riffle was found with fairly ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. Science Case Study 1.It is necessary to conduct random sampling within a habitat as we found more accurate the results withdrawing the influences of humans and let on the investigator to analyze and describe the structure and function of it with the obtained data. 2.In my opinion, accurate is when you have a measurement and you are more close to the actual value, on the other hand, precision is when you have repeated measurements and they do not have to be close to the real value, for example when you are doing an experiment and you have to do three trials and they are giving you the same result but at the same time, they are far away from the true value. I prefer to have in my sampling accuracy as my result could be more close to the true value. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... HO: There is not significant difference in abundance among the four species calculated from the transect sampling. HA: There is significant difference in abundance among the four species calculated from the transect sampling. I got a p–value of 0.16, which is greater than the alpha (= 0.05).Therefore, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Concluding that there will be not significant difference in abundance among the four species calculated from the transect sampling. No, the estimates from the individual group did not match the combined class estimates even though groups 5 and 6 had the same values in the quadrat sampling. In this case, the group with the highest estimate population size is group 1, which is higher than the mean calculated. On the other hand, group 4 has the lowest estimate population size among all the groups. In addition, group 2 has a lower estimation number except for specie A, and group 3 has a lower estimation number as well except for specie D. 1.In conclusion, given the true size of each species population, the sampling methods that obtained results that were more accurate was quadrat as this method is very convenient when you are going to test population sizes with limited mobility. In this case, I will increase the precision of my sampling methods if I had to do this experiment again using the quadrat data several times in order to avoid tendency but also the transect sampling ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40. The Effects Of Soil Ph Soil Moisture, Organic Horizon... In this experiment we tested the effects of soil pH, soil moisture, organic horizon thickness, and slope of the hill, on the species dominance of specific trees along a hill in Charlottesville, Virginia, a city within the Appalachian mountain range. There were 5 transects, distinguished by pink tape, that started at the North end of the Hill and progressed down, then up the south side of the hill. Our data was then reflected upon F.E. Clements organismic approach, And Ramensky and Gleason 's individualistic approach. The patterns between each variable and the survivability of the trees there, allow us to understand the species variation and each species dominance at the site. We hypothesized that the variations in community ecology would influence other variables, and the tree species surviving in that space. However, we found that the p–values for each variable we tested against each other, moisture vs. pH, moisture vs. organic horizon, and pH vs. organic horizon, were not significant values, rejecting our null hypothesis. These findings at Ohill show the influence each variable has on the tree relative frequency and basal area. Understanding the various environmental conditions that affect our forests is doubtfully one of the most important factors in the survivorship of our forests ecosystems as they cover 30% of the land area on earth (Sandrine et al. 2006). The variables tested, although only sampled in a small sample size, reflect key issues in forests around the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41. Nudge Beach Research Paper The aim of this investigation was to give students an understanding of how the changes in and effects of the abiotic and biotic factors along a transect line from high tide to low tide in the mangroves, at Nudgee Beach. In this investigation, the abiotic and biotic factors affecting mangroves and how mangroves species at Nudge Beach deal with theses factors etc., as well as critical issues affecting mangroves ecology, will be discussed. Results and observations of the mangroves ecosystem at Nudge Beach were recorded over a time period of 1 day. Different equipment's and chemicals were used to identify the levels of abiotic factors and biotic factors such as soil texture and colour, pH, air and soil temperature, relative humidity, speed of wind, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42. Investigation to Find Out Whether Light Distribution... Investigation to find out whether light distribution affects the abundance of daisy's on The Downs School playing field, Compton. Hypothesis: As the light intensity goes up the abundance of daisy's on The Downs School field will also increase. Equipment: 10 meter tape measure light intensity meter Identification key Thermometer soil depth spike PH Probe quadrat 0.5 by 0.5 Method: 1.Line up the tape measure from the chosen tree on the ground. 2.Place the quadrat on the ground next to the tape measure at 0cm 3.Count the number of squares in the quadrat where part of a daisy is present 4.Take the light intensity after each count of daisy's has being taken. 5.Move the quadrat to 1 meter and measure from 1 to 1.5 ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... We will take 3 measurements of how deep the soil is in 3 different places to get an overall average. MowingThe whole of the grass has being mowed therefore all the plants have gone through the same . SeasonBecause the experiment is only take place in 1 hour the season will not affect the results. If I had a whole year to carry this experiment out I would do the experiment throughout different seasons to see what affect the seasons has on the results. Soil PHI will measure the soil PH in 5 different places to get an accurate and reliable results. B(ii) In transect 1 quadrat number 3 there is an anomaly, the sequence is broken 81, 82, 89, 84, this could have been because Shelby pointed the light meter up into the sky instead of the 90 degree angle. If I had more time then we would have repeated this result. Most of the other results are accurate and reliable because looking at the graph there are no completely out of place results, there are a few that do not fit with the line of best fit very well but ecology is very hard to get perfect as you cannot make the environment do what you want to do. Some of the light measurements may not
  • 43. be accurate because when we did the experiment the light was changing and was very unpredictable, sometimes the sun would go behind a cloud which meant the light measurement would be low when actually most ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...