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Cloud Computing


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A look at cloud computing

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Cloud Computing

  1. 1. Cloud Computing Tinniam V Ganesh Tinniam V Ganesh - 103/25/12
  2. 2. Agenda What is the cloud ? Why the cloud ? Cloud Architecture Virtualization, Hypervisors and Multi-tenancy Cloud based services Types of clouds Major Cloud providers When to use the cloud ? Typical charges on the cloud Becoming a cloud provider Becoming a cloud enabler Cloud worthiness Security aspects
  3. 3. What is the Cloud Computing? What is the cloud computing ? 3. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid. The cloud is a network virtualization of applications and data 4. Cloud Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the datacenters that provide those services 5. Allows for a utility style usage of computing resources 6. Cloud promises real cost savings and agility to the customer 7. Allows rapid deployment of applications where the underlying technology components can expand and contract with the natural ebb and flow of the business life cycle03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 3
  4. 4. Cloud Computing  On-demand  Scalable  Flexible  Utility style, pay-per-use03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 4
  5. 5. Why the cloud? Cloud Architectures address key difficulties surrounding large-scale data processing. 2. In traditional data processing it is difficult to get as many machines as an application needs. 3. Second, it is difficult to get the machines when one needs them. 4. Third, it is difficult to distribute and coordinate a large-scale job on different machines, run processes on them, and provision another machine to recover if one machine fails. 5. Fourth, it is difficult to auto scale up and down based on dynamic workloads. 6. Fifth, it is difficult to get rid of all those machines when the job is done. Cloud Architectures solve such difficulties03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 5
  6. 6. The cloud perspective  From an engineering perspective the cloud is a computing architecture characterized by a large number of interconnected identical computing devices that can scale on demand and that communicate via an IP network.   From a business perspective it is computing services that are scalable and billed on a usage basis.  Allows customers to shift traditional Capital Expenditures (CapEx) into their Operating Expenditure (OpEx) budgets03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 6
  7. 7. The Cloud Architecture03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 7
  8. 8. VirtualizationTransforms from “one server- one application” to multiple virtualmachines on each physical machineRun Multiple OS on a single machine a thin layer is introduced over either the hardware or on top ofthe OSLeaders in Virtualization – VMware, Citrix Xen03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 8
  9. 9. HypervisorThe Hypervisor is a layer of software running directly on computerhardware replacing the operating system thereby allowing thecomputer hardware to run multiple guest operating systemsconcurrentlyThe Hypervisor presents to the guest OS a virtual OS and manages theexecution of the guest OS.Multiple instances of a variety of OS’es can share a virtualized resource03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 9
  10. 10. Hypervisor03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 10
  11. 11. Hypervisor03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 11
  12. 12. Benefits of Hypervisor  Increase server utilization  Consolidate server farms  Decrease complexity  Decrease Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 12
  13. 13. Multi tenancy vs. Multi-user  Multi-user is when many users use an application  Multi-tenancy refers to having many different application share the same software/hardware resources in a cloud. e.g. ERP applications each customized by different customers. There are different degrees of multi-tenancy - Sharing of applications - Sharing of database schemas - Using a tenant id Issues How does one keep different applications isolated in a virtualized environment?03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 13
  14. 14. Intel’s Enamoly Architecture03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 14
  15. 15. The Cloud Architecture03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 15
  16. 16. Cloud based ServicesInfrastructure as a Service (IaaS)Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is the delivery of hardware (server, storage and network), Delivery of associated software (operating systems virtualization technology, file system), as a service. users must deploy and manage the software services themselves Amazon Web Services Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Secure Storage Service (S3) are examples of IaaS offerings. 03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 16
  17. 17. Cloud based services Platform as a Service (PaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS) is  an application development and deployment platform delivered as a service over the Web  This platform consists of infrastructure software, and typically includes a database, middleware and development tools.  Some PaaS offerings have a specific programming language or API. For example, Google AppEngine is a PaaS offering where developers write in Python or Java.  .03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 17
  18. 18. Software as a Service (SaaS)  A SaaS provider typically hosts and manages a given application in their own data center and makes it available to multiple tenants and users over the Web.  Oracle CRM On Demand,, and Netsuite are some of the well known SaaS examples03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 18
  19. 19. Types of Cloud Architectures There are 3 types of Cloud Architecture 2. Public clouds 3. Private clouds 4. Hybrid clouds03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 19
  20. 20. Public CloudsPublic Clouds External organizations provide the infrastructure and management required to implement the cloud. Typically billed based on usage. Transfers the cost from a Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) to an Operational Expense (OPEX) Temporary applications or applications with burst resource requirements typically benefit from the public cloud’s ability Public clouds have the disadvantage of hosting your data in an offsite organization outside the legal and regulatory umbrella of your organization. In addition, as most public clouds leverage a worldwide network of data centers. These issues result in potential regulatory compliance issues which preclude the use of public clouds for certain organizations or business applications. 03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 20
  21. 21. Private CloudsPrivate Clouds The infrastructure is controlled completely by the enterprise. Typically, private clouds are implemented in the enterprise’s data center and managed by internal resources. A private cloud maintains all corporate data in resources under the control of the legal and contractual umbrella of the organization. This eliminates the regulatory, legal and security concerns associated with information being processed on third party computing resources. Currently, private clouds require Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) and Operational Expenditure (OPEX). Requires highly skilled labor to ensure that business services can be met. The private cloud can also be used by existing legacy IT departments to dramatically reduce their costs and as an opportunity to shift from a cost center to a value center in the eyes of the business. 03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 21
  22. 22. Hybrid Clouds Hybrid Clouds  To meet the benefits of both approaches, newer execution models have been developed to combine public and private clouds into a unified solution.  Applications with significant legal, regulatory or service level concerns for information can be directed to a private cloud.  Other applications with less stringent regulatory or service level requirements can leverage a public cloud infrastructure.  Implementation of a hybrid model requires additional coordination between the private and public service management system.  Involves a federated policy management tool, seamless hybrid integration, federated security, information asset management, coordinated provisioning control, and unified monitoring systems.03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 22
  23. 23. Business Benefits of Cloud Architectures There are some clear business benefits to building applications using Cloud Architectures  Almost zero upfront infrastructure investment: If you have to build a large-scale system it may cost a fortune to invest in real estate, hardware (racks, machines, routers, backup power supplies), hardware management (power management, cooling), and operations personnel. Now, with utility-style computing, there is no fixed cost or startup cost.  Just-in-time Infrastructure:  The solutions are low risk because you scale only as you grow.03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 23
  24. 24. Key benefits of the Cloud  More efficient resource utilization: Better infrastructure utilization  Usage-based costing: Utility-style pricing allows billing the customer only for the infrastructure that has been used. The customer is not liable for the entire infrastructure that may be in place.  Potential for shrinking the processing time: Parallelization is the one of the great ways to speed up processing. If one compute-intensive or data intensive job that can be run in parallel takes 500 hours to process on one machine, with Cloud Architectures, it would be possible to spawn and launch 500 instances and process the same job in 1 hour. Having available an elastic infrastructure provides the application with the ability to exploit parallelization in a cost-effective manner reducing the total processing time.03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 24
  25. 25. Major Cloud providers Amazon EC2  Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) is at one end of the spectrum. An EC2 instance looks much like physical hardware, and users can control nearly the entire software stack, from the kernel upwards. This low level makes it inherently difficult for Amazon to offer automatic scalability and failover, because the semantics associated with replication and other state management issues are highly application-dependent. Google’s AppEngine  AppEngine is targeted exclusively at traditional web applications, enforcing an application structure of clean separation between a stateless computation tier and a stateful storage tier. AppEngine’s impressive automatic scaling and high-availability mechanisms, and the proprietary MegaStore data storage available to AppEngine applications, all rely on these constraints. Microsoft Azure  Applications for Microsoft’s Azure are written using the .NET libraries, and compiled to the Common Language Runtime, a language-independent managed environment. Thus, Azure is intermediate between application frameworks like AppEngine and hardware virtual machines like EC2.03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 25
  26. 26. When to use the Cloud?  A first case is when demand for a service varies with time. Provisioning a data center for the peak load it must sustain a few days per month leads to underutilization at other times, for example. Instead, Cloud Computing lets an organization pay by the hour for computing resources, potentially leading to cost savings even if the hourly rate to rent a machine from a cloud provider is higher than the rate to own one.  A second case is when demand is unknown in advance. For example, a web startup will need to support a spike in demand when it becomes popular, followed potentially by a reduction once some of the visitors turn away.  Finally, organizations that perform batch analytics can use the cloud computing to finish computations faster: using 1000 EC2 machines for 1 hour costs the same as using 1 machine for 1000 hours.03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 26
  27. 27. Typical charges on the Cloud For example in the Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) from Amazon Web Services (AWS) sells 2. 1.0-GHz x86 ISA “slices” for 10 cents per hour, 3. A new “slice”, or instance, can be added in 2 to 5 minutes. 4. Amazon’s Scalable Storage Service (S3) charges $0.12 to $0.15 per gigabyte-month Windows Azure Google App EngineCPU 0.12 hr 0.10/hrBandwidth (out) $0.15/GB $0.12/GBBandwidth (in) $0.10/GB $0.10/GB Pricing unavailableStorage (Files) $0.15/GB/month (Blobstore) $9.99/month (SQL $0.15/GB/monthStorage (DB) Server up to 1GB) ($0.005/GB/day) 03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 27
  28. 28. Becoming a Cloud ProviderMake a lot of money. Although 10 cents per server-hour seems low the company could leverage these economies of scaleLeverage existing investment. Adding Cloud Computing services on top of existing infrastructure provides a new revenue streamDefend a franchise. For example, Microsoft Azure provides an immediate path for migrating existing customers of Microsoft enterprise applications to a cloud environment.Leveraging large data centers A necessary but not sufficient condition for a company to become a Cloud Computing provider is that it must have existing investments not only in very large datacenters, but also in large-scale software infrastructure and operational expertise required to run them 03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 28
  29. 29. Becoming a Cloud Enabler Designing for the Cloud  Use Scalable Ingredients - Ensure that your application is scalable by designing each component to be scalable on its own. If every component implements a service interface, responsible for its own scalability in all appropriate dimensions, then the overall system will have a scalable base.  Have Loosely Coupled Systems - For better manageability and high-availability, make sure that your components are loosely coupled.  Think Parallel - Implement parallelization for better use of the infrastructure and for performance. Distributing the tasks on multiple machines, multithreading your requests and effective aggregation of results obtained in parallel are some of the techniques that help exploit the infrastructure.03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 29
  30. 30. Becoming a Cloud Enabler Designing for the Cloud  Utilize On-Demand Requisition and Relinquishment - After designing the basic functionality, ask the question “What if this fails?” Use techniques and approaches that will ensure resilience. If any component fails (and failures happen all the time), the system should automatically alert, failover, and re-sync back to the “last known state” as if nothing had failed.  Use Designs that Are Resilient to Reboot and Re-Launch - Don’t forget the cost factor. The key to building a cost-effective application is using on-demand resources in your design. It’s wasteful to pay for infrastructure that is sitting idle.03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 30
  31. 31. Cloud Worthiness Processing Pipelines  Document processing pipelines – convert hundreds of thousands of documents from Microsoft Word to PDF, OCR millions of pages/images into raw searchable text  Image processing pipelines – create thumbnails or low resolution variants of an image, resize millions of images  Video transcoding pipelines – transcode AVI to MPEG movies  Indexing – create an index of web crawl data  Data mining – perform search over millions of records Batch Processing Systems  Back-office applications (in financial, insurance or retail sectors)  Log analysis – analyze and generate daily/weekly reports  Nightly builds – perform nightly automated builds of source code repository every night in  parallel  Automated Unit Testing and Deployment Testing – Test and deploy and perform automated unit testing (functional, load, quality) on different deployment configurations every night03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 31
  32. 32. Cloud worthinessWebsites Websites that “sleep” at night and auto-scale during the day Instant Websites – websites for conferences or events (Super Bowl, sports tournaments) Promotion websites “Seasonal Websites” - websites that only run during the tax season or the holiday seasonMobile interactive applications (M2M).M2M services will be attracted to the cloud because these services generally rely on large data sets that are most conveniently hosted in large datacenters.Parallel batch processing.Cloud Computing presents a unique opportunity for batch-processing and analytics jobs that analyze terabytes of data and can take hours to finish. If there is enough data parallelism in the application, users can take advantage of the using hundreds of computers for a short time. 03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 32
  33. 33. Cloud worthiness The rise of analytics. A special case of compute-intensive batch processing is business analytics. A growing share of computing resources is now spent on understanding customers, supply chains, buying habits, ranking, and so on.. Extension of compute-intensive desktop applications. The latest versions of the mathematics software packages Matlab and Mathematica are capable of using Cloud Computing to perform expensive evaluations.03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 33
  34. 34. Security in the Cloud Data Confidentiality and Auditability  Current cloud offerings are essentially public (rather than private) networks, exposing the system to more attacks. There are also requirements for auditability, in the sense of Sarbanes-Oxley and Health and Human Services Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations that must be provided for corporate data to be moved to the cloud.  Other standards include PCI, SOX,03/25/12 Tinniam V Ganesh - 34
  35. 35. Thank You !!! Tinniam V Ganesh Read my blogs: Tinniam V Ganesh - 35