Wireless technologies - Part 2


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A look at wireless technologies IMS, LTE,HSPA etc - Part 2

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Wireless technologies - Part 2

  1. 1. Tinniam.V.Ganesh http://gigadom.wordpress.com03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 1
  2. 2. Agenda • Network Architecture, Network Elements • Typical 2G Architecture • PLMN, CS, PS, AN,CN • MSC, HLR, VLR • GMSC, AuC, EIR • 2.5 G Architecture • SGSN, GGSN • Recap • SMS Architecture • SMS Network Elements • 3G Network Architecture • Frequency reuse • Handoff • Bluetooth stack • WiFI • Recap • Quiz 303/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 2
  3. 3. Evolution of Technology03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 3
  4. 4. Typical 2G Architecture03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 4
  5. 5. Signaling in Core Network Based on SS7 • ISUP and specific Application Parts GSM MAP and ANSI-41 services • Mobility, call-handling, O&M • Authentication, supplementary services • SMS, … Location registers for mobility management • HLR: home location register has permanent data • VLR: visitor location register keeps local copy for roamer03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 5
  6. 6. GSM 2G Architecture03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 6
  7. 7. Wireless definitions PLMN A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is established and operated by an administration or Recognized Private Operating Agency (RPOA) The PLMN infrastructure is logically divided into 5. Core Network (CN) 6. Access Network (AN) Access Network (AN) 9. BSS in 2G systems (BTS, BSC) 10. RNS in 3G systems (NodeB, RNC) The Core Network (CN) is divided into 13. Circuit Switched domain 14. Packet Switched domain03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 7
  8. 8. PLMN Circuit Switched (CS) domain Access Network – BTS, BSC Core Network - MSC, VLR, HLR, GMSC, SMSC Packet Switched (PS) domain Access Network – BTS, BSC Core network - SGSN, GGSN03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 8
  9. 9. GSM Architecture Access Network 2. BTS 3. BSC Core Network 6. MSC 7. HLR 8. VLR 9. AuC 10. EIR 11. SMSC 12. GMSC03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 9
  10. 10. GSM- Access Network Mobile Station : The mobile communicates over the air interface with a base transceiver station (BTS) . The handset has 2 parts namely the mobile equipment and the subscriber identity module (SIM) The SIM contains the user specific information, subscriber authentication information and some service info. BTS : The BTS contains the radio transceivers that provide the radio interface to mobile stations. One or more BTS are connected to the Base Station Controller. BSC The BSC provides a number of functions related to • Radio resource (RR) management • Mobility management (MM) for subscribers in coverage areas Together the BTS and BSCs are known as the Base Station System (BSS)03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 10
  11. 11. Mobile Switching Center (MSC) • Mobile services switching center (MSC) —The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. • • The Mobile-services Switching Centre (MSC) constitutes the interface between the radio system and the fixed networks. • The MSC performs all necessary functions in order to handle the circuit switched services to and from the mobile stations. • The Mobile-services Switching Centre is an exchange which performs all the switching and signalling functions for mobile stations located in a geographical area designated as the MSC area. • Does radio resource management • Does switching, routing of calls • Is involved in charging03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 11
  12. 12. Home Location Register (HLR) • Home location register (HLR) —The HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions. The HLR is considered the most important database, HLR stores the following information • the subscription information • some location information enabling the charging and routing of calls towards the MSC where the MS is registered (e.g. the MS Roaming Number, the VLR Number, the MSC Number, the Local MS Identity) • the International Mobile Station Identity (IMSI); • one or more Mobile Station International ISDN number(s) (MSISDN); The data base contains other information such as • teleservices and bearer services subscription information • service restrictions (e.g. roaming limitation) • a list of all the group IDs a service subscriber is entitled to use to establish voice group or broadcast calls • supplementary services; the HLR contains the parameters attached to these services;03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 12
  13. 13. Visitor Location Register (VLR) • Visitor location register (VLR) —The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. • The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. • When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. • Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time. • The VLR stores the following information - the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI); - the Mobile Station International ISDN number (MSISDN); - the Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN), - the Temporary Mobile Station Identity (TMSI), if applicable;03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 13
  14. 14. Authentication Center (AuC) • Authentication center (AUC) —A unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the users identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in todays cellular world. • The Authentication Centre (AuC) is an entity which stores data for each mobile subscriber to allow the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) to be authenticated and to allow communication over the radio path between the mobile station and the network to be ciphered. • The Authentication Centre (AuC) is associated with an HLR, and stores an identity key for each mobile subscriber registered with the associated HLR. This key is used to generate: – data which are used to authenticate the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI); – a key used to cipher communication over the radio path between the mobile station and the network03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 14
  15. 15. Equipment Identification Register (EIR) • Equipment identity register (EIR) —The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations. The AUC and EIR are implemented as stand-alone nodes or as a combined AUC/EIR node. • The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) in the GSM system is the logical entity which is responsible for storing in the network the International Mobile Equipment Identities (IMEIs), used in the GSM system.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 15
  16. 16. Gateway MSC (GMSC) • If a network delivering a call to the PLMN cannot interrogate the HLR, the call is routed to an MSC. This MSC will interrogate the appropriate HLR and then route the call to the MSC where the mobile station is located. The MSC which performs the routing function to the actual location of the MS is called the Gateway MSC (GMSC).03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 16
  17. 17. 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 17
  18. 18. 2.5G Architectural details03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 18
  19. 19. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Core Network • Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) • Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 19
  20. 20. Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) A Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is responsible for  the delivery of data packets from and to the mobile stations within its geographical service area.  packet routing and transfer,  mobility management (attach/detach and location management),  logical link management, and  authentication  charging functions. The location register of the SGSN stores location information  current cell, current VLR  user profiles (e.g., IMSI, address(es) used in the packet data network) of all GPRS users registered with this SGSN.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 20
  21. 21. Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) GGSN • The GGSN is responsible for the interworking between the GPRS network and external packet switched networks, • The GGSN ‘hides’ the GPRS infrastructure from the external network. • The GGSN converts the GPRS packets coming from the SGSN into the appropriate packet data protocol (PDP) format 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 21
  22. 22. GSM Evolution for Data Access03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 22
  23. 23. 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 23
  24. 24. SMS Architecture SMS-GMSC / SMS-IWMSC MSC/SGSN MS SC 1. 3. 5. < > < > < > ↑ ↑ 2. 4.* < < HLR VLR SC – Service Centre SMS-IWMSC – SMS Interworking MSC SMS-GMSC – Gateway MSC for SMS03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 24
  25. 25. SMS Network Elements • Service Centre (SC): function responsible for the relaying and store‑and‑forwarding of a short message between an SME and an MS • Gateway MSC For Short Message Service (SMS‑ GMSC): function of an MSC capable of receiving a short message from an SC, interrogating an HLR for routing information and SMS info, and delivering the short message to the VMSC or the SGSN of the recipient MS • Interworking MSC For Short Message Service (SMS‑ IWMSC): function of an MSC capable of receiving a short message from within the PLMN and submitting it to the recipient SC03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 25
  26. 26. SMS Services Short Message Mobile Terminated SM MT denotes the capability of the GSM/UMTS system to transfer a short message submitted from the SC to one MS, and to provide information about the delivery of the short message either by a delivery report or a failure report Short Message Mobile Originated SM MO denotes the capability of the GSM/UMTS system to transfer a short message submitted by the MS to one SME via an SC, and to provide information about the delivery of the short message either by a delivery report or a failure03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 26
  27. 27. 3G Rel 99 Architecture03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 27
  28. 28. 3G Architecture Access Network Universal Terrestial Radio Access Network Radio Network Systems (RNS) or UTRAN 4. Node B 5. Radio Network Controller RNC Core Network • MSC Server (UMTS) • HLR • VLR • GMSC • SMSC03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 28
  29. 29. GSM Signaling Protocol Architecture03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 29
  30. 30. Wireless Mobility Data Technology Data capability GSM 9.6/14.4 kbps CDMA 9.6/14.4 kbps GPRS 128 Kbps EDGE 384Kbps WCDMA 144 kbps vehicular 384 outdoors 2 Mbps indoors CDMA2000 144 kbps vehicular 384 outdoors 2 Mbps indoors03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 30
  31. 31. Wireless Technologies03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 31
  32. 32. Optimizing Frequency reuse03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 32
  33. 33. Access Network • The network is divided into a number of cells or geographic coverage areas • Within each cell is a base station which contains the radio transmission and reception equipments • The coverage area of the base station depends in factors like transmit power of station, the height of the base station the topology of the area. • Specific radio frequencies are allocated within each cell • The frequencies are reused in other cells that are sufficiently far away to avoid interference03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 33
  34. 34. Problem due to limited spectrum Spectrum allocation at 800 Mhz – 25 Mhz 1G AMPS systems – 30 Khz/channel Capacity = 25 Mhz/30Khz = 833 channels Hence 833 simultaneous users (hardly enough)03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 34
  35. 35. Frequency re-use Assume 832 channels available Divide into 4 sets = 832/4 = 208 channels per cell For N cells in the system total capacity = 208N (instead of 832)03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 35
  36. 36. Frequency reuse03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 36
  37. 37. Cell boundaries • Want to cover area without gaps or overlaps: squares, triangles, hexagons • Want to have signal strength as large as possible for all points within the cell • hexagon is closest to a circle • This is an idealized representation, in the real world, cell boundaries are ill-defined.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 37
  38. 38. Limitations of Frequency reuse This is limited by S/I S – Signal strength in db I – Co channel interference in db03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 38
  39. 39. Methods of increasing capacity Cells are split to add channels03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 39
  40. 40. Method to increase capacity-sectoring03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 40
  41. 41. Methods for increasing capacity- Umbrella cells03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 41
  42. 42. 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 42
  43. 43. Bluetooth •  Bluetooth is the name given to a new technology using short-range radio links, intended to replace the cable(s) connecting portable and/or fixed electronic devices. It is envisaged that it will allow for the replacement of the many propriety cables that connect one device to another with one universal radio link. Its key features are robustness, low complexity, low power and low cost. Designed to operate in noisy frequency environments, the Bluetooth radio uses a fast acknowledgement and frequency hopping scheme to make the link robust. Bluetooth radio modules operate in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4GHz, and avoid interference from other signals by hopping to a new frequency after transmitting or receiving a packet. Compared with other systems in the same frequency band, the Bluetooth radio hops faster and uses shorter packets. 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 43
  44. 44. Bluetooth stack03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 44
  45. 45. Bluetooth stack • The Radio layer defines the requirements for a Bluetooth transceiver operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. • The Baseband layer describes the specification of the Bluetooth Link Controller (LC) which carries out the baseband protocols and other low-level link routines. • The Link Manager Protocol (LMP) is used by the Link Managers (on either side) for link set-up and control. • The Host Controller Interface (HCI) provides a command interface to the Baseband Link Controller and Link Manager, and access to hardware status and control registers. • Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) supports higher level protocol multiplexing, packet segmentation and reassembly, and the conveying of quality of service information. • The RFCOMM protocol provides emulation of serial ports over the L2CAP protocol. The protocol is based on the ETSI standard TS 07.10. • The Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) provides a means for applications to discover which services are provided by or available through a Bluetooth device. It also allows applications to determine the characteristics of those available services.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 45
  46. 46. Bluetooth stack vs OSI03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 46
  47. 47. Bluetooth Features03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 47
  48. 48. Blue tooth target devices03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 48
  49. 49. 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 49
  50. 50. Why WiFi ? 1. Setup Cost – Reduced cabling required 2. Flexibility – Quick and easy to setup in temporary or permanent space 3. Scalable – Can be expanded with growth 4. Freedom – You can work from any location that you can get a signal 5. Lower total cost of ownership – Because of affordability and low install cost 6. Mobile Users – Can access the Corporate network from any public hotspot using VPN03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 50
  51. 51. 802.11b • Been around the longest, well-supported, stable, and cost effective, but runs in the 2.4 GHz range that makes it prone to interference from other devices (microwave ovens, cordless phones, etc) and also has security disadvantages • Has 11 channels, with 3 non-overlapping, and supports • rates from 1 to 11 Mbps, but realistically about 4-5 Mbps • Uses direct-sequence spread-spectrum technology03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 51
  52. 52. 802.11g • Extension of 802.11b, with the same disadvantages (security and interference) • Has a shorter range than 802.11b • Is backwards compatible with 802.11b so it allows or a smooth transition from 11b to 11g • Flexible because multiple channels can be combined for faster throughput, but limited to one access point • Runs at 54 Mbps, but realistically about 20-25 Mbps and about 14 Mbps when b associated • Uses frequency division multiplexing technology03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 52
  53. 53. 802.11a Completely different from 11b and 11g. 3. Flexible because multiple channels can be combined for faster throughput and more access points can be collocated 4. Shorter range than 11b and 11g 5. Runs in the 5 GHz range, so less interference from other devices 6. Has 12 channels, 8 non-overlapping, and supports rates from 6 to 54 Mbps, but realistically about 27 Mbps max 7. Uses frequency division multiplexing technology03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 53
  54. 54. Security in WiFi Data Security/Encryption • Third Party solution - Fortress • Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)-Shared key Access  WPA/WEP  MAC Authentication – MAC address control Attack – Denial of Service • Client Protection • Antivirus/Firewall03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 54
  55. 55. 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 55
  56. 56. Questions ?03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 56
  57. 57. Quiz 3 1. The Core Network (CN) consists of CS domain and PS domain a. True b. False 2. The Access Network in 2G does not include a. BSC b. BTS c. MSC d. RNC 3. The 2G CS domain does not include a. MSC b. HLR c. AuC d. SGSN 4.Which is not true of the HLR a. It is a Database b. It stores IMSI, features and services c. It is involved routing of calls from PSTN d. Does switching and routing 5. Which is not true of EIR a. Stores IMEI b. Used to determine if equipment is stolen c. Is a database d. Does radio resource management 6. A GMSC a. Will query HLR for call from PSTN b. Does switching and routing c. Connected to PSTN d. All of the above 7. Which is true SGSN a. Does packet routing & transfer b. Does mobility management c. Does charging d. all of the above03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 57
  58. 58. Quiz 3 1. Which is not true of the speeds a. GSM – 64 Kbps b. GPRS – 115 kbps c. EDGE - 384 Kbps d. 3 G – 2 Mbps 2. A SC in a SMS network is used for storing and forwarding SMS messages a. True b. False 3. The Access Network of a 3G Architecture consists of a. MSC, HLR, VLR b. RNC, Node B c. SGSN, GGSN d. AUC, EIR 4. Assume spectrum is 30 Mhz and channel bandwidth is 30 Khz then number of users is a. 833 b. 1000 c. 500 d. Cannot say 5. Which is not true of Bluetooth a. Uses 2.4 GHz b. Uses TDMA with TDD c. Range 1 Km d. Gross Data rate of 1 km. 6. L2CAP is not used for a. QoS b. Segmentation c.Reassembly d. Link serup and tear down 7. Security in WiFi networks uses a. WPA b. WEP c. MAC Authentication d. All of the above 9. MSCs use packet switching technology a. True b. False03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 58
  59. 59. Call flows and Advanced wireless concepts03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 59
  60. 60. Agenda – Session 4 Call flows and Advanced wireless concepts • GSM Air interface • GSM air interface channels • Location Updating Sequence Flows • Mobile origination to PSTN • PSTN origination to Mobile • GPRS call flow • SMS call Flow • Recap • Inter BSC Handoff scenario • UMTS • Softswitch • IMS Architecture • 3.5 G • Mobile data explosion • The evolution of LTE • Recap • Quiz 403/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 60
  61. 61. Basic Network Architecture BTS BSC HLR MSC BTS BTS03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 61
  62. 62. Air Interface Access techniques Radio spectrum is a finite resource The radio access method is either Frequency division duplex (FDD) or Time Division Duplex (TDD). The protocol method is TDMA, FDMA or CDMA Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) : Two separate radio channels are used for communicating to the base station • One radio channel for , f1, for downlink • One radio channel, f2, for uplink f1 - downlink FDD f2 - uplink03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 62
  63. 63. TDD • Time Division Duplex (TDD) • One radio channel for communicating to base station. Duplexing is done on time03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 63
  64. 64. Mobile radio propagation effects • Signal strength – Must be strong enough between base station and mobile unit to maintain signal quality at the receiver – Must not be so strong as to create too much co-channel interference with channels in another cell using the same frequency band • Fading – Signal propagation effects may disrupt the signal and cause errors03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 64
  65. 65. GSM Architecture The interface between the BTS and BSC is known as the A-bis interface MSC One or more BSCs are connected to MSC. The MSC is a switch the node that controls call setup, call routing and many of the functions provided by the standard telecommunication switch VLR is a database that contains subscriber related information for the duration that a subscriber is in the coverage area of an MSC. The MSC and VLR are in the same platform, The interface between the BSC and MSC is known as A-interface This is a SS7 based interface using the SCCP. Above this is the BSS Application Part (BSSAP) which is the protocol for communicating between the BSC and the MSC. Since the MSC communicated with the BSC and the MS the BSSAP is divided into two parts the BSSMAP (BSS Management Application Part) and the Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) BSSMAP are messages to BSS DTAP messages are passed transparently thro the BSS to the NS`03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 65
  66. 66. GSM Protocol stack03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 66
  67. 67. GSM Architecture HLR The Home Location register contains subscriber data such has the details the subscriber has subscribed to . Associated with the HLR ios the authentication center (AuC). This is the network element that contains the subscriber specific authentication data such as the secret key For a given subscriber using a random number generated by the AuC and passed to the SIM via the HLR., MSC and ME. The SIM performs the calculation using the Ki and the authentication algorithm. If the result os the calculation by the SIM matches that in AuC then the subscriner has been authenticated03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 67
  68. 68. GMSC When a call from a PSTN it arrives at a type of MSC known as the GMSC. The GMSC queries the HLR to determine the location of the subscriber The response from the HLR indicates to the GMSC when the subscriber may be found The call is forwarded by the GMSC to the MSC serving the subscriber03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 68
  69. 69. The GSM Air interface GSM uses TDMA with Frequency Division duples (FDD) GSM has been deployed in 900 Mhz, 1800 Mhz, 1900 Mhz In GSM a given band is divided into 200 Khz carries or RF channels in both uplink and downlink directions For eg. In standard 900 Mhz band the first uplink is 890.2 Mhz and the last uplink is 914.8 allowing a total of 124 carriers 914.8 Mhz – 890.2 Mhz = 24.6 Mhz/200 Khz = 123+ 1 carriers or channels Each RF carrier is divided into 8 time slots . The 8 time slots are used to carry user traffic and also control traffic03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 69
  70. 70. Types of Air Interface channels There are 3 types of channels 2. Broadcast channels 3. Control channels 4. Traffic channels Broadcast Channels Frequency correction channel (FCCH) used for frequency correction of the MS Synchronization channel (SCH) – Broadcast by BTS and is used for mobile station for frame synchronization Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) – Broadcast general information Common Control Channel (CCCH) Paging channel – used for paging of the mobiles Random Access Channel (RACH) – Only used in uplink. It is used to allocate to MS a Stand alone dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) or directly to a Traffic Channel (TCH) Access Grant Channel (AGCH) – used in the downlink in responswe to a access request received on the RACH03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 70
  71. 71. Air interface channels • Notification Channel – used to notify MS • Standalone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) – Used towards MS when it is not used for TCH. Used for SMS. Call establishment signaling prior to allocation of TCH • Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) – Power Control messages from BTS to MS are sent on this channel. In the uplink the MS sends measurement reports to the BTS • Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) – Used to transmit non voice information to and from the MS03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 71
  72. 72. Air interface channel structure Certain time slots in a given RF carrier are allocated to control channel whereas the remaining are for traffic channels. For eg. Time slot 0 us for BCCH /CCCH . It may also carry 4 SDCCH BCCH/CCCH/ TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH SDCCH03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 72
  73. 73. How does the cellular network know the mobile’s position? The cell phone keeps the cellular operator informed about your location.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 73
  74. 74. Location Area Location Area (LA) • A GSM network is divided into cells. A group of cells is considered a location area. A mobile phone in motion keeps the network informed about changes in the location area. If the mobile moves from a cell in one location area to a cell in another location area, the mobile phone should perform a location area update to inform the network about the exact location of the mobile phone. Home Location Register (HLR) • The HLR maintains a database for the mobile subscribers. At any point of time, the HLR knows the address of the MSC VLR that control the current location area of the mobile. The HLR is informed about a location area update only if the location area change has resulted in a change of the MSC VLR. Mobile Switching Center - Visitor Location Register (MSC VLR) • The MSC VLR is responsible to switching voice calls and it also keeps track of the exact location area where the mobile user is present. Note that a typical MSC VLR will service several location areas.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 74
  75. 75. Location Update 1. When the MS is switched on it must camp on a suitable cell. This involves scanning the air interface to select a cell with a suitably strong signal and decoding the informationbroadcast by the BTS on the BCCH 2. The MS makes a channel request on the RACH with a cause as Location Updating 3. The BSS allocates an SDCCH for the MS to use. It instructs the MS to move to the SDCCH by sending an immediate assignment message on the AGCH 4. The MS then moves the SDCCH and send the location updating message. This contains the location area identity and the mobile identity. The mobile identity is either the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) or the Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). 5. This is sent through the BSS to the NSC 6. On receipt of the IMSI the NSC.VLR attempt to authenticate the subscriber. 7. If the MSC does not have authentication information then it request the HLR using the MAP operation Send Authetication Info. 8. The HLR AuC sends the MAP Return Result with up to five authentication vectors03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 75
  76. 76. Location Update Known as triplets. Each triplet contains a random number (RAND) and a signed response (SRES) 2. The MSC sends an Authentication request to the MS. This contains the RAND. 3. The MS performs the same calculations as were performed by the HLR/AuC and send the Authentication response containing the SRES parameter. 4. The MSC/VLR check rto make sure that the SRES from the MS matches the SRES from HLR/AuC 5. If a match is made then the MS is authenticated 6. At this point the MSC/VLR use te MAP Operation Update Location to inform the HLR of the subscriber location. 7. The HLR immediately sends a Cancel Location message to the VLR to remove anty previous location 8. VLR deletes any previous data 9. HLR uses a MAP operation to Insert Subscriber data to VLR 10. VLR acknowledges receipt of information 11. HLR sends a return result of the MAP Update Location03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 76
  77. 77. Location Update 1. On receipt of the return result the MSC sends a DTAP message Location Updating Accept to the MS03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 77
  78. 78. Location Update Sequence flow Previous BSS MSC/VLR HLR/AuC MSC/VLR Channel Request Immediate Channel Assignment Location Updating Request Location Updating Request Send Authentication Info Send Authentication Info RR Authentication Request Authentication Response Update Location Cancel Location Cancel Location RR03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 78
  79. 79. Location Update Sequence flow Previous BSS MSC/VLR HLR/AuC MSC/VLR Insert Subscriber data Insert Subscriber data RR Update Location RR Location Update Accept Clear Command Clear Complete Channel release03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 79
  80. 80. Mobile Originated Call to PSTN Request Access • The MS sends a Channel Request (CHAN_REQ) message on the RACH.  The BSS responds with a radio resource assignment (IMM_ASS_CMD) on the AGCH.  The MS sends a Service Request (CM_SERV_REQ) message to the BSS on the SDCCH. Authentication • Before the network will provide any services to the MS, the network will require the MS to authenticate itself. The BSS sends an Authentication Request (AUTH_REQ) message to the MS. The RAND serves as the "challenge" for authentication. • The MS calculates the proper SRES based on the RAND that was given and sends the SRES to the BSS in an Authentication Response (AUTH_RESP) message. • The BSS verifies the SRES. If the SRES is correct then the MS is authenticated and allowed access to the network. The BSS will send a Service Accept (CM_SERV_ACC) message letting the MS know that the service request was received and processed. • Once authenticated, the BSS orders the MS to switch to cipher mode with the CIPH_MOD_CMD message.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 80
  81. 81. Mobile Originated Call to PSTN Initial Call Setup • The MS will immediately switch to cipher mode and send a Cipher Mode Complete (CIPH_MOD_COM) message. • The MS then sends a Call Setup (SETUP) message to the BSS. The message includes the address information (MSISDN) of the called party. • The BSS assigns a TCH to the MS by sending an Assignment Command (ASS_CMD) message. This message includes which Transceiver (TRX) and which Time Slot (TS) to use. • The BSS does not actually assign a TCH to the MS until the MSC sends a Call Proceeding (CALL_PROC) message to the BSS indicating that the IAM has been sent. • The MS immediately switches to the assigned TCH. The MS sends an Assignment Complete (ASS_COM) message back to the BTS on the FACCH.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 81
  82. 82. Mobile Originated Call to PSTN Call Setup • The MSC sends an Initial Address Message (IAM) to the GMSC. The IAM contains the MSISDN of the called party as the MS dialed it. • The MSC will also send a Call Proceeding (CALL_PROC) message down to the BSS and this is when the BSS would assign a TCH to the MS, as described in step 10 above. •  Based on the dialed number, the GMSC decides where to route the IAM within the PSTN. • The PSTN will continue to route the IAM until it reaches the correct Switching Center and the call routing is complete. The PSTN will then establish the call circuit and send an Address Complete Message (ACM) back to the GMSC. • The GMSC then forwards the ACM back to the responsible MSC indicating that the call circuit has been established03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 82
  83. 83. Mobile Originated Call to PSTN Call Establishment • Once the MSC receives the ACM, it sends an ALERT message to the MS indicating that the call is going through. The BSS sends the ALERT message on the FACCH. Once the MS receives the ALERT, it will generate the ringing sound in the earpiece. The BSS sends an alerting message the subscriber will hear the line ringing. • Once the called party answers the phone, the PSTN will send an Answer message to the MSC. The MSC forwards this to the MS in a Connection (CON) message. • Once the MS receives the CON message, it switches over to voice and begins the call. All voice traffic occurs on the assigned TCH.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 83
  84. 84. Mobile Originated Call to PSTN Call Termination • When either the caller or the called party hangs up, the call will be disconnected. Either party can initiate the disconnect. In this example, the MS initiates the disconnect. The MS sends a Disconnect (DISC) message to the BTS on the FACCH. • The BSS forwards the DISC to the MSC. Once the MSC receives the DISC message, it sends a Release (REL) message through the GMSC to the PSTN as well as down through the BSS to the MS. • The MS responds by sending a Release Complete (REL_COM) message to the BSS on the FACCH. The BSS forwards the REL_COM message up to the MSC. Once the MSC receives the REL_COM message the call is considered ended from the call control perspective. • Although the call has ended, the BSS still has a TCH allocated to the MS. The MSC sends a Channel Release (CHAN_REL) message to the BSS. The BSS forwards the CHAN_REL message to the MS. • The MS responds with a DISC (LAPDm) message and returns to an idle mode. The BSS reallocates the channel for other call or releases the TRX. 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 84
  85. 85. Mobile Originated Call to PSTN PSTN BSS MSC/VLR CM Service Request Service request MO call Complete Layer 3 Authentication Request Authentication Response Cipher Mode Command Ciphering Mode Command Ciphering Mode Complete Cipher Mode Complete Setup Call Proceeding Assignment Request Assignment Command Assignment Complete Assignment Complete03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 85
  86. 86. Mobile Originated Call to PSTN PSTN BSS MSC/VLR IAM ACM Alerting ANM ANM Connect Acknowledge03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 86
  87. 87. PSTN to Mobile call flow Mobile Terminated Call • Route Establishment to find the MSC/VLR • The calling party dials the MSISDN for the mobile subscriber. The PSTN identifies the network (PLMN) that the dialed MSISDN belongs to and will locate a GMSC for that network. The PSTN sends an Initial Address message to the GMSC. • The GMSC forwards the MSISDN to the HLR and requests routing information for it. The HLR looks up the MSISDN and determines the IMSI and the SS7 address for the MSC/VLR that is servicing the MS. • The HLR then contacts the servicing MSC/VLR and asks it to assign a Mobile Station Routing Number (MSRN) to the call. • The MSC/VLR allocates the MSRN and forwards it to the HLR. Note: It is important to remember that the MSC/VLR assigns a MSRN to the call not to the MS itself. • The HLR forwards the MSRN as well as routing information for the servicing MSC/VLR to the GMSC. • The GMSC sends an Initial Addressing message to the servicing MSC/VLR and uses the MSRN to route the call to the MSC/VLR. Once the servicing MSC/VLR receives the call, the MSRN can be released and may be made available for reassignment.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 87
  88. 88. PSTN to Mobile call flow Paging the Mobile Station • The MSC/VLR then orders all of its BSCs and BTSs to page the MS. Since the MSC/VLR does not know exactly which BSC and BTS the MS is monitoring, the page will be sent out across the entire Location Area. Initial Setup • The MS receives the Page Request (PAG_REQ) on the PCH. The MS recognizes that the page is intended for it, based on a TMSI or an IMSI. • The MS sends a Channel Request (CHAN_REQ) message on the RACH. • The BSS responds on the AGCH by sending an Immediate Assignment (IMM ASS) message which assigns an SDCCH to the MS. At this point, the network does not know that the MS is the one that it is paging, it only knows that this MS wants access to the network • The MS immediately switches to the assigned SDCCH and sends a Paging Response (PAG_RES) message on the SDCCH. This lets the network know that the MS is responding to its page.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 88
  89. 89. PSTN to Mobile call flow Authentication • Before the network will provide any services to the MS, the network will require the MS to authenticate itself. The BSS sends an Authentication Request (AUTH_REQ) message to the MS. The RAND serves as the "challenge" for authentication. • The MS calculates the proper SRES based on the RAND that was given and sends the SRES to the BSS in anAuthentication Response (AUTH_RESP) message. • The BSS verifies the SRES. If the SRES is correct then the MS is authenticated and allowed access to the network. •  Once the MSC/VLR has authenticated the MS, it will order the BSS and MS to switch to cipher mode using the CIPH_MOD_CMD message. Once the MS in encryption mode, the VLR will normally assign a new TMSI to the MS.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 89
  90. 90. PSTN to Mobile call flow Establishing a Channel • Once the MS is authenticated and in encryption mode, The MSC sends a Setup Message to the BSS, the BSS forwards the SETUP message to the MS on the assigned SDCCH.the assigned SDCCH. The SETUP message may include the Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP), which is essentially caller ID. •  The MS responds by sending a Call Confirmed (CALL_CON) message; which indicates that the MS is able to establish the requested connection. The BSS relays the message up to the MSC. Call Setup • The BSS then sends an Assignment Command (ASS_CMD) message to the MS on the assigned SDCCH. The ASS_CMD message assigns a Traffic Channel (TCH) to the MS. • The MS immediately switches to the TCH and responds with an Assignment Complete (ASS_COM) message on the FACCH. The MS begins ringing once it has established the TCH.  Remember that all signaling that occurs on the traffic channel actually occurs on a FACCH, which is a time slot that is stolen from the TCH and used for signaling.  The MS sends an ALERT message to the MSC on the FACCH. The BSS forwards the ALERT message through the PSTN to the calling party and the caller hears the line ringing.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 90
  91. 91. PSTN to Mobile call flow Call Establishment • Once the user answers the call (by pressing the send button), the MS will send a Connect CON message to the MSC. The Connect message is forwarded back to the callers switch to activate the call. • The MSC sends a Connect Acknowledge CON_ACK message to the MS and the call is established. •   Call Disconnect • Disconnect happens the same way as for any other call. In this example, the calling party initiates the disconnect. • When the calling party hangs up, the calling partys switch initiates a Release (REL) message. The message is forwarded to the serving MSC, which is then forwarded to the BSS. • The BSS will send a Disconnect (DISC) message to the MS on the FACCH.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 91
  92. 92. PSTN to Mobile call flow • The MS confirms release of the call by sending a Release (REL) message on the FACCH, which is forwarded to the MSC. • The MSC sends e Release Complete (REL_COM) message through the BSS to the MS. As far as call control (CC) is concerned, the connection has been terminated. • The MS still has a TCH assigned to it, so the BSS sends a Channel Release (CHAN_REL) message to the MS. This releases the radio resource on the Air Interface. • The MS responds be sending a final Disconnect message and returns to idle.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 92
  93. 93. PSTN to Mobile call flow BSS MSC/VLR HLR GMSC PSTN IAM Send Routing Info (SRI) Provide Routing Number (PRN) IAM (MSRN) Paging Paging Request Channel Request Immediate Assignment Paging Response Paging Response Cipher mode command Ciphering mode command Ciphering mode response03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 93
  94. 94. PSTN to Mobile call flow BSS MSC/VLR HLR GMSC PSTN Cipher mode complete Setup Call confirmed Assignment request Assignment command Assignment complete Alerting ACM ACM Connect ANM ANM Connect Acknowledge03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 94
  95. 95. PSTN to Mobile Call Flow03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 95
  96. 96. SMS-MO 1. The mobile station transfers the short message to the MSC. 2. The MSC queries the VLR to verify that the message transfer does not violate the supplementary services invoked or the restrictions imposed on the subscriber. 3. The MSC sends the short message to the SMSC using the forwardShortMessage operation. 4. The SMSC delivers the short message to the SMC. 5. The SMSC acknowledges the successful outcome of the forwardShortMessage operation to the MSC. 6. The MSC returns the outcome of the short message operation to the mobile station.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 96
  97. 97. SMS-MO SGSN SMS-IWMSC SC MSC MS x VLR03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 97
  98. 98. SMS-MO03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 98
  99. 99. SMS-MT 1.The Short message is transferred from SC to SMS-GMSC 2.SMS-GMSC queries the HLR(SRI) and receives the routing information for the mobile subscriber (SRI-ACK). 3. The SMS-GMSC sends the short message to the MSC using the forwardShortMessage operation(FSM). 4. The MSC retrieves the subscriber information from the VLR. This operation may include an authentication procedure. 5. The MSC transfers the short message to the mobile station.` 6. The MSC returns the outcome of the forwardShortMessage operation to the SMS- GMSC(FSM-ACK). 7. If requested by the SMC, the SMSC returns a status report indicating delivery of the short message.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 99
  100. 100. SMS-MT SGSN SMSC-GMSC MS SC MSC x HLR VLR03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 100
  101. 101. SMS-MT03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 101
  102. 102. Handover A handover (aka handoff) is the process by which a call in progress is transferred from one radio channel in the same cell or different cell. A handover can occur Within a cell Between cells of the same BTS Between cells of diffferent BTS of same BSC Between cells of different BSC Between cells of different MSCs03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 102
  103. 103. Inter BSC handover Inter BSC handover • The BSC must involve the MSC • One the serving BSC determines that a handover should take place it sends a message handover required too the NSC • The message contains information about the desired target cell and the the current cell • The MSC analyzes the information and identifies the target BSC associated with the target cell • It then sends a Handover Request to rthe target BSC03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 103
  104. 104. Inter BSC handover Serving Target MSC/VLR BSS BSS Measurement Report Measurement Report Handover Request Handover Request Handover Request Ack Handover Command Handover Command Handover Access MS tunes to new Handover Detect channel Handover Complete Handover Complete Clear Command Measurement Report Clear Complete Measurement Report Measurement Report03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 104
  105. 105. Hand-off scenario03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 105
  106. 106. Handoff/handover • Handoff (also known as handover) is the ability of the subscriber to maintain a call while moving within a network • Handoff is used in AMPS, IS-136 and IS-95. In GSM it is called handover • Handover means that subscriber is transitioned from one radio channel and/ or time slot) to another. • Depending on the two cells in question the handover can be between two sectors on the same station between two BSCs between 2 MSCs or even between networks Base station A Base station B Base station A Base station B03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 106
  107. 107. GPRS call flow Attach • The terminal initiates a attach process • The SGSN authenticates the GPRS mobile by sending a RAND value (a random value). • The SIM applies secret GSM algorithms on the RAND and the secret key Ki to obtain the session key Kc and SRES. • The computed SRES value is passed to the SGSN. • SGSN authenticates the response • SGSN accepts the attach request Activate PDP context 9. The terminal does a PDP Activate PDP context 10. SGSN does a DNS Query to the DNS server to find the address of the GGSN (Global GPRS Support Node) 11. The DNS server sends the IP Address of the GGSN 12. The SGSN sends a Create PDP Activate context to the GGSN 13. The GGSN does a RADIUS authenticate to RADIUS server 14. The RADIUS does a authenticate response03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 107
  108. 108. GPRS call flow 1. GGSN request for dynamic IP address 2. The DHCP sends back a IP address 3. The GGSN sends a Create PDP Context Response 4. SGSN sends a PDP Context Accept03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 108
  109. 109. GPRS call flow Radius DHCP SGSN DNS Server GGSN server server Attach request Authenticate request (RAND) Authenticate response (SRES) Attach accept Attach complete Activate PDP Context APN DNS Query (APN) DNS Response (GGSN IP) Create PDP Context RADIUS Authenticate Request RADIUS Authenticate Response DHCP Address request DHCP Address response Create PDP Context Response Activate PDP Context Accept03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 109
  110. 110. 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 110
  111. 111. Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) UMTS represents an evolution of GSM to support 3G capabilities The air interface is known as UTRAN UMTS uses Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) The air interface consists of 5. Node B 6. RNC Core Network 8. MSC Server 9. Media Gateway 10. HLR 11. VLR 12. GMSC03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 111 111
  112. 112. UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) The UTRAN consists of the Radio Network Controller (RNC) and Node B which is the base station The RNC is analogous to the GSM BSC The Base station is equivalent to the Node B03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 112
  113. 113. Wireless Network (Release 4) PSTN Gi Gp PSTN PSTN CS- Mc GMSC GGSN MGW server C Gc Nc HLR AuC PSTN H Gn Nb Gr D EIR MSC Server –Mobile Switching Center Server G F Gf VLR VLR CS-MGW – Core System Media Gateway E B Gs B SGSN GMSC Server– Gateway Mobile Switching Center MSC server Nc MSC server Server Mc Mc GGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node CN SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node CS-MGW CS-MGW Nb VLR – Visitor Location Register A Gb HLR – Home Location Register IuCS IuPS EIR – Equipment Identification Register BSS RNS Iur AuC – Authentication Center BSC RNC RNC BSC – Base Station Controller Abis Iub BTS – Base Transceiver System BTS BTS Node B Node B RNC – Radio Network Controller cell RNC – Radio Network Controller Um Uu PSTN – Public Switched Telephone Network ME SIM-ME i/f or Cu SIM USIM MS 11303/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 113
  114. 114. 3G Rel 4 Architecture - Softswicth03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 114
  115. 115. UMTS Network Architecture Node B RNC HLR Softswitch Node B Node B03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 115
  116. 116. Softswitch • Softswitch denotes a component in a new architecture designed for migrating from a voice centric world to a data centric world. • Separates signaling from the bearer traffic allowing for greater flexibility and efficiency • Represents a move from the monolithic traditional circuit switches to a more distributed, open architecture and provides for greater degree of flexibility03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 116
  117. 117. Softswitch vs Legacy Switch Signaling Signaling & SS7 & SS7 Control Control Application Servers Packet Time T Line Slot Line T D Interfaces Inter- Interfaces D TDM TDM M change M or Media Media or IP Gateway Gateway IP – Monolithic – Disaggregated (Control + Bearer Integrated) (Control separated from Bearer) – Proprietary Interfaces – Open Interfaces – Inefficient Resource Utilization – Most Efficient Resource Utilization – Limited Scalability – High Scalability – Higher Operating Costs – Lower Capital / Operating Costs – Long Feature Development Intervals – Rapid Feature Development / 3rd Party03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 117
  118. 118. IMS Architecture  IMS is a framework of network nodes that use SIP signaling and an all IP core.  Access agnostic. The network can be accessed by Fixed lines, mobiles, PDA etc  Promises rich services like voice, data, video conferencing, real time gaming etc  Uses the GPRS network  Uses DIAMETER for AAA and database access  Allows for Fixed Mobile Convergence03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 118
  119. 119. IMS Network03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 119
  120. 120. Market conditions  Mobile data is growing at an exponential speed  Mobile data in US & Europe expected to grow at a CAGR of 55% & 42% respectively  Mobile data revenues expected to grow at a rate of 18%  Mobile broadband connections will reach 1 billion by 2012 segmented between 3G & 4G technologies Highlights • Annual IP traffic will exceed ½ a zettabyte in 4 years by 2012 (10 21) • Internet video (Youtube, DVD sharing ,IPTV) account for 30% of IP traffic • Video communication and dynamic video will increase the burden on the network • Global IP traffic will double every two years to 2010 and beyond03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 120
  121. 121. The explosion of mobile data In the last 2 years • 1 billion new mobile subscriptions added • 2 billion wireless devices sold Device range from Mobile phones, Smartphones, Netbooks, PDAs, Wireless dongles and Tablets • Currently there are 3.5 billion subscribers worldwide • 3G accounts for 350 million with 30 million added every quarter • LTE forecast to reach 32.6 million by 201303/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 121
  122. 122. The rise and rise of data03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 122
  123. 123. Growth in data traffic03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 123
  124. 124. 3.5 G High Speed Downlink Packet Data Access (HSDPA) Enhanced modulation scheme over WCDMA with throughput of 14.4 Mbps Uses 16 QAM in addition QPSK High Speed Uplink Packet Data Access (HSUPA) Enables uplink of 1.4 Mbps upto 5.76 Mbps WCDMA HSDPA HSUPA GSM GPRS Rel 99 Rel 5 Rel 6 EDGE03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 124
  125. 125. Elements of the LTE System LTE encompasses the evolution of • Radio access through E-UTRAN (eNodeB) • Non-radio aspects under the term System Architecture Evolution (SAE) Entire system composed of LTE & SAE is called Evolved Packet System (EPS) At a high level a LTE network is composed of • Access network comprised of E-UTRAN • Core Network called Evolved Packet Core (EPC)03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 125
  126. 126. LTE Network Elements UE – User Equipment used to connect to the EPS (Evolved Packet System). This is an LTE capable UE The LTE network is comprised of a) Access Network b) Core Network Access network ENB (eNodeB) – The evolved RAN consists of single node, the eNodeB that interfaces with UE. The eNodeB hosts the PHY,MAC, RLC & RRC layers. It handles radio resource management & scheduling. Core Network (Evolved Packet Core-EPC)  MME (Mobility Management Entity) – Performs paging, chooses the SGW during UE attach  S-GW (Serving Gateway) – routes & and forwards user data packets  P-GW (Packet Gateway) – provides connectivity between the UE and the external packet networks.03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 126
  127. 127. LTE Network Elements03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 127
  128. 128. LTE Technologies  LTE uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) for lower latency and better spectral efficiency  Uses MIMO (Mulitple In Multiple Out) LTE uses several transmit & receive paths reducing interference with increase in spectral efficiency and throughput.  Flatter architecture – Fewer Network elements in the LTE Evolved Packet Core(EPC). This results in lower latency because of lesser number of hops as compared to 3G. Absence of RNC like Network Element(NE).03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 128
  129. 129. 2.5G GPRS Network Elements03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 129
  130. 130. The evolution of mobile technology Year Standards Technological evolution 1. 1999 3GPP Rel 99 GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS based (2G, 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G) 2. 2001 3GPP Rel 4 Minor upgrades to UMTS, radio interface 3. 2002 3GPP Rel 5 HSDPA , IMS architecture (3.5G) 4. 2005 3GPP Rel 6 Higher speeds 5. 2007 3GPP Rel 7 HSPA+,PoC, Voice & Video over VOIP 6. 2008 3GPP Rel 8 EPS (E-UTRAN/LTE) (3.99G/4G) 7. 2009 3GPP Rel 9 Enhancement to EPS 8. 2010 3GPP Rel 10 LTE- Advanced (4G)03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 130
  131. 131. 03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 131
  132. 132. Questions ?03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 132
  133. 133. Quiz 4 1. A call from a PSTN to wireless network comes first to the a. MSC b. GMSC c. HLR d. VLR 2. The GMSC determines where to route the call by a. Checking its VLR b. Querying the HLR c. It knows where the mobile is d. none of the above 4. GSM has been deployed in a. 800 Mhz b. 1800 Mhz c. 1900 Mhz d. 2.4 Ghz 5. Which is not an Air Interface channel a. Broadcast channel b. Control channel c. Traffic channel d. All of the above 7. SDCCH is used for a. SMS b. For call establishment signaling c. both a & b d. None of the abover 6. How does a mobile inform its whereabouts a. It is stored in HLR b. By doing a Location Update c. HLR is informed of location changes d. Both b & c 7. While doing Location Update, authentication is done at AuC & Mobile a. True b. False 8. For Authentication MSC sends the mobile a. RAND b. SRES c. Ki d. All of the above 9. MS sends a channel request on a. RACH b. AGCH c. SDCCH d. TCH03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 133
  134. 134. Quiz 4 1. Which of the following is true in a PSTN to mobile call a. GMSC sends MSISDN to HLR b. HLR determines MSC/VLR from MSISDN c. MSC/VLR sends a MSRN d. all of the above 4. UMTS uses 1. TDMA with FDD 2. CDMA 3. WCDMA 4. FDMA with FDD 12. Softswitch separates bearer from control a. True b. False 13. Which is not true for softswitch a. Uses time slot interchange b. uses media gateway c. does packet switching d. none of the above 14. Which of the following is true for IMS a. Uses SIP signaling b. Uses an IP Core c. Uses DIAMETER d. all of the above 15. LTE is made of the following a. BTS, BSC, MSC b. Node B, RNC, Softswitch c. Node B, RNC, SGSN, GGSN d. eNodeB, MME, SGW, GGW03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 134
  135. 135. Good luck & thank You !!! Tinniam V Ganesh tvganesh.85@gmail.com Read my blogs: http://gigadom.wordpress.com/ http://savvydom.wordpress.com/03/22/12 Tinniam V Ganesh 135