Chapter 6 – Activating Students
as Instructional Resources for
One Another
Regina Crawford & Tamara Linares
Chapter 6


“Even though there is a substantial
body of research that demonstrates
the extraordinary power of
collaborati...
Cooperative Learning
4 main reasons why cooperative
learning has a profound effect
 1. Motivation – higher rates of effor...
Studies
When group rewards depended on the
collection of the learning of individuals
within the group, members produced fo...
Studies continued


Students participating in student-led
groups benefitted almost as much as
getting one-on-one instruct...
Under right conditions, peer tutoring can
be more effective than having 1:1
teacher-student ratio
 Teacher language. Stud...
2 elements should be present for
effective cooperative learning
1. Group goals – students working AS
a group, not just wor...
Teachers rarely practice true
cooperative learning even though they
are incorporating it.
 93% of 85 elementary teachers ...
Useful Techniques









C3B4ME
Peer evaluation of
homework
Homework help
board
Two stars and a wish
End-of-topic...
C3B4ME


Students must have asked 3 other
students for assistance before coming
to the teacher for help.
Peer evaluation of homework
Involve students in checking.
 Teacher decides method. Might get a
rubric to grade their own,...
Homework help board
At the beginning of day or
lesson, students write any questions
they may have had on the previous
nigh...
Two stars and a wish
Peer assessment
 If a student gives feedback on another
student’s work, he or she must give
them 2 t...
End-of-topic questions





At the end of lesson, topic, etc., instead
of saying any questions, ask them to
discuss in ...
Error classification
Used when student errors are
straightforward
 Can combine like
strengths/weaknesses for corrections
...
What did we learn today?
At the end of a lesson, groups
generate a list of items they learned
during the lesson
 Each gro...
Student reporter
At the beginning of a lesson (or end of
a previous one) a student is selected
as a reporter.
 Teacher st...
Preflight Checklist
Before an assignment is submitted, it
has to be signed of by a buddy, who
checks to make sure the assi...
I-You-We checklist


At the end of an
assignment/lesson, students writes
something about their own
contribution to the le...
Reporter at random
When assigning roles in groups, not a
good idea to assign reporter at the
beginning. Other students fee...
Group-based test prep
When preparing for a test, organize in
groups and assign each member an
aspect to review. Each stude...
If you’ve learned it, help
someone who hasn’t
Remember, if students are giving
elaborated explanations (instead of
just an...
continued
Cultural norms – In Japan, teacher keeps class
together. If a student understands something but
others don’t, te...
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Specialist assessment ch. 6 efa ppt

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Specialist assessment ch. 6 efa ppt

  1. 1. Chapter 6 – Activating Students as Instructional Resources for One Another Regina Crawford & Tamara Linares
  2. 2. Chapter 6  “Even though there is a substantial body of research that demonstrates the extraordinary power of collaborative and cooperative learning, it is rarely deployed effectively in classrooms.” (p. 133)
  3. 3. Cooperative Learning 4 main reasons why cooperative learning has a profound effect  1. Motivation – higher rates of effort  2. Social cohesion – care about the group, so higher rates of effort  3. Personalization – peers address difficulties  4. Cognitive elaboration – think through ideas 
  4. 4. Studies When group rewards depended on the collection of the learning of individuals within the group, members produced four times the impact on learning versus when a group was rewarded on a single group product  When peer help is elaborated explanations, both the giver and receiver benefitted by increasing learning by 50% versus peer help in giving answers or helping with procedures had no benefit for those giving help and had a drop in the achievement of the receiver. 
  5. 5. Studies continued  Students participating in student-led groups benefitted almost as much as getting one-on-one instruction from a teacher. Plus, they learned more than students in teacher-led groups.
  6. 6. Under right conditions, peer tutoring can be more effective than having 1:1 teacher-student ratio  Teacher language. Students pretend to understand  Girls worried about teacher time  Boys didn’t want to look foolish  When working with peers, students are willing to ask one another to slow down or repeat something.
  7. 7. 2 elements should be present for effective cooperative learning 1. Group goals – students working AS a group, not just working IN a group  2. Individual accountability – students can’t ride in on the coattails of others  If both are present, cooperative learning is equally effective for high and low achievers 
  8. 8. Teachers rarely practice true cooperative learning even though they are incorporating it.  93% of 85 elementary teachers in 2 districts said that they practiced cooperative learning.  In follow-up interviews with 21 of those teachers, on 5 teachers practiced true collaborative learning to facilitate both group goals and individual accountability.
  9. 9. Useful Techniques        C3B4ME Peer evaluation of homework Homework help board Two stars and a wish End-of-topic questions Error classification What did we learn today?       Student reporter Preflight checklist I-You-We checklist Reporter at random Group-based test prep If you’ve learned it, help someone who hasn’t
  10. 10. C3B4ME  Students must have asked 3 other students for assistance before coming to the teacher for help.
  11. 11. Peer evaluation of homework Involve students in checking.  Teacher decides method. Might get a rubric to grade their own, or swap notebooks with another student and grade it. Sometimes, this applied to whole groups of students.  If students didn’t have the work, could not participate in group evaluation.  Students didn’t like being excluded.  Work was neater 
  12. 12. Homework help board At the beginning of day or lesson, students write any questions they may have had on the previous night’s homework on the help board.  Students who think they “got” the homework and can help other students can provide help to those who indicated difficulties on the board. 
  13. 13. Two stars and a wish Peer assessment  If a student gives feedback on another student’s work, he or she must give them 2 things they thought were good (2 stars) and 1suggestion for improvement (wish).  Comments are on sticky notes (can be removed if not helpful.  Can take a picture of the feedback and show to students so that they can decide whether the feedback was 
  14. 14. End-of-topic questions    At the end of lesson, topic, etc., instead of saying any questions, ask them to discuss in their groups if any questions need to be answered. More likely to get response because students don’t want to look foolish in front of others. Can even tell students that each group needs to generate at least 1 question. Teacher collects questions, sorts them, and deals with like questions at the same time.
  15. 15. Error classification Used when student errors are straightforward  Can combine like strengths/weaknesses for corrections 
  16. 16. What did we learn today? At the end of a lesson, groups generate a list of items they learned during the lesson  Each group reports one thing  # of items in the list needs to be the same as the # of groups so each group can mention at least 1 thing not mentioned by another group 
  17. 17. Student reporter At the beginning of a lesson (or end of a previous one) a student is selected as a reporter.  Teacher stops 10 minutes before the end of the lesson and student reporter summarized main points of the lesson and attempts to answer questions students may have. If can’t answer, asks other classmates to help. 
  18. 18. Preflight Checklist Before an assignment is submitted, it has to be signed of by a buddy, who checks to make sure the assignment met all the requirements  Works well when there are several requirements for the assignment (science lab report)  Buddy is accountable 
  19. 19. I-You-We checklist  At the end of an assignment/lesson, students writes something about their own contribution to the lesson, something about another student’s contribution, and something about the quality of work of the group as a whole
  20. 20. Reporter at random When assigning roles in groups, not a good idea to assign reporter at the beginning. Other students feel that they are off the hook and can back off.  Individual accountability is lessened. 
  21. 21. Group-based test prep When preparing for a test, organize in groups and assign each member an aspect to review. Each student given a task card and suggestions on how to do it.  Next day, each member presents task to the group. Rest of group responds to presentation using colored cups (green, yellow, red).  Group decides if anything needs to be added to the explanation 
  22. 22. If you’ve learned it, help someone who hasn’t Remember, if students are giving elaborated explanations (instead of just an answer), both giver and receiver benefit.  High achieving students might resist peer tutoring for fear of being held back and think they’re doing the teacher’s job (especially math)  To counter, emphasize that getting the right answer isn’t enough. Need to be able to communicate findings. 
  23. 23. continued Cultural norms – In Japan, teacher keeps class together. If a student understands something but others don’t, teacher’s job is to help those who need help  Those students in middle can become spectators. Half-ability groups (weak with middle and middle with strong). As many students as possible are engaged in learning  Some teachers concerned it’s not fair. Primary purpose of assessment not to sort and rank and grade students. Be careful to not create incentives for students to create low-quality work.  Assessments should be used to adjust instruction 

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