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  1. 1. Peer Collaboration<br />Active Learning in the <br />Traditional Classroom & Beyond<br />
  2. 2. Interest Points<br />Student Affairs Administrator<br />Student Development<br />Leadership<br />Career<br />Conversation as Learning<br />How?<br />When?<br />Why?<br />
  3. 3. Inquiry Questions <br />What is the value of collaborative learning in the classroom?<br />What methods are used in the classroom?<br />Does research support these activities’ effectiveness?<br />What are the criticism/drawbacks?<br />How can these methods be applied outside of traditional classrooms?<br />
  4. 4. Early Research<br />Vygotsky (1978)<br />Social Development Theory<br />Social interaction plays a role in cognitive development<br />“More Knowledgeable Other<br />“Zone of Proximal Development”<br />Gap is where learning actually occurs<br />Early research focused on trying to figure if and when collaborative learning is more effective than individual learning<br />Newer research focuses on on the interactions themselves<br />
  5. 5. Definitions<br />Collaborative Learning – learning occurs through natural social interactions where the participants interact with one another (Gerlach 1994)<br />Active learning –type of teaching that focuses on the responsibility of learning on learners. It involves students directly and actively<br />KISSES:<br />Example of rules <br />that promote collaborative, <br />active learning<br />Image source: http://www.tammypayton.net/courses/collab/what.shtml<br />
  6. 6. Focus on Conversation <br />All learning is based on conversation<br />From infancy to adulthood – learning occurs through interaction with others<br />“Education initiates us into conversation, and by virtue of that conversation initiates us into thought” - Bruffee<br />Learning communities<br />Bruffee (1999) – students learn through their interactions within learning communities<br />Ladson-Billings (1995) – need to develop a common language to promote learning <br />
  7. 7. Support for Collaboration<br />Bruffee – Discussion can spark discussion and increase exposure to new ideas and concepts<br />Svinicki & McKeachie – “student teaching other students” is the best concrete answer to “what is the most effective method of teaching”<br />Miller & Groccia – cooperative learning promotes an increase in the ability to work with others<br />Promotes cognitive development<br />“To teach is to learn twice….”<br /> -Joseph Joubert, French Moralist & Essayist<br />
  8. 8. Examples of Collaboration in the Classroom<br />Student-led discussion groups<br />Peer teaching / tutoring<br />Team-based learning assignments<br />Syndicates<br />
  9. 9. Considerations<br />How do we form groups for group work?<br />How do you determine the best method of peer collaboration for specific learning tasks?<br />How do we assess individual learning within the group?<br />If/When is individual learning better?<br />
  10. 10. Application Outside of the Traditional Classroom<br />How can this be applied outside of the classroom?<br />By nature, extracurricular activities typically occur in group settings…..<br />Student Organizations<br />Seminars<br />Workshops<br />University Events (MLK Day, Homecoming, etc.)<br />Promotes….<br />teamwork skills<br />process-oriented design<br />leadership techniques<br />
  11. 11. References<br />Bruffee, K. A. (1999). Collaboration, conversation, and reacculturation. In Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and the authority of knowledge (pp. 3-20). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.<br />Gerlach, J. M. (1994). "Is this collaboration?” In Bosworth, K. and Hamilton, S. J. (Eds.), Collaborative Learning: Underlying Processes and Effective Techniques, New Directions for Teaching and Learning No. 59.<br />Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465-491.<br />Miller, J. E., & Groccia, J. E. (1997). Are four heads better than one? A comparison of cooperative and traditional teaching formats in an introductory biology course. Innovative Higher Education, 21, 253-273.<br />Svinicki, Marilla, & McKeachie, Wilbert. (2010). Mckeachie's teaching tips. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub Co. <br />Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.<br />