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Augmented Reality and Hybrid Reality Affordances for Education

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Augmented Reality and Hybrid Reality Affordances for Education

  1. 1. Augmented & Hybrid Reality Affordances for 21C Learning Cathleen Galas July 2014 Viewpoints Research Institute
  2. 2. Augmented Reality "an environment that includes both virtual reality and real-world elements. For instance, an AR user might wear translucent goggles; through these, he could see the real world, as well as computer-generated images projected on top of that world.” – Ronald Azuma, Research Leader, Nokia Research • http://www.cs.unc.edu/~azuma/ARpresence.pdf
  3. 3. Reality-Virtuality Continuum • Reality-Virtuality Continuum CC BY 3.0 • By Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino in 1994 Reality-Virtuality Continuum
  4. 4. ARIS (AR) Education Examples • Middle school students walk the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus using mobile phones to view footage of Vietnam war protests that occurred in the same locations. • Albuquerque students are using the ARIS engine to practice Spanish language skills by talking with real people and virtual characters while visiting a local neighborhood. • The Smithsonian has expressed interest in building an interactive narrative to help kids relate to artifacts in the collection. • DOW DAY •arisgames.org, www.newlearninginstitute.org/digital-media- programs/community-based-programs/aris-platform-debuts-placework-studio- program-rolls-out
  5. 5. DOW DAY VIRTUALLY PLACES YOU IN 1967, ON THE CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN – MADISON, WHEN THE STUDENTS BEGAN A PROTEST AGAINST THE DOW CHEMICAL CORPORATION FOR MAKING NAPALM FOR THE WAR. YOU TAKE THE ROLE OF A NEWS REPORTER AND INVESTIGATE THE DIFFERENT INTERESTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF STUDENTS, POLICE AND DOW EMPLOYEES.
  6. 6. Layar AR Experience history, art, how things looked 15 years ago
  7. 7. Augmented Reality Games • Mobile phone technology • Location based using GPS • Immersive narrative • Often requires solving location-based assignments
  8. 8. Hybrid Reality Games • Uses mobile and location-aware interfaces • Bridges physical and digital spaces • Transforms city spaces into the gameboard • Multiuser and therefore collaborative • De Souza e Silva, A., Delacruz, G.C., “Hybrid Reality Games Reframed”, Games and Culture, Volume 1, Number 3, 2006. http://gac.sagepub.com/content/1/3/231.abstract
  9. 9. Situated Learning Learning that takes place in the same authentic context as it is applied. Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger (1991) Situated Learning. Legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. http://maglmill.wordpress.com/2011/07/14/jean-laves-situated-learning-theory/
  10. 10. Sociocultural Learning Theory Framework to analyze HRGs Learners construct meaning while participating in social contexts Lave & Wenger, 1991 Vygotsky, 1978
  11. 11. Situated Learning in computer-simulated environments Virtual worlds and immersive simulations are designed to create a compelling, collaborative, and participatory experience for the user. Situated learning theory posits that all learning takes place within a specific context and the quality of the learning is a result of interactions among the people, places, objects, processes, and culture within and relative to that context. Dawley, L., & Dede. C. (in press). Situated learning in virtual worlds and immersive simulations. In J.M. Spector, M.D Merrill, J. Elen, & M.J. Bishop (Eds.), The Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology(4th ed.). New York: Springer.
  12. 12. Foundations “..immersive technologies align well with situated and constructivist learning theory (Vygotsky, 1978), as these position the learner within an imaginary or real-world context (i.e., simulated physical environment)…” • Dawley, L., & Dede. C. (in press). Situated learning in virtual worlds and immersive simulations. In J.M. Spector, M.D Merrill, J. Elen, & M.J. Bishop (Eds.), The Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology(4th ed.). New York: Springer.
  13. 13. Virtual worlds can be used to create learning spaces that are applicable to almost all disciplines, subjects, or areas of study. (Johnson, Levine, & Smith, 2007) Situating Learning in VW
  14. 14. Virtual Worlds as Community of Practice (CoP) • Groups that share similar goals and interests and therefore employ common practices • Work with the same tools • Express themselves in a common language • Have potential to support mastery of new knowledge (Wenger, 1998)
  15. 15. CoP Learning Model, Yukawa, J., 2012. http://www.jyukawa.com/main/cop
  16. 16. WHYVILLE http://www.whyville.net/smmk/nice
  17. 17. WHYVILLE • Simulated virtual epidemic • Offers an authentic context within which to become familiar with the need for and practice of empirical experimentation • Personal relevance for today’s youth: virtual worlds have become their new meeting place.
  18. 18. Whyville Research Findings • Connected play in Whyville affects identity, social interactions, science, and design. (Kafai and Fields 2013) • Social immersion drove inquiry-based learning regarding the spread of WhyPox. (Kafai et al 2007) • Students worked collaboratively, thought critically about disease spread, gathered data, made hypotheses, worked outside school, posed and research deep questions, took responsibility for their own learning, and were productive Whyville citizens. (Galas 2006) • The study provided a qualitative result regarding student use of biological vs. pre-biological explanations of disease spread (N+45, p+.001) (Neaulight, Kafai, Kao, Foley & Galas 2006)
  19. 19. RIVER CITY http://rivercity.activeworlds.com/rivercityproject/prior_research/grant_02.html
  20. 20. RIVER CITY •Students interact with over fifty digital objects from the Smithsonian's collection, and use "data collection stations" to provide detailed information about water samples at various spots in the world. •Students collaboratively investigate a virtual "world" consisting of a city with a river running through it, different forms of terrain that influence water runoff, houses, industries, and institutions such as a hospital and a university. • http://rivercity.activeworlds.com/rivercityproject/prior_research/grant_02.html
  21. 21. River City Research Findings • MUVE design (allowing many users to access the virtual world) was motivating for all students, ability to engage in inquiry in an authentic setting was powerful for students. (Dieterle & Clarke In Press) • Greater improvement in inquiry skills and science content than the control group. (Ketelhut, Dede, Clarke, &Nelson 2006) • Students engaged in scientific inquiry and developed skills in virtual communication and expression. (Galas & Ketelhut 2006)
  22. 22. QUEST ATLANTIS
  23. 23. QUEST ATLANTIS QA allows students to travel to various virtual spaces and carry out educational activities known as quests. Each quest is a curricular task designed to be entertaining and yet educational in nature. In order to complete these quests, students have to complete real world activities that are socially and academically meaningful. All quests involve both content area findings and personal reflection by the student. http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet24/tay.html
  24. 24. QUEST ATLANTIS Research Findings QA socially responsible design elements • Advances a social commitment • Connections to standards • Online, metagame strategy • Employs 3-d Technologies • Focus on engaging girls • Flexibly adaptive curriculum • Multidisciplinary focus • Targets building connections (Barbab, Thomas, Dodge, Carteaux, & Tuzun 2005)
  25. 25. Augmented Reality SITUATES Content in Physical Spaces to make it more meaningful
  26. 26. MITAR Games The MIT Teacher Education Program, in conjunction with The Education Arcade, has been working on creating "Augmented Reality" simulations to engage people in simulation games that combine real world experiences with additional information supplied to them by handheld computers. http://education.mit.edu/projects/mitar-games
  27. 27. Environmental Detectives MITAR Game • Outdoor game • Players using GPS guided handheld computers try to uncover the source of a toxic spill • Players interview virtual characters and conduct large scale simulated environmental measurements and analyze data.
  28. 28. MITAR Research Findings • AR engages secondary and university students in large scale environmental engineering studies. • AR provides an authentic mode of scientific investigation. • http://education.mit.edu/category/blog-tags/augmented-reality
  29. 29. HR bridges digital and physical: SITUATES context in physical space Affordance: may make learning more meaningful
  30. 30. Information is DISTRIBUTED in HRGs by connecting content •Physical local spaces •Digital spaces •Student’s prior knowledge
  31. 31. Distributed Learning Communities: Virtual Playgrounds • Knowledge is distributed, not centralized • Physical local spaces •Digital spaces •Student’s prior knowledge
  32. 32. HRGs are SITUATED & DISTRIBUTED
  33. 33. Assumed AR Affordances for Education • Rich contextual learning space • Student control of learning • Opportunities for authentic learning • Multiple learning styles • Engagement power • Makes learning visible • Each learner own discovery path • Training without real consequences (safety) • De Souza e Silva, A., Delacruz, G.C., “Hybrid Reality Games Reframed”, Games and Culture, Volume 1, Number 3, 2006. http://gac.sagepub.com/content/1/3/231.abstract
  34. 34. Hybrid Reality Learning Affordances BEYOND AR • Makes the physical location more relevant to the task • Bridging of physical and digital spaces • Fosters collaboration by making it CRUCIAL to the tasks at hand • Forces players to look at familiar spaces from an unfamiliar perspective • Looks at classroom content from a different viewpoint using social, experiential and situated learning • De Souza e Silva, A., Delacruz, G.C., “Hybrid Reality Games Reframed”, Games and Culture, Volume 1, Number 3, 2006. http://gac.sagepub.com/content/1/3/231.abstract

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