ImplementationImplementation is an activity to deploy any new SAP Software component into anorganization. Some of the task...
each hour 4800/40=120 dialog stepseach dialog step =60/120 minute=1/2minutes= 30 seconds.3.High User:The Users who generat...
General Recommendation:1.OS on Raid 1 Level(1:1)-->Mirroring2.Transaction logs/redologs on raid 1 level(1:1)-->Mirroring3....
Remaining all the IP addresses are public iP addresses.14.Check used ports in etc/services(Use command netstat -p to displ...
32bit and 64 bit architecture:32 bit operating system provide 2^32 bit of memory for each process and 64 bitoperating syst...
*************************************************************************Installation Inputs:1.Select the Installation Mas...
Node along with ERS.Additional Modes are installed with Dialog Instance   and ERSDatabase instanceCentral instanceDialog i...
6.Provide the Path for the SAP Data Files.7.Review the inputs and Continue the Installation.Solution Manager Key is not re...
home,oracle home).The Software is called in the application by using home pathbecause the physical path differs from syste...
1.it is started by reading the StartUp Profile"START_DVEBMGS00_HOSTNAME.PFL"(central Instance)2.Default parameters are pro...
1.    Check whether the Database is up and running. Check the database traces inE:oracleSIDsaptracebackgroundalert<SID>.lo...
The "services" file, which contains TCP and UDP services and their respectiveport numbers. This plain-text configuration f...
3.Start message server stderr1,dev_mshostname change,hardware change,ipchange,(the Customer key should be logged indev_ms ...
System Change Options:There are two settingsModifiable:The Development system is set to modifiable where are as QAS is als...
execute SR13-->new entries-->variant-InternetPlatform--win32Area--Documentation(IWBHELP)ServerName: help.sap.compath :erp2...
(because of SAP Kernel,SAP System is said to be OS/DB Independent.Third party executables like sapgenpse,sapcrypto.dll,dba...
update spam.Depending upon the spam version the spam restart may be required more then onceuntil the spam import queue is ...
changes from one system to another system in the landscape.d.Changes Allowed but not recorded/nor transported:The Changes ...
2.it always copies/pulls the data from source client3.check the space in DB02 and ensure that enough space is available fo...
known problems in support packages,addons, installations, upgrades and othertechnical/release information.2. SAP Provides ...
it is used to provide enhancements to the current system and to avoid frequentSAP Upgrades.it changes the version/kernel a...
All the above prerequistes turns into error if they are not checked properly.Support package Mechanism:The Support Package...
3.Download or copy the language import file into /usr/sap/trans4.Add the language in SMLT and specify the supplementary la...
can be moved to other systems like QAS/PRD(but mostly remains in DEV only)Login to 000 Client of development system as use...
similarly set environment varibale on all the systems DIR_TRANS=/usr/sap/transTransport "Target Groups":These are used to ...
The Team Members changes the Objects and record to the assigned change Requesttasks and releases them.once all the associa...
These Transport Routes are assigned to Systems to form the System Landscape.Transport Routes are used to transport the obj...
data/cofile/sapnames are created and filled in trans directorytmp directory is used during the runtime of transports. if a...
Check R3trans Connectivity "R3trans -d" and analyse trans.log(trans.log iscreated in the same path where R3trans -d is exe...
2.Check whether STMS is Configured3.Check whether the objects are assigned to a valid development class and classis assign...
Transport Requests Deletion:Execute STMSselect the request and delete and if required add the request.Transport hangs:chec...
f)starts the Internet Graphics Server using igswd.exe and writes intoigs logsThese logs are written to work directory.The ...
/usr/sap//sys/exe/run (dpmon pf=instance profile)m-menu13.   Dispatcher dies due to a database connection problem or A con...
Client Refresh:it is the process of setting up a client with live data fromproduction system.Periodically it is required t...
16.SCC4---Create a Client17.Copy Client Local(SCCL)18.Remote Client Copy(SCC9)19.SCC3 Client Copy Logs20.SCC5 Delete Clien...
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Sap implementation

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Sap implementation

  1. 1. ImplementationImplementation is an activity to deploy any new SAP Software component into anorganization. Some of the tasks which are undertaken during implementation areSizing, Installation, Configuration, Security, Adopting the system based oncustomer requirements, Applying support packages, add-ons, languages, libraryconfiguration, Customizing, Development, Transportation, Training ,routersetup,landscape design,connecting to SAP Germany,schedule go_live Sessions etc..SAP Implementation is carried by using ASAP(Accelerated SAP Methodology)it provides predefined road maps,business scenarios,templates,documents andurls etc..Execute Transaction RMMAIN in Solution Manager to get the roadmap forimplementation.ASAP Methodlogy contains 5 Phases:1.Project Preparation2.Business Blueprint3.Realization4.Final Preparation5.GO-Live and SupportThe First Activity of a basis Consultant in Implementation is to identify therelevant hardware,size the hardware considering various factors,recommend thehardware,assist in hardware procurement,identifying software,assist incommunicating with OS/DB/SAP vendors etc.Reasons for Implementation Failures:1.User Requirements are vague and not properly documented2.Lack of Competency and Project Management skills3.User Motivation and Employee Retention4. Risk Evaluation and Risk Mitigation5. Growth in Business requirements(SCOPE Change)Hardware Sizing:it is used to convert the business requirements into technicalrequirements.Sizing is performed by using Quick sizer tool which is provided by sap andaccessed by using URL http://service.sap.com/sizing.it requires a market place userid (S0001234567) and password to access thattool.it is a free tool provided by sap for customers/partners.Sizing means determining the hardware requirements of an SAP System such asnetwork bandwidth, physical memory, CPU power, and I/O capacity. The size of thehardware and database is influenced by both business aspects and technologicalaspects. This means that the number of users using the various applicationcomponents and the data load they put on the network must be taken into account.User-based sizing. We defined three types of active users who work with thesystem to a different degree. Merely counting the users can be done quiteeasily. The disadvantage is that this estimation is quite rough as it says verylittle about the actual throughput(load) these users produce.The Users are categorised as three types which are differntiated based on numberof dialog steps(inputs).Dialog Step:it is a mouse click/key board enter or any functional key.1.Low User : The Users who generate around 0- 480 dialog steps/weekconsidering 40 working hours/week480----40 hourseach hour 480/40=12 dialog stepseach dialog step =60/12 minute=5minutes=300 seconds.2.Medium User:The Users who generate around 480- 4800 dialog steps/weekconsidering 40 working hours/week4800----40 hours
  2. 2. each hour 4800/40=120 dialog stepseach dialog step =60/120 minute=1/2minutes= 30 seconds.3.High User:The Users who generate around 4800- 14400 dialog steps/weekconsidering 40 working hours/week14400----40 hourseach hour 14400/40=360 dialog stepseach dialog step =60/360 minute=1/6 minutes= 10 seconds.Throughput-based sizing. This model is quite thorough because it relies onactual or on actually expected throughput. However, this model relies on anumber of assumptions in business terms (e.g. number of order line items peryear) that need to be cross-checked against the individual installation.This is similar to user based sizing,but exact number of dialog steps are known.Example a Sales Order Transaction may Contain around 8-12 dialog steps.Transaction is nothing but which contains one or more LUWs.Luw Contains one ormore dialog steps which can be committed together or rolled back.Process of sizing:1.Specify the Project Name:(customer Number comes by default)2.Click on create the project3.Select project Informationa.Project Data---Name of the Project-->b.new or upgrade(new)c.Customer Data(customer information like name,email,telephone no,fax no)d.Platform communication;OS,Version,database,database version,system type(dev,qas,prd),size of legacydatabase,e.system availability:how long the system/business sustains with out SAP.mirroring,RAID,Storage Area Network,backup(online/offline),Standbyserver,clustering etcSelect the Modules (FI,CO,HR,QM,PM) specify the low,medium and high users andsave the sizing.Click on Calculate Results. The Sizing is based on T Shirt Sizing and sizingoutput is displayed with size of the CPU,Storage,SAPs,Memory,I/Ops requiredetc..if the sizing output comes in XXXL/48000 SAPS or 18000 IOPS or the storageexceeds 1.6TB then contact sap and hardware vendors.The Sizing Results are only a skeleton sizing,before concluding on the sizingreport the following has to be considered.The Following has a major impact on the sizing1.Operating system2.database3.virtual memory4.email/fax/paging/printers interfaces5.third party tools like biometric,weighbridge6.high availability (peak/offpeak,raid levels,cluster)7.backup devices and backup type8.network infrastructure.9.legacy data10.future growth of the company11.custom developmentThe CPU are displayed as SAPS Because each H/W vendor processors differs.SAPS are SAP Application bench mark for performance standards.it is based on astandard bench mark ie, for every 2000 sales order line items per hour/2400business transaction or 6000 dialog steps/hour requires 100 SAPS.SAPS is the understandable format of hardware vendor to calculate the CPUswhile considering the above factors the sizing result may vary from 30% to 200%(example Unicode system requires 40% more resources)
  3. 3. General Recommendation:1.OS on Raid 1 Level(1:1)-->Mirroring2.Transaction logs/redologs on raid 1 level(1:1)-->Mirroring3.Database on Raid 5 or on SAN(storage area network)(1:4,1:5)4.Memory setup in different slots5.Processors to handle load balancing/failover.6.The Space required should be requested as NET Size(gross includesraid,firmware,parity etc..)Most user sizings follow the standard pattern of low, medium, and high activityusersThink times between screen changes of 5 minutes, 30 seconds, and 10 secondsThe usual distribution is 60-70%(64%) low, 30%(30) medium, 5-10%(6) highIf in doubt, take medium activity usersThe above sizing is based on average response time of 600 ms to 1 second.Changes to SAP SD Bench Markon January 1, 2009, the SAP SD Benchmark was updated. Alongside the upgrade toSAP Business Suite 7 and the SAP enhancement package 4 for SAP ERP 6.0, a numberof additional, necessary updates were implemented. Business changes constantly,for example, Unicode and the use of the new general ledger /credit limit checkare now common practice for SAP customers across all industries, and the SAPstandard application benchmarks need to reflect this change.The above sizing is based on average response time of 1second to 2 secondsHardware procurement:The Hardware is ordered to the preferred vendor andhardware dispatch may take around 1 to 2 months.Software Procurement:The Software need to be ordered well in advance to complywith the statutory requirments of the conutry which may take around 2 to 3months.Prerequistes of Installation:1.Download the installation guide from http://service.sap.com/instguides2.Check the product availability matrix from http://service.sap.com/pam andplatforms3.Download and check the known issues from http://service.sap.com/notes4.Ensure that hardware is sized and sizing output is determined usinghttp://service.sap.com/sizing5.Download the software from http://service.sap.com/swdc6.Prepare a mile stone list to implement the sap software.(it should include theresponsibilities of OS Administrator,software,internet, dependencies,risks,start date,processing(installation) status updates etc...)7.Install the operating system and define the file system as per installationGuide.8.Ensure that hostname should not be longer then 13 characters and it should notcontain any special characters like(-,_)9.Define the Virtual Memory(for 32 bit machines-->3 times of Physical Ram plus500mb to 1000mb,for 64 bit machines the minimum virtual memory is 20GB.on top ofit add three times to physical ram(if it is more then 7 GB)check the operating system command "memlimits" which will allocate memory toprocesses.10.Install Java runtime environment and setup environment variables(set path andclass path).Install the recommended JRE Version only(lower/higer may beincompatible.)11. Install the Database (based on Operating System) and apply patches.Example: oracle 10.2.0.1/11.2.0.1 are not supported(not certified by SAP)oracle 10.2.0.1 need to be patched to 10.2.0.2/4 or 11.2.0.1 to 11.2.0.2/312.Ensure that installation ports /21210/21211/21212/21213 are not blocked ornot in use.(netstat -a or -p)13.Assign IP Address(A Static IP Address is Required so that the GUI Entries arenot Required to change) The Range of IP Addresses are 192/172/10.These arecalled as private IP Addresses.127 is called as loop back/self ping which notassigned to any system.(update etc/hosts)
  4. 4. Remaining all the IP addresses are public iP addresses.14.Check used ports in etc/services(Use command netstat -p to display the usedports).ensure that these Ports 3200,3300,3600,3900,4700, 4800,8000,8001 are notin use.15.Run prerequisite checker using sapinstallation master DVD.16.Create Required file system(tmp directory for staging oracle| sapmntdirectory,sapdata1...n)17.Check Remote connection to SAP(Internet) to get remote support from SAP incase of any issues during installationwww.service.sap.com/notes-->help and support--<connect to sap>open theconnection18.Copy the SAP Software into a temporary Folder and the folder name should notcontain space or any special characters).19.Internet Connection to get support from other team members(downloadnotes/google for runtime issues)20.On windows 2008 SR2 Disable the antivirus software/switch of the firewall.21.Installation User should have previlages to create users/groups and asssigngroups to users.when SAP Systems are installed using Domain Server then use Domain Admin ID oruser should be assigned with Domain Admin Rights(do not install with <SID>ADMUser).THE USER SHOULD HAVE PREVILAGES TO CREATE USERS/GROUPS/SERVICES/RUNSERVICES/ASSIGN USERS TO GROUPS/CREATE FILE SYSTEM/DIRECTORIES/SHARED MOUNTSETC....Software:1.Operating System and Database.(installation along with Patches)2.SAP Installation Master(independent of Components) (specific to OS).intsllation master drives the installation which is based on operating system.inearlier versions there are too many installation masters,but from netweaver 7.0onwards there is only one installation master which containsERP/SCM/SRM/CRM/Netweaver and other components installation.it also provides anoption to select the available databases for that operating system along withoption to select Unicode.3.SAP Kernel (Independent of Components) (Specific to OS|DB|32|64|Unicodeand non Unicode).it provides runtime executables,libraries,binaries which arespecific to Operating system/database/32bit/64bit/Unicode/non-unicodeit populates the kernel directory/sapmnt/SID/exe/usr/sap/SID/sys/exe/run/usr/sap/SID/sys/exe/uc/NTAMD64/usr/sap/SID/sys/exe/nuc/NTI3864.SAP Exports(SAPDATA DVDs)--specific to Component and independent of OS andDB(CRM,SRM,SCM,ERP, Netweaver etc). These Exports import data or populates thedata into sapdata*(sapdata1,sapdata2,sapdata3,sapdata4) directory5.SAP JAVA Components:Provides the components that are installable and configurable on java engine.6.SAP GUI:Provides Presentation Server GUI Executables/binaries/librariesin the PRES1(Win GUI) and PRES2(JAVA GUI)
  5. 5. 32bit and 64 bit architecture:32 bit operating system provide 2^32 bit of memory for each process and 64 bitoperating system provides 2^64 bit memory for each process.it is displayed byusing command "memlimits"SAP discontinued supporting 32 bit operating systems for productive systems.Supply Chain Management is not supported on 32 bit machines.32 bit machines provide a maximum of 2gb memory and 64 bit machines handlesmemory requirement more then 4GBMicrosoft and other operating systems provides an option of 3GB in the currentversions of 32 bit hardwareUnicode/Non Unicode:SAP Provides Support only for two options1.Unicode2.Non-UnicodeUnicode provides supports for all the Code Pages ie,4300 all the languages aresupported by Unicode.Non Unicode supports only one code page example 1100 supports around 10-11languages.Non_Unicode to Unicode Conversion takes more downtime and need to be performedby certified consultants.Unicode Consumes more resources ie. 40% more then non-unicode.MCOD:(Multiple Components on One Database):in earlier cases the database software is installed as many times as required tosupport more SAP Components,but causing a confusion of Multiple homes,multiplelisteners,mulitple services etc...SAP Supports MCOD i.e installing all the Components in one Database Software onSAME SID(system identifier) but differed by different schema owners.Example:SAPERP is installed on SID--PRD but schema owner for PRD is SAPSR3SAPSCM is Installed on SID--SCM but schema owner for PRD is SAPSR4SAPSRM is Installed on SID--SRM but schema owner for PRD is SAPSR5SAPCRM is Installed on SID--CRM but schema owner for PRD is SAPSR6SAPBI is Installed on SID---BIW but schema owner for PRD is SAPSR7SAPJAVA is is Installed on SID--- but schema owner for PRD is SAPSR3DBSchema Owner is the owner of the Database who owns all the tables related to thespecific componentApplication Components cannot have same SID,each application requires a uniqueSID(system Identifier)but can point to the same SID of database.Instances are differed by instance numbers and Instance SID, but pointing toSAME DB<SID> differed by different schema ID.SAP Recommends not to install the SAP Systems on MCOD due to the followingReasons.1.OLTP and OLAP are installed together i,e(ERP and BI should not installedtogether)2.if one Database is dead then all the MCOD systems are not accesible.3.it is not possible to restore a single system and hence system/DB Refresh isnot possible.
  6. 6. *************************************************************************Installation Inputs:1.Select the Installation Master(specific to OS/Bit)2.Click on sapinst.exe(windows)--if it is linux(Unix) then use(./sapinst)--loginas root user3.select the component4.Select the database5.select ABAP or JAVA or (ABAP and JAVA)6.Select the Installation type(Central System|Distributed|High AvailabilitySystem)Central System Installation:it will install both the Central Instance and Database Instance on a SingleSystem.it is recommended for small companies with users around 100-500.(Database and DVEBMGS are installed on the same system)Central Instance: if an instance providesDVEBMGS(DIALOG,UPDATE,ENQUEUE,BATCH,MESSAGE,GATEWAY, SPOOL and ICM) then it isreferred as Central Instance.or precisely the instance which provides messageserver is called as Central Instance.Dialog Instance:The Instance which provides the services other then messageserver are referred as Dialog InstanceASCS Instance: ABAP SAP Central Services: it is installed as part of the highavailability cluster.it contains message server and enqueue server.They are installed on separateinstance numbersFrom Netwaver 7.3 onwards ASCS is mandatory for all installations(CentralSystem/Distributed)Enque Replication Server(ERS):it is installed on all the instances(nodes) toreplicate the enqueue locks between the Enqueue Server and Dialog Instances.itneeds a separate instance number.No Separate ERS Installation is required in netweaver 7.3 systems.Note all the above instances are installed on different instance numbers.ASCS00,DVEBMGS01,ERS05,D07Database Instance: it is an instance where database is installed and SAP Data isimported,it contains the entire repository of SAP System.(it containssapdata1,sapdata2,sapdata3 and sapdata4)Distributed System:The Central Instance and Database instance are installed on two differentphysical machines pointing to global host where the executbles are available toboth the instances.High Availability(Microsoft Cluster System)These instances are installed as part of the MSCS1.ASCS2.CI3.DBI4.ERS5.DICentral services instance for ABAP (ASCS) installed as part of the First Cluster
  7. 7. Node along with ERS.Additional Modes are installed with Dialog Instance and ERSDatabase instanceCentral instanceDialog instance-----------------------select the installation type:(typical or custom)Typical: it is installed with default values and minimal inputs.Custom: it is used to customise the installation(memory allocation,portnumbercustomization,folders/data files path customization etc.Specify the SID(System Idenitifier): it should not be one among the reservedids(refer to installation guide)such as ADD,ALL,CRM etcIs unique throughout your organization.Do not use an existing <SAPSID> when installing a new SAP system.Consists of exactly three alphanumeric charactersContains only uppercase lettersHas a letter for the first characters(r47,e60)Specify the Instance Number:(by default for 00 for a new installation)It consists of a two-digit number from 00 to 96 where 97 is resevred for DAAservice ,98 is reserved for Solution Manager Diagonostics and 99 is reserved forsaprouter.specify the master password for all the OS/DB/SAP users that are going tosetup(configured/installed) during installation.sepcify the installation drive for executbales/transport directory etc..specify the path of the Kernel,Oracle client,Exports DVDs etc..review the inputs and continue the installation.each Central Instance Installation requires a Solution Manager Key.Generate the Solution Manager key from Solution Manager System using transactionSMSY.Installation Inputs:1.Typical : it provide the default values for instance number,memoryallocation,file system,datafile location,trans directory,number of R3loads2.Custom: it is used to provide the custom values such as instancnumber,memory,file sizes,Location of Directories to be created,....2.Specify the SID (System Identifier).it is 3 alpha numeric characters whichshould not be from the reserved key words like SAP,EPS,ADD,ALL,SID.it shouldcontain only uppercase letters and Has a letter for the first character3.Instance Number: it is represents a two digit number ranges between 00-974.Master Password: password for all the users that are created duringinstallation.5.Provide the path of Kernel Software,Export Software Locations
  8. 8. 6.Provide the Path for the SAP Data Files.7.Review the inputs and Continue the Installation.Solution Manager Key is not required in Netweaver 7.3 Systems.***********************InstallationLogs**********************************The Installation Logs are logged in sapinst_instdir which is located inC:/program files/sapinst_instdir/tmp/sapinst_instdir logs on Linux Operating systems.1.sapinst_dev.log and sapinst.log are used to provide the installation progresslogs.2.ABAP Loads logs are stored in SAP*.log(sapddic,sapappl0.log,sapappl1.log) theTASK(*.tsk) specifies what table /view/strucutre/index/key need to be createdR3load is an executable which imports the data into database duringinstallationCheck the keydb.xml and control.xml which are required to start the abortedinstallations.These files ensure to start from the point where it has been stopped.keydb.xml stores the inputs provided during the installationControl.xml stores the installation process*.tpl -->templates are provided for creating databaseobjects(table/view/index/key)*.sql -->sql commands*.cmd--->command file governs the data import from export Software location(itcontains Taskfile,database templates,database structure file,datafiles (.nnn)and table of contents(TOC).it commands to build the database and load thedatabase.*.tsk--->task files specifies which table/index/key need to be created and dataneed to be imported(T,D,P,I)it is very difficult to load the sap database as one task/process.So it is splitinto multiple packages based on thefunctionality(Executbales,DDIC,application(appl0,appl1,appl2)view andstructures)*.log specifies the task log(specifes which of the tables created/dataimported,primary key created,index created)*DBSIZE.XML-->size of the databaseSAPAPP*(package logs specifies the status of the package import)***************************Installation Mechanism/Process****1.it checks the environment(OS/DB/Environment variables) and request you toinput solution manager keySolution Manager Key is Mandatory to install any SAP Component,so that thesystem will get runtime support from SAP. The Solution Manager system has to beinstalled before installing any other component in the landscape.(solutionManager does not require any solman key during installation).it checks only oncentral instance installationfrom Netweaver 7.3 onwards solman is not required.2.Update the Required Dlls and install common files(os specific)3.Creates users,groups and assign groups to users4.Unpack(uncar) the Kernel Executables5.create Services,create database,create filesystem to load the database,6.Import the abap database (it is more time consuming process)7.Update Statistics(it is also time consuming phase)8.create SAPMMC and Start SAP9.Run ABAP ReportsEnvironment Variables:it specifies where the software home is located(java
  9. 9. home,oracle home).The Software is called in the application by using home pathbecause the physical path differs from system to system.JAVA_HOME /opt/java/jre1.4_12ORACLE_HOME /oracle/DEV/102_32Environment path: it specifies the path of the executables where the softwareexecutables are installed.path /oracle/DEV/102_32/lib;/oracle/DEV/102_32/binLD_LIBRARY_PATH /sapmnt/SID/exe************Checking/Verify/sanity check of the System:1.Check the Users---> (SIDADM,SAPSERVICE<SID>(win) and on unix <SID>adm andora<SID>) (cat /etc/passwd)2.Check the Groups--> groups provide Authorizations on OS and DB(ora_dba,ora_sid_dba,ora_sid_oper, sap_localadmin, SAP_globalAdmin-->cat/etc/group3.Check the users Vs Groups (click on the group to see the assignedmembers(users)4.Check the Services(SAPOSCOL,SAPSID_00(instance number),sapccmsr)5.Check the File System(C/D/E/F/ /usr /opt/ oracle and /sapmnt6.Check the profiles/executables(kernel)/work/log (usr/sap/SID/SYS/profile /sapmnt/SID/exe /usr/sap/SID/SYS/exe/uc/NTAMD64 /usr/sap/SID/DVEBMGS00/work /usr/sap/SID/DVEBMGS00/log7.Check the trans directory(bin,data,buffer,cofiles,tmp,EPS,sapnames,log) /usr/sap/trans8.Check the Database Users:(select username from dba_users;)9.Check the Database tables(select owner,count(*) from dba_tables group byowner;)SQL SERVER (select table_schema,count(*) from INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES.tablesgroup by table_schema)10.check the Database File System and its size (df -h ) or du-h)11.Check the Installed ports(etc/services)12.Check the Startup/sapmmc etc*************************************************************************Starting and Stopping the SAP System:SAP System is started by using sapmmc console or using command "startsap"SAP System is stopped by using sapmmc console or using command "stopsap"Stopping the System:1.Planned downtime is required to stop the system for the following reasons:(Prior Approval and notification to all the business users is required)Kernel Upgrade(SAP)OS Upgrade and PatchesDatabase Upgrade and PatchesParameter Changes using RZ10(occasionally)Offline Backup(daily)(only database)Align down time to other breakdowns(network,lift,UPS,generator,power,Hardwaremaintenance,Building Maintenance)Manual(Accidental or Incidental or wilfull) errorsNatural or Physical DisastersChanges to exe,profile,listener,work,database,portblock,ipblock,hostblock,change profiles,change parameters etc may requires theinstance restart..Starting the SAP System:it is started by using startsap or windows sapmmc console
  10. 10. 1.it is started by reading the StartUp Profile"START_DVEBMGS00_HOSTNAME.PFL"(central Instance)2.Default parameters are provided from DEFAULT.PFL3.Instance specific parameters are provided by Instance profileSID_DVEBMGS00_HOSTNAME.pfl(instance profile)Startup Profilea.)copy sap executbales using executable "sapcpe" from kernel to executabledirectory/usr/sap/SID/sys/exe/UC/OS&BIT(NTI386)// to /sapmnt/SID/exe or/usr/sap/SID/DVEBMGS00/exeNote: In earlier version kernel is located in run directory and the system isstarted using executables from run directory.Now the Kernel is setup based on32|64 bit,Unicode|non-Unicode,OS and DB.So the kernel is copied from the kernel directory to shared mount//sapmnt/SID/exe or Instance Directory /usr/sap/SID/DVEBMGS00/exewhile starting it writes logfile into /usr/sap/SID/DVEBMGS00/work/sapcpe.logb.)starts the database by using executable(batch) strdbs and writes log intostderr0(standard error) logson unix environment the database is started by using command startdb and writesthe logs into sidadm home directory(startdb.log)c.)starts the message server by using msg_server.exe and writes into stderr1 anddev_msd.)start the dispatcher by using disp+work and writes into stderr2 and dev_dispe.)start the work processes by using disp+work and writes into dev_w0,dev_wn-1....f.)start the internet graphic server by using igswd.exeNote:Standard Errors(stderr) are filled to granular level when the traceparameter rdisp/TRACE =0,1,2,3 (increase trace level) is activated..The parameter rdisp/TRACE is set in any of the profile in RZ10 and restart theinstance.The Work Directory is filled with the enormous log files so, ensure that theabove parameter is reset to 0,else the system will be very slow and finallygets halted...The Trace files are written to work directory.Instance Profile:(<SID>_DVEBMGS00_HOSTNAME)it provides work process configuration,memory configuration,buffersconfiguration etc...These Logs are displayed in work directory and known as developer traces whichcan be displayed through ST11. .......The SAP System has to be started after a kernel Upgrade but it could not bestarted??How do you start evaluating the SAP startup issues?????*********************************************************************Troubleshooting SAP startup problems in Windows/Unix
  11. 11. 1. Check whether the Database is up and running. Check the database traces inE:oracleSIDsaptracebackgroundalert<SID>.log, startsap.log, v9start.sql,stderr0,1,2,3,4 in work directorystartdb.log in home directory of <sid>adm2. Check whether Listener service is running, if not there may be an issuewith listener (port and hostname) ora-12541(Listener not started or listener isrunning on different port/host• cmd>lsnrctl status -->to know the status of listener• cmd>lsnrctl start --> to start the listener• cmd>lsnrctl stop --> to stop the listenerif the listener is not started then the error ora-12541 occrus with an errormessage listener not started.3. Userid and password mis-match for schema user id (ora -1017) (SAPSR3,SAPSID, SAPR3 based on versions• Check the Environment Variables are properly setExample Oracle_home, db_ora_tnsname =SID• User has sufficient privileges like sapconn role, sapdba role• Schema Owner Locked with error ora-28000 will be unlocked by usingcommand• Sqlplus>ALTER USER SAPSR3 ACCOUNT UNLOCK;These Errors are found in the trans.log (execute R3trans •d) to check whetherdatabase is reachable to work processesR3trans -d should result (0000) or (0004) if it is (0012) then there is an errorconnecting to database.4. Wrong entries are maintained in tnsnames.ora, listener.ora or sqlnet.ora.In the current version of SAP the above entries are maintained inusr/sap/SID/sys/profile/oracle along with /oracle/SID/102_64/network/adminModify the entries based on hostname, port number, protocol and oracle Home5. Check for Ora-600(internal hardware Error) and escalate to hardware, SAPand Oracle where restore and recovery may be requiredoracleSIDsaptracebackgroundalert<SID>.log6. Check for ora-1578(Data Block Corruption) and restore and recover thatblock from valid database backup(oracleSIDsaptracebackgroundalert<SID>.log)7.Message Server is not started (check dev_ms, startsap.log, stderr0, 1, 2, 3,4).Hardware changes, IP Address Changes, hostname change will reflect in messageserver log. Check for customer key in the dev_ms log. Ensure that ports3600,3900 and 8100 are not blocked.if the log dev_ms does not contain hardware/customer key then assume thatmessage server is failed.8.Profiles are not available to start the database, dispatcher and messageServer (If there is a file system change or the respective directory is notmounted on UNIX (/usr/sap/SID/SYS/exe/profile)). if the profiles are corruptedthen Copy the profiles from an active system and modify the entries accordinglyand start with minimal parameters or restore from the valid backup9.Kernel is upgraded but not related to the database/Unicode/32/64 bit operatingsystem.(select the right kernel before upgrade)10.Execute script "rootpre.sh or saproot.sh " to set the permissions for kernelexecutables on Unix after kernel Upgrade11. Dispatcher could not start with error message DISPATCHER EMERGENCYSHUTDOWN .Analyze the dev_disp Dispatcher developer traceCheck for the logs in Event Viewer (EVENTVWR.exe) and check for disp+work intask manager
  12. 12. The "services" file, which contains TCP and UDP services and their respectiveport numbers. This plain-text configuration file is located underwinnt/system32/drivers/etc.(Ensure that dispacther ports(3200) are not blocked.12.Check Dispatcher Monitor (DPMON.exe), which is located under/usr/sap/SID/sys/exe/run (dpmon pf=instance profile)m-menu13.Dispatcher dies due to a database connection problem or A connection to thedatabase could not be established because either the SQL login specified inparameter is valid or there is a problem with environment variables or databasemight be down.(R3trans -d results trans.log which gives detailled informationabout connecting to database14.Work processes could not connect to Database (evaluate dev_w0, dev_wn-1,dev_wn-2 etc).This Log will explain the complete process of Connecting to theDatabase along with the status of each step.15.Too Many work process are configured (Processes should configure as performula i.e atleast 75mb should be allocated to each process).Or too manyprocesses are configured or the number is more then 100.16.Buffer Areas Could not created (Program Buffers, Table Buffers) PXA (ProgramExecution Area) Initialization Failed . Shared Memory is not sufficient to startthe dispatcher (errors with shm in dev_disp) An ABAP dump saying"PXA_NO_SHARED_MEMORY" is generated as soon as a user logs in.17.Identify the error that starts with Ora-1017,600,1555,1578,255,272 etc18.SAP does not start at all: no message server and no dispatcher19.The message server and the dispatcher do not start at all in the SAP MMC. Thefollowing error when trying to view the developer traces within the SAP MMC: Thenetwork path was not found. No new developer traces written to disk (under the"work" directory.)The network shares "saploc" and "sapmnt" do not exist. Re-create the "saploc" and "sapmnt" network shares. Both need to be created onthe /usr/sap directory, Check whether the Drive is mounted.20.Users get "No logon possible" messages. Work processes start but no loginsare possible. Users get the login screen but the system does not log them in.Instead, they get this error: No logon possible (no hw ID received by mssgserver). The reason is because the "services" file is missing. Example: SAPmsTST3600/tcp. Edit the "services" file and add the entry.(/etc/services).checkwhether offline backup is scheduled and running21.SAP MMC Entries are missing to start the sap System. It was happened due toabnormal termination or due to virus or change in the <SID>ADM password. Usesapstartsrv.exe to create the SAP MMC Entries.22.Check whether the services saposcol and SAP<SID>_NN are running. If not checkthe user permissions and run them manually.1.sapcpekernel outdatedpermission on cpepermissions on /sapmnt/SID/DVEBMGS00/exe2.Database --.startdb.log,stderr0,startsap.log,alter_sid.logora-600,ora-1578,ora1017,ora-12541,ora-28000,ora 1146,1034(oracle not available)check whether database is terminated abruptly and asking for mediarecovery,control files are lost,redolog files are lost------>read thealert_sid.log for dberrors
  13. 13. 3.Start message server stderr1,dev_mshostname change,hardware change,ipchange,(the Customer key should be logged indev_ms file)portsblocked---3600,3900,8100,file system change or if profiles are deleted ornot available4.Start Dispatchershared memory/virtual memory is not available,too many processes configured thenavailable resources,buffer areas are configured beyond the allowablelimit/resourcesrefer to dev_disp,stderr2,if any of the work processes are not started/if itcould not connect to message server then dispatcher fails.5.Start Work processes-->Memory is not sufficient to start,connectivity todatabase failed,shared memory realm does not exist,memory is not released(ipcrm)cleanipc <instance number>JRE is not availableEnvironment variables are not availabledisplay path is not setfree space not availble to write logs/no free space in databaseCheck windows event viewervirus deletes the files,so restore from backup or recreate them from an existingsystemuse top command in linux to check the memory usageexecute R3trans -d to check the connectivity from instance to Database. itwrites trans.log into the directory where command is executed.Note: if the error could not be traced then use parameter rdisp/TRACE ininstance profile.use command cleanipc or ipcrm to clean the shared memory.*************************************************************************Logging to the SAP System:Provide Userid and Password along with logon Client and Language.the two users sap* and ddic are provided by default with master passwordprovided during installation.user sap* is built at kernel and does not contain any user master record,so itis created as many times as it is deleted at database level with defaultpassword "pass".to enable sap* login set the parameter login/no_automatic_user_sapstar=0by default it is set to 1.1.Execute transaction sick/sm28 (initial consistency check).it is used to check the consistency between OS,DB and SAP Kernels.it also checks whether the processes are configured as per the instance(minimumone enque/one btc/one update and message server)Example; oracle 10.2.0.1/11.2.0.1 are not supported,windows 2008 sr2 does not support base version of SAP Kernel which needs a sapkernel upgrade to 111 .2.SE06(initialize the correction(Change/correction Transport System)it contains two radio button options(standard Installation) System/DBCopyit is used to initialize the system and to adopt the changes and also to add tothe landscape.it resets the System ID to the current SID(system Copy).Thistransaction prompts to configure the landscape in STMS in client 000.
  14. 14. System Change Options:There are two settingsModifiable:The Development system is set to modifiable where are as QAS is alsoto set to modifiable(can be set to restricted modifiability).Not Modifiable:The production system is set to not modifiable.(no changesallowed in the entire system)No changes are allowed by developer or functional consultant.3.Configure STMS in client 000 client.(SAP Transport Management System)STMS contains two configurations for systems:1.Domain Controller2.Member of the Domain1.Domain Controller: it is used to manage all the systems in thelandscape,generally this should be configured in an highly availbale system,butdue to non-availbility of Quality and Production systems during the day one ofimplementation,it is configured on Development System.DC can be moved to anyother system in the landscape.2.Member System. All the other systems except Domain controller are referred asmember systems.Execute STMS, A pop-up window is prompted to configure a domain or include in adomain.specify the domain as DOMAIN_SID(DOMAIN_DEV) and specify the instance and saveto configure the domain or include in the domain.3.virtual Systems: These systems are created to configure the landscape.These are used to address the change requests that are created in developmentsystem.these systems does not exist and all the change requests are addressed tothese virtual system IDs.The virtual systems are replaced by real systems andgets all the requests into import queue.if the virtual system name changes then all the requests need to be added to thebuffer manually.4.Slicense: it is used to apply the license to the sap system to get runtimesupport.The license key is generated in the market place based on hardwarekey,installation number,system number and valid until 31.12.9999sap also provides a maintenance certificate that is valid for 3 months whichneed to be renewed for every 3 months.(this is to ensure that customer paystheir AMC(Annual Maintenance Contract) regularly.5.SM36: Define the sap standard background jobs(delete old abap dumps,delete olsspool requests,old updates,old btc jobs,old batch input logs.6.DB13: Define the database specific background jobs.(backup,redo backup,updatestats,adapt next extents).perform a full backup using DB137.RZ10: import profiles of the active servers into database(Execute RZ10-utilities->import profiles of active servers).configure the parameters such as number of processes,buffers,memory areas)8.SU01 : Create master users in SU01 and change password of sap* and ddic.sap* is the only user which does not contain user master records and isbuilt(created) as many times as it is deleted with password "PASS".9.SR13 Configure Library to get the application context help
  15. 15. execute SR13-->new entries-->variant-InternetPlatform--win32Area--Documentation(IWBHELP)ServerName: help.sap.compath :erp2005_ehp_06/helpdata language :encheck the default and saveNavigate to the screen using transaction and use Help Menu-->aaplication help10.SPAM/SAINT are the tools used to update the system with supportpackages/pacthes/add-ons etc(Update the spam and apply the relevant packages)11.I18N(ADOPT LANAGUGES): To Add the new languages into SAP System12.SMLT(LANGUAGE TRANSPORT):it is required to provide MNLS Support to customersfor which the additional languages can be imported using SMLT13.Create client in SCC4: SAP provides three clients(000,001,066) by defaultwhich could not be used for customer runtime.So it is required to create clientsin SCC414.Perform client copy(Local,remote and client export and import)15.SFW5(Activating Business Sets).SAP provides various inbuilt business functions(sets) which can be activatedbased on the customer requirement.Each activation requires additional licensefees(oil,gas,mining,textile,utilities etc.)Execute Transaction SFW5:Select the Business Set/functions save and activate.once activated thesebusiness sets could not be deactivated..(take a backup before activating thesystem)Do not activate the conflicting Business Sets(ex:Banking and Insurance)*************************************************************************Kernel Upgrade: Kernel Provides runtime executables for SAP System.kernel upgrade is the process of replacing the existing executables with a newset of executables.Kernel Upgrade is required in the following scenarios.1.To Ensure that SAP Systems are compatible with OS and database.2.While applying support packages,patches,add-on, languages and transports3.During SAP Upgrade or OS/DB Migration,OS/DB Patches,OS/DB Upgrade etc4.SAP Recommends as part of the EWA (Early Watch Alert)5.To fix the runtime issues that are cropped up during runtime.(example: Update failures,enque lock failures,deadlocks,functionality issuesetc...)6.SAP Servers Routine/periodical Maintenance7.SAP Recommendation as part of the security threatsKernel is based on operating system,database,32/64 bit,unicode/non-unicode etc..
  16. 16. (because of SAP Kernel,SAP System is said to be OS/DB Independent.Third party executables like sapgenpse,sapcrypto.dll,dbatools,igs,igshelper andsaprouter may also need to be updated during kernel Upgrade.SAP Provides two sarfiles(sapexe_version,sapexedb_version,dbatools,igs,igshelper) one is dbdependent and db independent(OS dependent)Process of Kernel Upgrade:1.Download the Kernel from the market place.(http://service.sap.com/swdc-----.complimentary software)2.Create a folder kernel_Timestamp(Date and Time) ex: Kernel_23092012or Kernel_333(kernel version)3.Copy the downloaded files into newly created folder.4.schedule downtime-->upon approval 1.Stop the application servers 2.Stop the database 3.Stop the services(saposcol,sap<SID>_00,sapccmsr)5.Create a directory Kernel_OLD_Version and Copy the old kernel(to rollback incase if the system does not start)(match the size of existing kernel and copiedkernel-->to ensure that entire kernel is copied.6.Copy the executables from newkernel (step-2) into existing(runtime) kernel byoverwriting the executables.cp -pr kernel_333/* /usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/exe/run/7.Check the Permissions for dbatools and db libraries8.run rootpre.sh or ./saproot.sh to set the permissions for brtools,saposcoland set the userbit.9.start the database,services and sap application servers.10.check the kernel version by using disp+workif the sap system does not start then troubleshoot using developertraces(stderr0,1,2,3,4),dev_ms,dev_disp,dev_w0,w1,w2,w3....wn-1*************************************************************************SPAM/SAINT Update:SPAM/SAINT tool is used to apply support packages and add-ons.This tool has tobe updated to current version to comply with sp/add-onsSPAM/SAINT update does not require any sequence.Update from Lower version 21 to42 or 45 or 47 is possible.spam/saint is based on WEBAS Version(620,700,701,730)1.Download spam/saint from market place(using option complimentary software)2.Login to 000 client and load the packages from front end.The .sar/.car file isdecompressed and loaded to /usr/sap/trans/EPS/in in the .pat format3.Use the option "import spam/saint update" to update the SPAM/SAINT.4.The spam/saint screen disappears(empty screen) and the errorLOAD_Program_not_found occurs.Restart spam and continue to update spam.5.The SPAM/SAINT Update may abort in EPILOGUE Phase,Restart spam and continue to
  17. 17. update spam.Depending upon the spam version the spam restart may be required more then onceuntil the spam import queue is GREEN*************************************************************************Client: it is an independent business Unit which is represented by threedigits(ranges from 000 to 999).it is a data separator and it is the first fieldto login along with userid,password and language.sap provides three default clients 000,001,066 with specific purpose.000 client provides default templates for creating other clients.it is also usedto apply support packages,patches,add-ons,languages etc...001 is backup client for 000(now 001 can be used for production purposes:Ex:Solution manager and Dual Stack Java Engines)066 is an early watch alert client which is used by SAP to generate EWA Reportsfor every six (one)months.what is the Need for Creating a New Client????????As the sap standrard clients(000,001 and 066) cannot be used for customizing anddevelopment,there is a need to create new clients based on the customerrequirment.Client is a 3 digit number in the database Table (T000) which is represented bya field MANDT.Client is a data separator in the database tables.The tables with field MANDT are called as client specific tables.(only exceptionis table T000 because it maintains client information).The Tables with out fieldMANDT are called as cross client tables.Clients are created in Transaction SCC4.Specify the Number of the Client Unique no(000-999) as 000,001,066 are reservedthe remaining available client numbers can be used..1.Client Number :(Three digit number)2.Client Description(specify text)3.Client Location(location of the client)4.Currency:(currency to be used in client)5.Client Role:SAP Provides 6 predefined Client Roles: CUST|TEST|SAND|QTST|TRNG|PRODClient Specific Options:These are used to specify whether changes are allowed inthe specific client.a.No Changes allowed: No Changes are allowed in this Client fordevelopment/customizingTEST(ING) Client is only used for Unit Testing so no changes are allowed.QTST(Quality Testing) is used for Integration Testing,so no changes are allowed.TRNG(Training Client) is used for training to end users,so no changes areallowed.PROD(Production Client) is used by end users for business,so no changes areallowed.b.Changes allowed but not recorded:(customizing client specific is allowed)SAND(BOX)Changes are allowed but not recorded in this Client(facilitatefunctional team to work on this client before they work on Cust Client.C.Automatic Recording of changes:CUST(Customizing): There will be only one client which is set with ARC in theSAP System Landscape.The Changes are allowed and recorded to change request for transporting the
  18. 18. changes from one system to another system in the landscape.d.Changes Allowed but not recorded/nor transported:The Changes are allowed but not recorded nor transported(some times TEST clientmay have this option)changes to Repository Objects and cross client objects are allowedchanges to repository objects allowed (ccc not allowed)changes to cross client objects allowed(rep not allowed)No changes to Repository Objects and cross client objects are allowed(Production Systems are set with this option)Protection Level:it is used to protect the client information from copying andoverwriting.Level 0 : Client Copy is allowed(external availability)/Overwriting is allowedLevel 1 : Client Copy is allowed(external availability)/no OverwritingLevel 2: Client Copy is not allowed(no external availability)/no OverwritingProduction systems are set with this options.Ecatt:(Extended electronic Computer aided Test Tool)SECATT(is allowed to run /no run in production systems they are not allowedafter Go_live.This is used to massively transfer the data using transaction SECATTLogical System: To identify the client uniquely in the landscape.it is in thenaming convention <SID>CLNT<CLNT NUMBER>it is defined in transaction SALE.it is mandatory in BW Systems as the Datatransfer between clients is performed by using logical systems.When the Clients are created in SCC4 only an entry in Table T000 is created without any data.it is inbuilt with a user sap* which is available at kernel leveland created as many times as it is deleted with default password "PASS".sap* default password is 06071992 and ddic default password is 19920706 whichis overridden by master password provided during installation.Client has access to the cross client information and repository objects,but itdoes not contain any client specific data.So inorder to get the client specific data a client copy is required fromdefault template client i,e either from 000 or 001.Netweaver systems like BI a client copy from 001 is recommended,or 001 can beused as production client.*****************************************************************************************************************************************Client Copy: it is used to copy the client specific data between clients.There are three types of clients copy methods1.Local Client Copy2.Remote Client Copy3.Client Export and Import(Transport)1.Client Copy Local(SCCL): it is used to copy the data between two clients inthe same system.2.Remote Client Copy(SCC9): it is used to copy the data between two clients fromtwo different systems(the systems are in the landscape and reachable throughRFC)3.Client Export/Import: it is used to Export the client data from one system andtransport it to other systems which are not in the landscape.(not reachablethrough RFC)Prerequisites of Client Copy:1.It is performed always on the target client
  19. 19. 2.it always copies/pulls the data from source client3.check the space in DB02 and ensure that enough space is available for clientcopy4.Users should not be logged on the source client(lock the users in sourceclient)5.client copy should be performed in the background mode only and ensure thatatleast two btc processes are available.6.Ensure that all the lanaguages/support packages/add-ons are applied beforeclient copy.7.identify the space required for client copy usingRSTABLESIZE/RSSPACECHECK(report gives size of current client)8.Define RFC Connection between two clients during Remote Client Copy9.Ensure that /usr/sap/trans directory has enough space to perform client exportand write client copy logs10.select the profile to specify the data to be copied from Source client totarget client.11.Ensure that STMS is Configured in 000 Client12.Client Copy always overwrites the data and data merging is not possible.13.it is recommended to delete a client during client refresh In SCC5 and copyfrom the source client.Client Deletion Consumes more time in hours|days.(examplea copy from PRD Client to QAS client)14.Client Copy logs are displayed in SM37/SCC3/SM5015.The source system and target system version and patch levels should be sameto perform client copy. (it effects in remote client copy and client export andimport)***********************************************************************************************************************************Local Client Copy:Execute SCCL on target System.Target Client is DisplayedSelect the Profilespecify the Source Clientschedule as a background job/or start immediately in the dialog mode.Profile: it specifies the type of data that need to be copied from SourceClient.(SAP_CUST is mandatory profile to setup all the clients)SAP_ALL--Copies the cust,application and usermaster(to setup training Client)sap_appl--Copies cust and applicatonsap_user--only user masterClient Copy Copies only the entries from the source client and paste(copy) themin the same table with target client.(different MANDT).The Number of tables will not increase due to a client copy.The entries arecopied with a target client number.Test run is used to check the resources that are required for client copy.Remote Client Copy :1.Define RFC Connection between Target Client and Source Client2.Execute SCC93.Select the proflie4.select destination RFC(source system and source client are displayed)5.schedule as a background job or run in the dialog mode.Note:The Source System and Target System should contain the same version andpatch levels)***********************************************************************Note Assistant:SNOTE is used to fix the runtime issues,bugfixes,programcorrections.Notes are of three types1. SAP Notes provide informative Notes such as 822379/822380/669669.it provides
  20. 20. known problems in support packages,addons, installations, upgrades and othertechnical/release information.2. SAP Provides Manual Correction notes such as table creation,tableentries,uploading data,upload images etc.it provides step by step information toperform the changes to the tables entries manually.3. SAP Provides notes for program corrections which can be applied throughtransaction SNOTE.SNote is used to modify the sap standard repository programs with out any objectaccess key.SAP provides SSCR(SAP Software Change Registration Keys to modify thestandard Objects where as snote does not require sscr keys.if there are any bugs,fixes which are identified by SAP are fixed through SAPNotes.Sap Notes provides the program corrections by commenting the faulty code andinserting the corrected code.Execute SNOTE:menu goto-download note-specify the note number and execute to download-The Status of the Note isNew--when downloaded into SAP Systemobsolete--it is overwritten by support package or no more in use.cannot be implemented---it cannot be implemented.(Informative/manual note)completely implemented----implemented when it is a corrective notecan be implemented----note is ready for implementationCorrective Note: Comments the faulty code and inserts the corrected code.due tothis reason notes can be reverted until it is overwritten by a support package.select the note and click on execute to implement the note.(note: saposs connection is required to download the note)The Note is applied in development system and recorded to a change request andtransported to other systems in the landscape.Snote is introduced in SAP R3 46C version and the changes are applied with outany SSCR key.Reverting the Note: Select the Note in SNote and select the option reset sapnote implementation(Note: Except kernel and sapnotes other sap objects could not bereverted(Supportpackages,support stacks,Languages,add-ons)***********************************************************************Support packages:The group of Notes,bugfixes,program corrections,enhancements are grouped into asupport package.Support packages are released by sap from time to time.Group of support packages are referred as Support Stacks.(ABAP 12,13 basis 12,13etc)Group of Support Stacks/support packages are referred as ServiceReleases(SR1,SR2,SR3...etc) ECC6.0 base version is patch level 3 SAPKB70003 ECC6.0 SR1 is on patch level 6 SAPKB70006 ECC6.0 SR2 is on patch level 9 SAPKB70009 ECC6.0 SR3 is on patch level 14 SAPKB70014until above only the patch level changes(example: SAPKB70001 to SAPKB70024)Note: Support Packages,Add-ons,Languages are also transport requestsinitiated/generated from SAP.They can also be imported from STMS instead ofSPAM/SAINT/SMLTEnhancement Package:
  21. 21. it is used to provide enhancements to the current system and to avoid frequentSAP Upgrades.it changes the version/kernel and release(SAPKB70021 to SAP 70101,70203,73101).-Pre-Requisites for Applying Support Packages/Add-ons/Languages:1.Ensure that stms is configured in client 0002.depending upon the size of package apply through front end if it <5mband use the option application server if it >5mb3.Ensure that 2 free btc processes are available4.perform a backup before applying support packs5.always apply in btc mode(so that it runs even the user is logged out)6.Perform Kernel Upgrade especially three executables tp,r3trans and sapcar7.apply patches in the number sequence.(1,2,3,4,5,6),no number jumping isallowed. i.e, 10 to 12 it is not allowed.(patches are incremental)8.apply patches in the sequence of landscape(DEV,TRN,SAN,QAS....PRD)9.apply patches in the sequence of patches(BASIS,ABA,BW,PI,.....)10.Read note 822379 for known problems that are populated by patches11.bind the patches or individual(combined or individual)group the patches like 12,13,14 to apply together12.perform spam/saint update13.ensure that enough space is available in /usr/sap/trans14.ensure that enough space is available in database space through DB0215.configure Router(TO GET REMOTE SUPPORT FROM sap)16.schedule rddimpdp/rddnewpp background jobs in client 000 using user ddic17.ensure that functional/development team is available to adopt changes18.lock the users(EWz5 transaction)19.as the support packages are hot packages no downtime is required(no systemshutdown)20.support packages cannot be reverted21.There should not be any aborted packages(resolve the aborted package beforecontinuing with new one22.Record the modifications to a transport request and include them whileapplying support packages in the other systems of the landscape.23.check the dependencies from note 822379 before applying support packages.Modification Adjustment:The Patches brings some new functionality into sap system which may requireadjustment with the exisiting objects.Example: A+B=20 is the object provided by installation A+B=30 is the object modified by customer(manually using sscr key orthrough a Note) A+B=28 is the object status after patch(SP) application.SPDD(Data Dictionary Adjustment):when ever the objects related to DataDictionary are modified then the changes need to be adopted inSPDD(domain,dataelement,table,index,view,structure etc)The Functional/Development Teams assistance is required whether to go withold,remain with current or adopt the new (proposed) Changes.The adoption/decision is recorded into a change request,released andsubsequently transported to other systems while applying support packages.TheseTransport requests are included in the modification adjustment phase as manualchanges are not allowed in other systems except DEV(even if allowed it consumesmore time)SPAU(repository Objects)when ever the objects related to repository liketransactions/programs/reports/menus/screens/functional modules then the changesneed to be adopted in SPAU.The adoption/decision is recorded into a changerequest,released and subsequently transported to other systems while applyingsupport packages.These Transport requests are included in the modificationadjustment phase as manual changes are not allowed in other systems except DEV
  22. 22. All the above prerequistes turns into error if they are not checked properly.Support package Mechanism:The Support Packages are applied using SPAM/SAINT.1.The ".car" or ".sar" files are decompressed into EPS/in directory usingSAPCAR.2.tp connects to the database and checks writability to trans dir3.sapcar decompreses(uncar) into .att(attributes) and .pat(patch files).4.tp creates cofiles and datafiles based on .att and .pat files.5.tp writes the job steps of import into TRBAT and TRJOB tables.6.R3trans is the executable initiated by tp to transport the objects(run the jobsteps)7.R3trans is used to import/export(test,ddic import,main import,import oftables).8.Rddimpdp/rddnewpp and other rdd* job reads the job steps from TRBAT and TRJOBand run the programs to generation,conversion,activation,etc...9.The Complete logs are written to Log directory10.Monitor the tmp directory during import11.Monitor the TPlogs,sm50,sm66 and sm37(use al11 transaction monitor the logfiles from GUI).Add-on/plug-ins:These are used to provide the additional functionality to the existing system.add-ons like BW,VIRSA,PIBASIS,STPI are applied through SAINT.Read the note 822380 for known issues related to add-ons.Process:1.Download the add-on from the market place.2.copy the add-on to /usr/sap/trans directory.3.uncar the file using commands SAPCAR -xvf Addon.sar4.it will create .att/.pat files into /usr/sap/trans/EPS/in directory.5.load the add-on from the application server.6.select the add-on and continue to apply the addon.7.Most of the addons requires a password which is provided in the add-onspecific note to ensure that all the dependencies/conflicts are checked.8.Enter the password from the note and continue to apply the add-on.9.Add-on displays the package and suggest to select the packages(addon packages)or recommends for the minimum package.10.select the recommended packages if available and then continue to apply theadd-on.11.The logs which are specified for support packages are applicable to addonsand languages.12.confirm the add-on.Language Import:SAP Provides by default english and German languages(EN and DE).The additional languages can be imported into sap system based on customerrequirement.1.Adopt the language through i18n (execute i18n/rscpinst(report in sa38))add the language,save and activate.2.it will prompt the activation message and recommends to setup the languageparameter in RZ10.(zcsa/installed_languages=E,D,Z,)
  23. 23. 3.Download or copy the language import file into /usr/sap/trans4.Add the language in SMLT and specify the supplementary language.5.Specify the path of language (/usr/sap/trans) and import the language fromSMLT.6.The Language import is scheduled through a background job which can bemonitored in SM37.7.The Language Pack is dissembled into around ten pat files which are displayedin STMS.8.The Langauge import is completed which can be displayed in STMS/SMLT.9.The same logs of support packs/add-ons are used to troubleshoot the runtimeissues.*************************************************************************Systems Role:Development/Quality/Production/preprod/sandbox/migration/payroll/testing/training--sap allows to have upto 8 systems in landscape.(DEV/QAS/TRN/PPD/PRD/MIG/PYR/SAN)Change Management:SE06: As part of the post installation the correction(change) transport systemsettings are set.i,e The System is adapatable to changes based on System Settings and ClientSettings.System Settings:(SE06/Se03)There are two settings (modifiable and not modifiable).Modifiable: The System is allowed to make changes to the repository objects inthe SAP namespace/customer namespace.it is also possible to restrict the objectspartially modifiable.This is set in Development and SAND BOX Systems Only.Not Modifiable: The System is not allowed to make changes to the repositoryobjects in the SAP namespace/customer namespace.This is set in all the other systems except DEV/SAN/TRN Systems ie QAS,PPD andPRD systemsClient Settings:These are set in SCC4.Automatic Recording of Changes:allowed in DEV systemNo Changes are allowed is set in QAS/PRD Systems.So the Required changes are performed in the development systems/recorded into achange request,released and transported to other systems.Application Data,Transaction Data,User Master Data,This is live(runtime data)data which is modifibale in QAS/PRD Systems irrespective of system/clientsettings.Repository Data,Cross Client Data,Client Specific Dataecatt(electronic/extended computer aided test tool(SCAT)(SECAT) are the settingswhich are used to protect the data.This is System Data which is modifible basedon System/Client SettingsTransport Domain Controller:There will be only one Transport Domain Contoller inthe Landscape.it is used to maintain the information of all the systems in thelandscape.initially the development system is configured as Transport Domain but later it
  24. 24. can be moved to other systems like QAS/PRD(but mostly remains in DEV only)Login to 000 Client of development system as user like DDIC.execute STMS to configure STMS.execute dico in the stms screen to delete STMS Configuration to move thedomain controller to any other system)when stms is executed in 000 client apop-up window is prompted to configuredomain contoller or member of the transport domain.provide the details in the pop-up window like (domain host,domain instancenumber,Domain_SID etc and save the configuration.Defining virtual systems:During the implementation the development system is configured and other systemslike QAS and PRD are not available/procured(due to cost/warranty for earlierprocurement as they will not be in use until development is finalized).The Systems which does not exist and likely to be replaced with real systems(infuture) are referred as Virutal Systems.These are used for addressing thetransport requests.Defining the Transport LandscapeExecute STMS-->Transport Routes-->change mode-->Configuration-->standardConfiguration-->Three Systems in Group.(select Development/Quality andproduction system).Single System Landscape:There will be only one system in the landscape which needs to provide all theclient roles(CUST,TEST,SAND,QTST,TRNG and PROD).There is no consistentenvironment for produciton and quality clients as the repository and cross-client objects are shared between all the clients.This system is not recommended for production use and can be used for test anddemo purposes.The Objects which are modified in CUST Client Could not be used inPROD ClientTwo System landscape:There will be two systems in the landscape where DEV and QAS are installed inone Box(i.e 5 clients in one box) and the PROD Client in another systemThe Quality system and Development objects share the repository and cross clientobjects and so the quality is not consistent and stable.This is the least recommended landscape by SAP.Three System landscape:This is the optimal landscape where three systems are installed separately inthe landscape and they are consistent and stable.***********************************************************Multi system landscape:The Above landscape does not provide an environment forsandbox to play around with repository and cross client objects.So the sandbox,preprod and payroll may be installed on separate systems.Transport Group:Each system is assigned with a transport group when it isincluded in Landscape it is GROUP_DEV,GROUP_QAS,GROUP_PRD.i.e these three systems are having their own transport directories.if all the systems are sharing the same transport directory then it is called ascommon transport direcotry.(GROUP_DEV).CTD should be on higly avaiable shared drive.(preferably on SAN)configuring Transport GroupsExecute STMS-->overview systems-->select the system-->Communication tab-->changethe transport Group;Use tab transport tool-->set the parameter transdir=/usr/sap/trans
  25. 25. similarly set environment varibale on all the systems DIR_TRANS=/usr/sap/transTransport "Target Groups":These are used to setup the landscape when more thenthree systems are configured.The Extended Transport Control mechanism is used totransport the objects to transport groups instead of systems.Define Transport target Groups in STMS(stms-transport routes-->hierarchicaleditor-->transport target groups create--->specify the systems-->definetransport routes using extedned transport control program.******************************************************************Adopting the SAP SystemThe SAP System is Installed and Updated to get the current functionality(SupportPackages,patches,add-on,languages)The System is ready to be used by the Functional Team to Adopt according to thecustomer requirements.SAP Provides various predefined templates which are industry specific and can beused directly with out any modifications.Customizing: it is the process of keying entries into the predefined tables.Client Specific Customizing:if the tables contains a Field MANDT then it isreferred as client specific Customizing and the changes made reflects only inthat specific Client.Example: Company Code,Chart of Accounts,sales organizations, divisions,plants,warehouses, etc.......Cross-Client Customizing:if the tables does not contains a Field MANDT then itis referred as cross-client Customizing and the changes made reflects in theentire system.Example:Client table T000,Logical Systems table TBDLS,Password RestrictionTable USR40;Development:when ever a new field,table,program,report,screen,menu, functionmodule,transactions are created or modified then it is referred asDevelopment/Modifications.Repair: Modifying the objects in the non-original system*************************************************************************Transport Mechanism:In a traditional SDLC(Software Development Cycle) the Objects are developed inDevelopment System and Compiled into Packages and copied tostaging/testing/training/production System at File System Level.In SAP System the object changes takes place in database(all the objects/tablesresides in database except Kernel/profiles/trans directory).when the Changes are performed(initiated) they are recorded to a change Request.The Change requests are stored in table E070. The Change Request Point to theobjects which are modified and gets released to convert the Database specificchanges to OS/DB Independent Transport requests.Once released the Change requestreleases the locks and the transport requests are generated at OS Level in transdir.No Changes can be made to transport requests as they are compiled intomachine Code.(sap is required to inerpret this machine code)The Transport Requests can be imported into as many systems as possible to adoptthe changes.Change Request: it contains the changes intitiated by Developer/FunctionalConsultantThe Change Requests resides in Table E070 and created by a project Lead/Managerand assigned to the team members as Change Request tasks.
  26. 26. The Team Members changes the Objects and record to the assigned change Requesttasks and releases them.once all the associated tasks are released then the change request is released.if the change requests are related to client specific objects then it isreferred as Customizing change Request.if the change requests are related to cross-client objects or development(repository) then it is referred as workbench change Request.The Requests are created in Transaction SE01(earlier SE09/SE10) by a ProjectManager/Team Lead. The User Should have necessary authorizations to createchange requests.The Development Team/Functional Team can save the changes only to the allocatedchange request(task) and similarly they are only authorizsed to release them.Customizing:it is the process of keying/editing entries into the tables.Example: T000,T001,TBDLS,USR40,Chart of Accounts,sales organizations,sales areasetc...Execute SE01 and Create Change Request.Execute SPRO and Create Entries into Client Specific Tables.A pop-up box isprompted to save the changes to change request. The User has the option tocreate a change request(provided user has necessary authorizations)or save themto assigned request.Development:it is the process of creating custom repository objects or modifying SAPRepository Objects.SAP Repository Objects such as Fields,Domain,Tables,Programs,FunctionalModules,Screens,Menus,Transactions in the namespace of A to X can be modified bya Developer upon obtaining SSCR Key (SAP Software Change Registration Key) fromSAP Market PlaceThese are generally referred as repairs.it requires the Valid Developer Key(Table DEVACCESS)it requires the Valid SSCR Key(Object Access Key).Every SAP Object Requires aSSCR Key for Modification.(ADIRACCESS)Customer Defines the objects in the namespace(Y-Z) where a valid Developer keyis required.SE11 is used to define Data Dictionary Objects(Fields,Domain,Tables)SE37 is used to define Functional modulesSE38 is used to define Programs/ReportsSE41 is used to define MenusSE51 is used to define ScreensSE71 is used to define FormsSE93 is used to define TransactionsSe80 is used to define the repository objectswhen any of the above object is created or modified it prompts for a changerequest of type work bench.These object also requires a Development class orpackage with out which the objects could not be transported.THe Objects saved to$tmp class or saved as local object are not transported.These Objects are grouped into a Package (packages are defined in SE80).Each Package requires a Transport Layer(Transport layers are defined in STMS)Transport Layer specifies the path to move the objects between the systems.Transport Layers are assigned to Transport Routes(transport layers are definedin STMS)
  27. 27. These Transport Routes are assigned to Systems to form the System Landscape.Transport Routes are used to transport the objects between the systems.There are two types of transport routes.Consolidation Route: the Route between the Integration(DEV) system andConsolidation System.Delivery Route: The Route between the Consolidation(QAS) System and DeliverySystem(PRD) is Delivery Route.Systems are defined in STMS:Developer key: it is used to authorize the developer "ex:sapuser" todevelop/create/modify/delete the objects in the SAP Namespace(a-x) or customernamespace(y-z) or reserved namespace(/willsys/).Example:Modifying a sap standard Object A-x are referred as repairs where SAP SoftwareChange Registration key is required along with developer key.Example a Customer requirement is to display the daily/weekly/monthly salesreport.a Report with in naming convention (y -z ) has to develop where a developer keyis required.Developer keys are stored in table DEVACCESS.The Object Access keys (SSCR)are stored in table ADIRACCESS.These are alsoreferred as SAP Software Change Registration Keys(SSCR Keys)Note:One time Data Access Key is required,subsequently all the developers areallowed to modify that standard Object(a-x).*******************************************************************************************************************Change Requests Release:when a change requests is released it checks for the valid target system.if thesystem landscape is not defined then the transport requests(local transports)are not generated.if the repository objects are assigned to a $tmp class or saved as local objectsthen the transport requests are not generated.So assigning a Valid Development package/class to the Objects is requiredThe Package is assigned to transport layer--->layer is assigned to TransportRoute and route is assigned to systems--systems forms the landscape.when a request is released,transport requests are created and target systembuffer is filled with transport request number,cofile is created "K" anddatafile is created "R" and sapnames are updated with username who owns thechange request(username file gets updated with change request numbers)sapnames directory is also used to identify the requests owned bydevelopers/functional consultants.(after Import)Log directory gets filled with Alog(application Log),SLOG(Steps Log) andUlog(commands log).it also generates a transport request specific log.These fourlogs has significance in identifying the issues/errors.Transport layers are defined in STMS,by default SAP Transport Layer is createdto move the sap standard Objects and Z<SID> is created to move the customObjects(y-z,/company/)The support packages/patches/add-ons/languages etc...are the compressedtransport requests sent by SAP in the form of .CAR/.SAR when these aredecompressed (uncarred)patches like .att/.pat files are generated.when these are imported through SPAM/SAINT/SMLT the respective
  28. 28. data/cofile/sapnames are created and filled in trans directorytmp directory is used during the runtime of transports. if any content is chokedin tmp directory then assume that there is an issue with the transport request.do not delete any contents from tmp directory unless recommended by SAP.Importing the Requests:Execute STMS/STMS_IMPORTSelect the Transport Request and Import using semi loaded truck.Disable the fully loaded truck to avoid accidental usage and accidental importof all requests that are in Queue.it is recommended to delete the requests after import.Execute-->STMS--Overview--Systems-->doubleclick system--set the parameterNo_IMPORT_ALL=1(set it in domain controller)Check the logs in /usr/sap/trans/log or use the tp logs.tp: (transport protocol);it is used to export and import the objects Fromdatabase to file system(export) and file system to database (import).tp calls R3trans to export and import the objects(execute R3trans -d)to checkthe tp connectivity to database.tp is specific to OS/DB/32/64/UC/NUC.Preliminary Transport Requests:(Emergency Requests)These are transported directly to the production with out following theTransport Queue/Approvals in an emergency.These requests remains in the queuefor later import along with other requests.Execute STMS_Import-->select the menu Extras-->other Requests Add--select therequest and import..The Requests requires an approval and need to copy the associated cofiles anddata files.CRT(conflict Resolution Transports):when the add-ons are applied read the composite note 822380 and add-on specificnote.if there is a conflict sap releases conflict resolution Transport requests whichhas to be manually imported at OS Level.Example: when banking add-on is applied it conflicts with existing BW and basiscomponent then a CRT which is released by sap has to be imported through(at) OSLevel or using STMS****************************************************************************************************************************************Current Customizing:it is the process of allowing the production system tomodify the changes to certain tables even the system settings are set to notmodifiable/no changes allowed in client settings and the Client role should beset to production.SOBJ Transaction is used to set the current settings option;execute SOBJ-->select the table-modify--check the current settings option andsave.The tables which are checked with current settings options are editableonly in production system.example is OB52 transactionManual TPwhile stms is specific to a single or mass transports ,tp can also be initiatedat OS Level with various options.when support packages/add-ons/languages are applied,if the system is aborted dueto any reason and if the system does not allow login (logon screen is inmodified state--i.e it is modified by the support packs),then the remaining partof the support package can be applied (initiated)through manual tp.go to ULOG and the get the tp commands to execute at OS Level.check connectivity of TP to database :tp connect <SID> pf=/usr/sap/trans/bin/tp_domain_SID.pfl
  29. 29. Check R3trans Connectivity "R3trans -d" and analyse trans.log(trans.log iscreated in the same path where R3trans -d is executed)Add the requests to buffer :if the systems are not in the landscape then the requests need to be added tobuffer else they are not displayed in import Queuetp addtobuffer <TR> SID pf=/usr/sap/trans/bin/tp_domain_SID.pflimport single requeststp import <TR> <SID> client001 pf=/usr/sap/trans/bin/tp_domain_SID.pflimport massive requeststp import ALL <TR> <SID> clnt001 pf=/usr/sap/trans/bin/tp_domain_SID.pflManual Transports:tp addtobuffer DEVK900208 PRD pf=/usr/sap/trans/bin/TP_DOMAIN_DEV.pfltp IMPORT DEVK900208 PRD client001 U012689tp IMPORT DEVK900208 PRD client001 U012689pf=/usr/sap/trans/bin/TP_DOMAIN_DEV.pfltp IMPORT DEVK900297 DEV client001 U012 pf=/usr/sap/trans/bin/TP_DOMAIN_DEV.PFLTransport Logs:These are displayed in/usr/sap/trans/log(alog,ulog,slog,Transport Log).A Transport request is failed when return code is more then 4tp return codes are important to resolve the run time issues of transports.(0000)----succesfully completed(0004)----completed with warnings(0006)---Programs issue(such as activation/dependent programs not found)(0008)-and above---Completed with errors.(0012)---db connectivity errors12 and above are related to Tp errorsexecute R3trans -d to check whether tp could connect to database.R3trans -d generates trans.log in the current directory.Execute STMS-Overview-Systems-select system check-->transport tool-->directory-->connection testtp connect <SID> pf=/usr/sap/trans/bin/TP_DOMAIN_<SID>.PFLexecute report RSTPTEST in SA38generally above "8" are related to tp,r3trans,tms, file system,/trans,tp profileparameter errors.************************************************************************************TP Mechanism:tp converts the database changes (change requests) into OS Independent formatduring the export(change request release)using the truck in SE01Most of the transport requests are sap release dependent.(620,640,700)tp converts db specific changes to OS Independent Data Files/cofiles and importthem into DB Dependent format during the Import using the truck in STMSTransport Request Import:1.check whether The Change requests are released in SE01
  30. 30. 2.Check whether STMS is Configured3.Check whether the objects are assigned to a valid development class and classis assigned to a valid transport layer.objects assigned to local and $tmp arenot transportable.4.Check whether transport directory is readable/writable(permissions) etc inSTMS.5.Check whether the transport profile is readbale6.if required upgrade tp and R3trans7.check whether tp is connecting to Database(use R3trans -d)8.check for any hanging tp(at OS level)9.check the respective data/files and co-files exist with SIDADM PermissionsExecute STMS or STMS_Importselect the transport request and select import truck.specify the client to transport/date and timespecify the Unconditional Modes.1--Leave the request for later import in the queue.2--Overwrite Originals6--Overwrite repaired objects8--Ignore the restrictionsThese are prefixed with USemiloaded truck is used import a single requestsFully loaded truck is used to import mass transport requests.Stms displays the tp monitor and tp logs.Before confirming that the transportis succesfull check the tp logs and tp return codes or check from transportLogs.Mass(monthly)Transports to ProductionThe Transports are moved into production system periodically eitherdaily/weekly/monthly during off peak hours.Frequent Transports overwrite the (programs)buffers and frequent swaps occurswhich will degrade the performance of the system.Transport(window) Life Cycle is followed in most of the environments(generallydaily,weekly,monthly during offpeak hours)1.Schedule MTP with date and time2.Notify the Users3.Lock the Users using transaction EWZ54.Transport(Import) the Objects using STMS/STMS_IMPOrt5.Release(unlock in EWZ5/Su01) the Business Process Owners(users) to test theimported objects.6.Test the Objects7.Decision to go or no-go8.if no revert the changes using another transport requests(reverse)9.unlock the users.Note: There is no option to revert the Transport Requests(TR,SPAM/SAINT,Languageetc) because they overwrite the objects and it reflects in varioustables/programs.So they cannot be reverted..Process of ROLL BACKThe Developers can make use of the development system and get the older versionof the programs,change/record/release/transport again.Note: Disable the fully loaded truck,so that the mass transport option are notused.if Mass Transport option is required then delete the requests from the queueafter import.if these are not deleted then multiple versions are available in the STMS andusing fully loaded truck will make the system inconsistent.it is also possible to select group of transports by closing the transport queueand move the end mark and if required open the queue.
  31. 31. Transport Requests Deletion:Execute STMSselect the request and delete and if required add the request.Transport hangs:check tp,r3trans processes(os) along with background processes-SM50/SM37).some times too many tp are running.delete them at OS Level,delete tp import monitor logs and reimport the requests.batch jobs(rddimpdp/rddnewpp)could not be started..check user tmsadm/DDIC are not lockedcheck rfc connection tmsadm,tmsupcheck whether btc job rddnewpp/rddimpdp are scheduled in client 000 with userlike ddicIssues related to Imports.1.trans dir file system space/permissions2.tp connectivity errors(R3trans -d)3.tp and r3trans version compatability4.database table spaces overflow5.no sufficient background jobs/user ddic locked6.memory issues such as TSV_TNEW_PAGE_ALLOCATION etcwhen the support packages are terminated they can be reinitiated byRe-run the support package to start from the point where it is failed.Note: During SPDD/SPAU rerun the package in dialog mode to take a decision toadopt the changesNote: Do not delete the pat01/pat03 tables and tmp/log file unless recommendedby sap.******************************************************************************************************************************************Starting and stopping of SAP System.(Kernel upgrade/Rz10 Parameters)1.stopsap at OS Level2.use sapmmc on windows environment.Starting the sap system:1.startsap at Os Level2.use sapmmc on windows environment.startscript reads the startup profile and starts the enginestartup mechansim.1.it reads startup profile with naming convention START_DVEBMGS00_HOSTNAME.PFLit contains the following executables/scripts to start the sap systema)copy execuatbles from kernel directory to runtime kernel /sapmnt/SID/exe usingsapcpe.exe and writes log into sapcpe.logb)start database by using strdbs and writes the logs into stderr(standard errorlogs and startdb.log)c)starts message server using msg_server.exe and writes log into dev_ms.logd)starts the dispatcher using disp+work.exe and writes log into dev_disp loge)starts the work processes using disp+work and writes log intodev_w0,dev_w1,dev_w2,dev_w3,dev_w4...............
  32. 32. f)starts the Internet Graphics Server using igswd.exe and writes intoigs logsThese logs are written to work directory.The available.log specifies theavailability of the instance.Tracing:To root cause the startup issues set the trace level using parameterrdisp/TRACE=0,1,2,3,4....This trace will write the logs enormously into stderr0,1,2,3,4.......subsequently the developer traces are also updated.Analyse the logs in the sequence to root cause the startup issues.1. Check whether the Database is up and running. Check the database traces inE:oracleSIDsaptrace/background/alert<SID>.log, startsap.log, v9start.sql,stderr0,1,2,3,4 in work directory2. Check whether Listener service is running, if not there may be an issuewith listener (port and hostname) ora-12541(Listener not started or listener isrunning on different port/host• cmd>lsnrctl status to know the status of listener• cmd>lsnrctl start to start the listener• cmd>lsnrctl stop to stop the listener3. Userid and password mis-match for schema user id (ora -1017) (SAPSR3,SAPSID, SAPR3 based on versions• Check the Environment Variables are properly setExample Oracle_home, db_ora_tnsname =SID• User has in sufficient privileges where the sql statements likesapconn_role, sapdba_role has to be executed.• Schema Owner Locked with error ora-28000 will be unlocked by usingcommand• Sqlplus>ALTER USER SAPSR3 ACCOUNT UNLOCK;These Errors are found in the trans.log (execute R3trans •d) to check whetherdatabase is reachable to work processes4. Wrong entries are maintained in tnsnames.ora, listener.ora or sqlnet.ora.In the current version of SAP the above entries are maintained inusr/sap/SID/sys/profile/oracle along with /oracle/SID/102_64/network/adminModify the entries based on hostname, port number, protocol and oracle Home5. Check for Ora-600(internal hardware Error) and escalate to hardware, SAPand Oracle where restore and recovery may be required6. Check for ora-1578(Data Block Corruption) and restore and recover thatblock from valid database backup7.Message Server is not started (check dev_ms, startsap.log, stderr0, 1, 2, 3,4) Hardware changes, IP Address Changes, hostname change will reflect in messageserver log. Check for customer key in the dev_ms log. Ensure that ports3600,3900 and 8100 are not blocked8. Profiles are not available to start the database, dispatcher and messageServer (If there is a file system change or the respective directory is notmounted on UNIX (/usr/sap/SID/SYS/exe/profile)).Copy the profiles from an active system and modify the entries accordingly andstart with minimal parameters or restore from the valid backup9. Kernel is upgraded but not related to the database/Unicode/32/64 bitoperating system.(select the right kernel before upgrade)10. Execute script "rootpre.sh or saproot.sh " to set the permissions forkernel executables on Unix after kernel Upgrade11. Dispatcher could not start with error message DISPATCHER EMERGENCYSHUTDOWN .Analyze the dev_disp Dispatcher developer traceThe "services" file, which contains TCP and UDP services and their respectiveport numbers. This plain-text configuration file is located underwinnt/system32/drivers/etc. check for the logs in Event Viewer (EVENTVWR.exe)and check for disp+work in task manager12. Check Dispatcher Monitor (DPMON.exe), which is located under
  33. 33. /usr/sap//sys/exe/run (dpmon pf=instance profile)m-menu13. Dispatcher dies due to a database connection problem or A connection tothe database could not be established because either the SQL login specified inparameter is valid or there is a problem with environment variables14. Work processes could not connect to Database (evaluate dev_w0, dev_wn-1,dev_wn-2 etc).This Log will explain the complete process of Connecting to theDatabase along with the status of each step.15. Too Many work process are configured (Processes should configure as performula i.e at least 75mb should be allocated to each process).Or too manyprocesses are configured or the number is more then 100.16. Buffer Areas Could not created (Program Buffers, Table Buffers) PXA(Program Execution Area) Initialization Failed . Shared Memory is not sufficientto start the dispatcher (errors with shm in dev_disp) An ABAP dump saying"PXA_NO_SHARED_MEMORY" is generated as soon as a user logs in.17. The message server and the dispatcher do not start at all in the SAP MMC.The following error when trying to view the developer traces within the SAP MMC:The network path was not found. No new developer traces written to disk (underthe "work" directory.)The network shares "saploc" and "sapmnt" do not exist. Re-create the "saploc" and "sapmnt" network shares. Both need to be created onthe /usr/sap directory, Check whether the Drive is mounted.18. Users get "No logon possible" messages. Work processes start but no loginsare possible. Users get the login screen but the system does not log them in.Instead, they get this error: No logon possible (no hw ID received by mssgserver). The reason is because the "services" file is missing. Example: SAPmsTST3600/tcp. Edit the "services" file and add the entry.(/etc/services)19. SAP MMC Entries are missing to start the sap System. It was happened dueto abnormal termination or due to virus. Use sapstartsrv.exe to create the SAPMMC Entries.20. Check whether the services saposcol and SAP<SID>_NN are running>. If notcheck the user permissions and run them manuallyTracing:If the instance could not be started then switch on the trace by using parameterrdisp/TRACE=0,1,2,3,4 (default Profile)This Trace writes granular log files into work directory. Ensure that we haveenough space in the work directory. Due to this parameter the running system maybe stopped.**************************************************************client export and import:1. client export is performed using scc8 in the source Client.2. The Data Files and Cofiles are generated in /usr/sap/trans directory.Based onthe profile The Tranport Requests likeKO-Cross Client DataKT -Client Specific dataand KX- client specific text are created select the profile sap_user3.Copy these files to the Target System.4.Add these files to the import Queue in STMS5.Import these requests using STMS6.perform post-client copy activities in scc7.when The new Clients are created they will not allow to login with sap* as itwas deactivated at system level.set the paramterlogin/no_automatic_user_sapstar = 0(default it is set to 1) and restart theinstance
  34. 34. Client Refresh:it is the process of setting up a client with live data fromproduction system.Periodically it is required to set up clients for preproduction/qualityassurance/training clients.Most of the scenarios the Remote client copy is the best method then the localclient copy on the production system(to avoid client settings/accidental clientcopies in Production).However in some of the environments the preproduction client will exist inProduction system but it is only possible to test client specific scenariosbecause the Rep and CCC are shared between clients(set to not modifiable)It it also recommended to perform DB/System Refresh instead of Client Refresh.Note: There will be only one client in the production system apart from 000,001and 066.1.Kernel Upgrade:2.SICK3.SE064.STMS5.Slicense(based on hardware key)6.SM36-----Schedule Standard Background jobs7.DB13-----Schedule Database Specific Standard background Jobs.8.SU25-----Initialize the Profile Generator(execute SU25->click on initiallyfill the cutomer tables.9.SPAM/SAINT10.I18N11.RZ10-Import Profiles of active servers12.SMLT-Import Languages.13.SR13--Library Configurationit is used to configure the library for run time/screen context helpSelect the tab PlainhtmlHttpSpecify the Variant as HELPPlatform as WIN32Area as IWBHELP is for documentation and IWBTRAIN for Training.Server Name:help.sap.compath:erp2005_ehp_06/helpdata(without en)Lanaguage: ENSelect-->Mark the Default Tab.The Above Information is obtained from help.sap.com14.SU01--Change User Master Passwords/Create a Super User like sap* and Locksap*15.SICF--Internet Communication Framework:Execute SICF and activate the service based on therequirement(webgui,bi,xi,srm,srm etc...)
  35. 35. 16.SCC4---Create a Client17.Copy Client Local(SCCL)18.Remote Client Copy(SCC9)19.SCC3 Client Copy Logs20.SCC5 Delete Client21.SCC8-Client Export22.SCC7-Client Import23.SGEN--To compile the programs in the background mode which will improves theperformance as compilation is not required during runtime.(it is required afterinstallation,supportpacks and upgrade)Preparing the Production System:1.Develop the Objects in Development System(Cust Client)2.Copy the objects between the client for Unit Testing using SCC13.Transport the Objects to Quality System for Testing4.Upon Approval move the transports related to objects,roles,customizing etc toproduction system5.Establish the Router Connection to SAP6.Schedule Go-Live Sessions with sap(go-live analysis and go-live verification.1.Solman Key:specific to hostname and instance number;mandatory for installationand upgrades.2.S UserID: SAP User id Required to login to SAP Market Place3.Installation Number: Specific to the Installation Product(ERP,SolutionManager,Netweaver,Business Objects,CRM,SRM etc..)and customer4.System Number:Specific to the System comes along with sap license.5.Hardware Key: Specific to the Installation Host(which may differs based on OSinstallation(if OS is reinstalled the hardware key may change)6.License Key :specific to hostname and hardware key(generated on sap marketplace)7.DEVELOPER Key: Specific to the Developer Name to develop programs on thesystem in the customer name space Y and Z.8.SSCR Key(SAP Software Change Registration Key or referred as Object AccessKey).it is required to modify the sap standard objects in the name space(A-X)9.Maintenance Certificate: it is valid for three months and mandaotry forapplying support packages released after Basis 7.0SP14

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