Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Tom Hopkins, John Cocks - Managing Human Waste in the Wild

93 views

Published on

Tom Hopkins + John Cocks
Managing Human Waste in the Wild
New Zealand Alpine Club

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Tom Hopkins, John Cocks - Managing Human Waste in the Wild

  1. 1. American Alpine Club Exit Strategies American Mountaineering Centre Golden Colorado July 30 & 31 2010 Managing Human Waste in the Wild Presented by Tom Hopkins thopkins@doc.govt.nz John Cocks john.h.cocks@mwhglobal.com
  2. 2. New Zealand Context New Zealand: • Population 4 million people • 2 million international visitors per annum • 8 million hectares of protected lands • Protected lands approx. 1/3 of New Zealand’s land area
  3. 3. Mountains…
  4. 4. Rivers…
  5. 5. Lakes…
  6. 6. Coastline…
  7. 7. What used to be… • Tourist Department Huts • Club Huts • Wild Animal Control Huts • Forest Service Huts • Research Huts • High Country Farming (Mustering) Huts
  8. 8. What used to be… • Rustic toilet facilities!
  9. 9. Today…. • 959 backcountry huts • 81 of these are owned by clubs e.g. New Zealand Alpine Club with 17 huts • Sometimes co-managed with Department of Conservation • 313 campsites, 106 of which are backcountry and not accessible by road • Popular walks now highly developed
  10. 10. ‘Great Walks’…
  11. 11. Alpine Huts…
  12. 12. Basic Huts…
  13. 13. Campsites…
  14. 14. Drivers of Change…Cultural
  15. 15. Drivers of Change - Social • Aversion to pit toilets – sights and smells • Desire for higher level of service – flush toilets • “Human Waste Contaminates” • Restrictive Regulations
  16. 16. Photo title Environmental Drivers • Nutrients • Pathogens • Odour
  17. 17. Examples of Change – Fly Out/Pump Out
  18. 18. Mt Ruapehu and Iwikau Village • Nutrient Issues • Pipe waste off mountain
  19. 19. Examples of Change - Composting • Ambient temperatures • Operational demand • Bulking agent • Disposal of product
  20. 20. Examples of Change - Hybrid Toilet • d. Hybrid toilet
  21. 21. Examples of Change – Secondary Treatment • Reduced land application area • Lower contaminant loads • Secondary level of treatment with no power input, low operator input
  22. 22. Current Issues - Financial • Cost of waste removal • Operator skills • Compliance monitoring costs
  23. 23. Current Issues - Social • Sustainable solutions • Technological fixes • Distrust of natural processes • Staff turnover
  24. 24. Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi • Water is ‘taonga’ – treasure, giving life force • Holistic approach to physical and spiritual values Understanding and appreciating key concerns • Abhorrence of direct discharge of human waste to natural water • Objection of transporting sludge past waahi tapu ancestral lands/sites Cultural Protocols • Consultation with tangata whenua • Removal of all rubbish and human waste • Public education Current Issues - Tangata Whenua Cultural Well-Being
  25. 25. Current Issues - Environmental
  26. 26. Emerging Solutions – Urine Evaporator
  27. 27. Emerging Solutions – Natural Energy
  28. 28. Emerging Solutions – Carry Out
  29. 29. Questions?

×