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American Alpine Club
Exit Strategies
American Mountaineering Centre
Golden Colorado July 30 & 31 2010
Managing Human Waste...
New Zealand Context
New Zealand:
• Population 4 million people
• 2 million international visitors
per annum
• 8 million he...
Mountains…
Rivers…
Lakes…
Coastline…
What used to be…
• Tourist Department Huts
• Club Huts
• Wild Animal Control Huts
• Forest Service Huts
• Research Huts
• ...
What used to be…
• Rustic toilet facilities!
Today….
• 959 backcountry huts
• 81 of these are owned by clubs e.g. New Zealand
Alpine Club with 17 huts
• Sometimes co-m...
‘Great Walks’…
Alpine Huts…
Basic Huts…
Campsites…
Drivers of Change…Cultural
Drivers of Change - Social
• Aversion to pit toilets –
sights and smells
• Desire for higher level of
service – flush toil...
Photo title
Environmental
Drivers
• Nutrients
• Pathogens
• Odour
Examples of Change – Fly Out/Pump Out
Mt Ruapehu and Iwikau Village
• Nutrient Issues
• Pipe waste off mountain
Examples of Change - Composting
• Ambient temperatures
• Operational demand
• Bulking agent
• Disposal of product
Examples of Change - Hybrid Toilet
• d. Hybrid toilet
Examples of Change – Secondary
Treatment
• Reduced land application area
• Lower contaminant loads
• Secondary level of tr...
Current Issues - Financial
• Cost of waste removal
• Operator skills
• Compliance monitoring costs
Current Issues - Social
• Sustainable solutions
• Technological fixes
• Distrust of natural
processes
• Staff turnover
Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi
• Water is ‘taonga’ – treasure, giving life
force
• Holistic approach to physical and...
Current Issues - Environmental
Emerging Solutions – Urine Evaporator
Emerging Solutions – Natural Energy
Emerging Solutions – Carry Out
Questions?
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Tom Hopkins, John Cocks - Managing Human Waste in the Wild

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Tom Hopkins + John Cocks
Managing Human Waste in the Wild
New Zealand Alpine Club

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Tom Hopkins, John Cocks - Managing Human Waste in the Wild

  1. 1. American Alpine Club Exit Strategies American Mountaineering Centre Golden Colorado July 30 & 31 2010 Managing Human Waste in the Wild Presented by Tom Hopkins thopkins@doc.govt.nz John Cocks john.h.cocks@mwhglobal.com
  2. 2. New Zealand Context New Zealand: • Population 4 million people • 2 million international visitors per annum • 8 million hectares of protected lands • Protected lands approx. 1/3 of New Zealand’s land area
  3. 3. Mountains…
  4. 4. Rivers…
  5. 5. Lakes…
  6. 6. Coastline…
  7. 7. What used to be… • Tourist Department Huts • Club Huts • Wild Animal Control Huts • Forest Service Huts • Research Huts • High Country Farming (Mustering) Huts
  8. 8. What used to be… • Rustic toilet facilities!
  9. 9. Today…. • 959 backcountry huts • 81 of these are owned by clubs e.g. New Zealand Alpine Club with 17 huts • Sometimes co-managed with Department of Conservation • 313 campsites, 106 of which are backcountry and not accessible by road • Popular walks now highly developed
  10. 10. ‘Great Walks’…
  11. 11. Alpine Huts…
  12. 12. Basic Huts…
  13. 13. Campsites…
  14. 14. Drivers of Change…Cultural
  15. 15. Drivers of Change - Social • Aversion to pit toilets – sights and smells • Desire for higher level of service – flush toilets • “Human Waste Contaminates” • Restrictive Regulations
  16. 16. Photo title Environmental Drivers • Nutrients • Pathogens • Odour
  17. 17. Examples of Change – Fly Out/Pump Out
  18. 18. Mt Ruapehu and Iwikau Village • Nutrient Issues • Pipe waste off mountain
  19. 19. Examples of Change - Composting • Ambient temperatures • Operational demand • Bulking agent • Disposal of product
  20. 20. Examples of Change - Hybrid Toilet • d. Hybrid toilet
  21. 21. Examples of Change – Secondary Treatment • Reduced land application area • Lower contaminant loads • Secondary level of treatment with no power input, low operator input
  22. 22. Current Issues - Financial • Cost of waste removal • Operator skills • Compliance monitoring costs
  23. 23. Current Issues - Social • Sustainable solutions • Technological fixes • Distrust of natural processes • Staff turnover
  24. 24. Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi • Water is ‘taonga’ – treasure, giving life force • Holistic approach to physical and spiritual values Understanding and appreciating key concerns • Abhorrence of direct discharge of human waste to natural water • Objection of transporting sludge past waahi tapu ancestral lands/sites Cultural Protocols • Consultation with tangata whenua • Removal of all rubbish and human waste • Public education Current Issues - Tangata Whenua Cultural Well-Being
  25. 25. Current Issues - Environmental
  26. 26. Emerging Solutions – Urine Evaporator
  27. 27. Emerging Solutions – Natural Energy
  28. 28. Emerging Solutions – Carry Out
  29. 29. Questions?

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