Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Hill cities of south and west india


Published on

PPT lecture about hill cities of west and south India. With photographs sourced from the internet from various photographers. All credit of photographs rest with the photographers. The lecture was used for non-profit teaching only.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Hill cities of south and west india

  1. 1. Hill cities of South & West India: Environmental Perspectives Bharat Bhushan Professor, Environmental Planning YASHADA, Pune
  2. 2. Ancient and sacred lands• The Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats and the Himalayas are known and venerated as ancient and sacred lands from the Kabul to the Mekong• More than 25% of the World’s waters arise from the Himalayas• Nearly 18% of the World’s waters travel from Indian mountains to downstream• India’s rivers are gateways to myths
  3. 3. Hill-stations and ethnic peoples: Kodaikanal and the Palaiyars• Kodaikanal, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu• Princess of Hill Stations – Tourist zone• Established in 1845 as hill station• Earliest residents were the Palaiyars – known from early Sangam Literature etc• 2,133 MSL between Parapar and Gundar• Now – Eucalyptus alternates with Sholas• International & National Public Schools
  4. 4. Ancient people with new problems• Local communities in the hills of India are some of the most ancient• Land-locked, their problems are their own.• What is not seen is not known. What is not known, cannot be faced without help.• Glaciers, climate change, deforestation, floods, landslides, women’s empowerment and community lands are major issues
  5. 5. Intensive cultivation in hills: Cardamom• Small cardamom farming has been intensified recently – impact on ecosystem can be detrimental.• 4-times growth with increase in fertilisers and pesticides• Reduction in rainforest land & canopy• Result in destruction of fresh water ecosystem, eutrophication with high rates of nitrogen and phosphorous release
  6. 6. Face in the mirrorThe hills of India today face environmental damage in the Ghats of Western and Eastern India.It would be a good idea to learn from success and failures in these regions and create sustainability.
  7. 7. Regional cooperation modelsThe nations of Bhutan, Nepal, India and Bangladesh have agreed to cooperate on common environmental issues.• Climate change, energy, water, food and biodiversiy
  8. 8. Protecting biodiversity: Bhutan• Bhutan Biological Conservation Complex – largest conservation landscape – connecting biological corridors and protecting a continuous ecosystem area• 4 National Parks, 4 WL Sanctuaries, but with 12 biological corridors, covering more than 3.6 million acres – nearly 35% of the country’s total geographical area
  9. 9. Conserving the landscape: Bhutan• Raising technical capacity of local people• Community-based conservation projects• Restore critical wildlife habitats• Reduce incidents of human-animal conflict• Restoration and community management• Use of alternate energy projects• Assistance in sustainable use of land and forest resources
  10. 10. Has the paradise been lost?• The land is fragile. Hill regions are ecosystems that are extremely threatened.• Climate change has a major impact in this region and have changed the habitat.• Deforestation, over-harvesting of timber and fuelwood, intensive grazing on meadows and steep slopes have destroyed the forest and fodder cover.• Expanding agriculture, change in cropping practices and failure to understand local water regimes have threatened sustainability of the local natural resources for the very people who harvest the lands.• Poaching is a major threat to wildlife and endangered species.
  11. 11. Water – is the major product• Unfortunately, water is seen as the major product of the hills and mountains for various reasons – including hydro-power• Some of India’s largest hydro-power projects are established in these areas• The scale of destruction has never been seen in the hills and mountains, and no one can even predict the outcome
  12. 12. Chungthang
  13. 13. Resource and human impact• Conversion of forests to agriculture• Charcoal production in low elevation areas• Intensive grazing at higher elevations• Impact on women for collecting firewood, fodder, water and grazing cattle• Easier to allow common cattle-herds to graze inside forest areas. Has led to loss of regeneration values of the forests.
  14. 14. Need for a new missionA new mission for the hill regions has been proposed – for policy, administration and actionEstablish a sustainable relationship between people and the environment to ensure a future that includes health, wildlife populations, plentiful natural resources and lasting change for local livelihoods.
  15. 15. Threats to the forests and people• These are high-mountain forests, sholas and grasslands unlike the subcontinent• Firewood, food and timber harvesting for local people can be sustainable, but with impact of industries, tourism and export, the unsustainable levels are dangerous.• Social impact will lead to poverty and migration to cities and to lowlands.
  16. 16. With gratitude to all the photographs and theirphotographers sourced from the internet for non-profit use These photographs are not mine. They have not been used for any profit purpose but only for dissemination of knowledge of this particular topic.