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Nick Lewis - Garbage in, Garbage out in Antarctica

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Nick Lewis's presentation to Sustainable Summits 2014.

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Nick Lewis - Garbage in, Garbage out in Antarctica

  1. 1. Garbage In, Garbage Out Managing Impacts in Antarctica’s High Mountains Nick Lewis Antarctic Logistics & Expeditions LLC
  2. 2. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS • ALE provides logistic support in West Antarctica: • Government Research (National Operators) • Private Expeditions • Adventure tour programs e.g. Vinson, South Pole, Emperor Penguins • Purchased Adventure Network International (ANI) in 2003 • Headquarters in Salt Lake City • Operations Centre in Punta Arenas, Chile • Intercontinental runway, main camp and skiway at Union Glacier, Ellsworth Mountains • Satellite camps at Vinson, South Pole and Gould Bay • 120 field, air and support staff Who we are
  3. 3. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS
  4. 4. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Background • Global Commons - Space, Oceans, Antarctica • Early 20th Century: “Golden Age of Exploration” - separate national projects (Amundsen, Scott, Shackleton, Mawson) • 1920-40s: National claims; Roosevelt initiative for US sovereignty; US suggestion for UN trustee arrangement and subsequent rejection • Proposal that control should be vested in hands of interested bodies to allow promotion of science • International Geophysical Year 1957-58 • Antarctic Treaty signed in Washington DC, 1961: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, UK, USA and USSR • Modern concern for Antarctic environment driven by whaling, fishing, ozone hole, oil spills, climate change • Protocol on Environmental Protection signed in Madrid, 1991
  5. 5. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS The Antarctic Treaty • Antarctica is to be used for peaceful purposes only • Freedom of scientific investigation and co-operation • Free exchange of scientific data, observations and personnel between expeditions and stations in Antarctica • Territorial claims are not recognised, disputed or established by the Treaty • Nuclear explosions and radio-active waste disposal are banned • All stations and equipment are open for inspection by any Treaty member
  6. 6. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS The Environmental Protocol • Designates Antarctica as a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science • Sets out principles for environmental protection • Bans all commercial mineral resource activity until 2041 when Protocol is reviewed • Requires the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of all activities before they are allowed to go ahead • 6 Annexes I. Environmental Impact Assessment II. Conservation of Antarctic Flora and Fauna III. Waste Disposal and Waste Management IV. Prevention of Marine Pollution V. Area Protection and Management VI. Liability Arising From Environmental Emergencies
  7. 7. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS ALE Environmental Policy • Activities to have no more than a minor or transitory impact on the Antarctic environment • Promote safe and sustainable tourism; • Visitors to leave Antarctica with a greater understanding and appreciation of its natural values; • Engender a culture of environmental awareness, backed by suitable training, within ALE staff and contractors; • Full compliance with international and national environmental regulations and requirements; • Minimum disturbance of wildlife and natural habitats; • Correct waste management including, where practicable, total removal of waste from Antarctica; • Re-use, recycle or licensed disposal of waste outside Antarctica; • Use of renewable resources, where practicable; • Monitoring of activities to verify minimization strategies; • Regular environmental audit of practices; and • Support of IAATO and encourage development of tourism management strategies.
  8. 8. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS ALE Environmental Documention • Advance Notification to US State Department • Initial Environmental Evaluation to US Environmental Protection Agency • 5-Year • Predictions on Personnel, Waste, Emissions, Locations • Supplementary Information – annual updates • Waste Management Permit from US National Science Foundation
  9. 9. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Union Glacier Camp Air operations Staff accommodation ANI operations Guest area
  10. 10. • Batteries power majority of electrical loads. • Batteries are recharged by solar power, or by generator as a backup. • Generators also used for welding and other occasional large loads in the Mechanical Workshop. • Zoned, independent systems • AC power distributed in camp by overhead power lines. • AC to DC converters used to power existing distributed DC loads. Energy Supply
  11. 11. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS
  12. 12. Water Production
  13. 13. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Fuel Management
  14. 14. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Meals Cooking
  15. 15. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS
  16. 16. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS
  17. 17. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS
  18. 18. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Pollution Prevention
  19. 19. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Oil Spill Plan
  20. 20. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Fuel Conservation Device
  21. 21. Conservation of Flora & Fauna
  22. 22. Lichens
  23. 23. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Waste Management • Annex III of Protocol: “Wastes generated at field camps shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be removed by the generator of such wastes” • ALE aims to remove all its waste from Antarctica • Removal of packaging prior to departure to Antarctica • All hazardous wastes are removed • Accidental spillage of fuels dealt with by Spill Response Plan • Human waste: • Both solid and liquid removed from Union Glacier • All LD and Vinson trips remove solid wastes (Wagbags). • Currently not practical for extended overland expeditions or climbing expeditions to remove solid or liquid waste due to volumes and weight. • Use of pee bottles on daytrips • “Grey water” much harder to manage: • Currently dumped at Union Glacier and VBC • Continuing research into better method for future use.
  24. 24. Womens Toilets URINE  Human Waste
  25. 25. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS MOUNT VINSON (16,050’/4892m) • 32 miles and 9,000 feet of ascent • Temps down to -40 F • Winds to >60 knots • 5-8 days • 50° ice • 60 pound loads
  26. 26. VINSON WASTE MANAGEMENT • BRIEF EVERY INCOMING GROUP AND REMIND DURING ASCENT! • TOILETS: • BASE CAMP, LOW CAMP & HIGH CAMP • DESIGNATED CAMP AND TRAIL PEE HOLES • USE OF PEE BOTTLES & WAGBAGS • CLEANING OF WALLS… • NEED FOR ACCURATE GPS WAYPOINTS AT END OF SEASON! • GREY WATER DISPOSAL: • SIEVES AND BUCKETS • GARBAGE • TOTAL REMOVAL! • CACHES CAREFULLY MANAGED ON THE MOUNTAIN • ALE RANGER PATROLS
  27. 27. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS
  28. 28. SEPARATION OF FOOD WASTE FROM GREY WATER
  29. 29. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS
  30. 30. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Summit Plateau High Camp & Repeater Top of fixed ropes Shinn Camp Summit Cache
  31. 31. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS
  32. 32. ANTARCTIC LOGISTICS & EXPEDITIONS LLC 4376 South 700 East, Suite 226, Salt Lake City UT 84107-3006 USA Tel: +1 801-266-4876/4982 Fax: +1 801-266-1592 Vinson Info Map 2007 Email: info@antarctic-logistics.com Web: www.antarctic-logistics.com Vinson Info Map – Notes for Climbers The map overleaf is taken from the Omega Foundation Vinson Massif Map and is their copyright ©. COMMUNICATIONS: Vinson Base Camp (VBC) is open 24hrs a day and each team must make contact every day. The VBC Manager will give you a time to call—you can use either Iridium or VHF. At night call on the Iridium. VBC Iridium: +8816 4149 9330 NEVER LEAVE VOICEMAILS ON ALE IRIDIUMS! These are never collected by staff. VHF: ‘Simplex’ = 145.100 MHz—coverage between VBC and Low Camp and above 4300m. Branscomb Ridge Repeater = TRANSMIT 144.025 MHz / RECEIVE 148.975 MHz—coverage of entire route from VBC to summit. If you cannot contact VBC in an emergency call Patriot Hills on +8816 4144 4799. WASTE MANAGEMENT—VBC: · Please read the Waste Management Guidelines. · Use garbage bags to collect waste—give to ALE staff when full. · Dispose of pee in marked pee holes. · Use designated toilets for feces. · Strain ‘gray water’ to separate liquid from food waste and dispose of liquid in drilled urine holes—plastic buckets and strainers are available in VBC for this. · Place food waste in your garbage bag. WASTE MANAGEMENT—ON THE MOUNTAIN: · You must carry all garbage and feces back to VBC. · Separate pee from feces everywhere on Vinson. · Feces must go in doubled garbage bags. Make sure to take enough garbage bags with you. · Only pee and grey water go in pee holes at each camp—empty pee bottles in pee holes. · There are additional pee holes between camps. · Use your pee bottle if you need to pee on the route. · Do not defecate in pee holes or on the route. · ALE provides 3 WAG bags per climber to use between camps and on summit day. · Carry all toilet waste to VBC either in doubled bags or in WAG bags. · Do not contaminate the snow anywhere else with pee or gray water—you may have to drink it later in your climb! · Do not leave garbage or equipment anywhere on the route—this includes food, caches, broken equipment. ROUTE NOTES: VBC (2100m/6900’) to Low Camp (2750m/9000 feet): 650m/2150 feet of ascent, 4-6 hours, 9km/5.5 miles, gradually rising glacier, some crevassing. Low Camp to High Camp (3715m/12,400 feet): 1000m/3300 feet of ascent, 5-7 hours, 4.5km/2.75 miles, up to 40° slope (“Headwall”). Take care climbing the Headwall as there are serac hazards on either side and significant crevassing at top. High Camp to Summit (4892m/16,160 feet): 1200m/4000’ of ascent, 10-14 hrs return, 14 km/8.75 miles return, gradually rising valley with 40° slopes and rocky ridge on summit pyramid. · 24hr daylight occurs on Vinson during the summer. · All camps and most of the route have periods of shade when the temperature falls considerably. · VBC is in shade from about 03.00–05.00. Teams generally leave in morning or afternoon. · Low Camp is in shade from about 03.00–11.30. Teams generally leave around 13.00–14.00. · High Camp is in shade from about 23.00–08.00. Teams generally leave around 09.00–10.00. · Climbing during periods of shade greatly increases the risk of frostbite and other cold related problems. RESCUE: ALE does not provide a rescue service on Vinson. All parties are expected to be self-sufficient on the mountain. Rescue caches are situated at Low Camp (‘Low Rescue Cache’), High Camp (‘High Rescue Cache’) and below the summit pyramid in the high valley (‘Summit Rescue Cache’). Rescue caches are only to be used in an emergency! If you use a cache, notify VBC Manager of all gear used as soon as possible. There are separate ALE caches at Low Camp and High Camp. These are marked specifically for the use of ALE staff—do not touch these unless authorized or instructed to do so!
  33. 33. Waste Management on Ski Expeditions
  34. 34. USE OF GIS FOR MONITORING
  35. 35. WE AIM TO REMOVE EVERYTHING!
  36. 36. ANTARCTICLOGISTICS&EXPEDITIONS Lastly… Nick Lewis Antarctic Logistics & Expeditions nick.lewis@antarctic-logistics.com

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