SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 31
Download to read offline
1
Copyright photograph by NZ Herald
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
Paul Dawson
photo
Sustainable Summits 2016, Aoraki Mt Cook
National Park, 7-11 August
Harry Keys (hkeys@doc.govt.nz)
Department of Conservation
DOC-2848662
2
Red Crater 1886 m
Tongariro 1961 m
Emerald Lakes
Blue Lake/
Rangihiroa's Mirror
3
Copyright photograph by NZ Herald
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
Ngauruhoe last erupted 1974-77
Red Crater last erupted 1934
Te Maari last erupted 2012
Mangatepopo
carpark &
Roadend
To Ketetahi
Roadend
Alpine area subject to
severe weather year
round
3 historically active
volcanic vents
Centre of North island, very
accessible
Visitor use peaks over summer
4
A short history of the Crossing
Left: 1908 tourist group at Emerald Lakes - few people,
no management
Right: Now many people, management important,
moving towards co-management with iwi
2013 opening ceremony after eruptions
5
Estimated numbers on the Crossing
10,000
Spot counts & hut
surveys from 1992
Early 1990s:
international visitors
exceed NZers
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
2005 2010 2015
Calendar Year
Counter time series
1992: 11,000 people: 20% of 48,000 total on the19 km track
2015: 109,000: 80% of 140,000 total on the 20 km track
Estimated numbers 1950-2011, Bamford 2014
GFC
eruption
?
Growth can’t continue like this: numbers and/or
experience are likely to decline unless some kind
of new management is introduced and effective
6
Economic benefits
• Large number of people
• Almost 90% stay 1 or 2 nights in local districts
• $200/day spent on accommodation & transport
per TNP summer visitor ($20 million/year)
• Strong growth (9%/year, average compound rate)
• 80-90% use buses & rental vehicles
• 21 transport concessions; 22 guiding concessions
mostly local
• >50 bus and rental car companies used
• Increased number of school/youth visits &
benefits from education
7
• 46% 20-29 years, 22% 30-39;
strong social media use
• International 76% (range 70-
80%, trend appears to have
weakened)
• No reduction in numbers of
NZers
• Domestic (2012): AKL 43%,
Wgtn 12%, South Is 3%
• Gender: even ratio
• Party size: 1 =13%, 2 =46%,
3-4 =24%
• 60% 0-1 hike/year of this type
Demographics etc
Based on 6 visitor surveys
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
International&domesticproportions
Survey year/season
% international
% domestic
Apparent no.
NZ
8
Social and recreational benefits
“strong benefits”, “clear majority satisfied” [similar to
expectations], “huge sense of achievement”
Angus & Assoc 2012, Blaschke & Whitney 2007
Helping meet DOCs 2025 goals:
50% international visitors visit a national park;
90% of New Zealanders enriched by our nature
2012 Q: What did you most enjoy?
9 Jimmy Johnson photo
10
Visitor concerns
2012 survey question: What did you
least enjoy?
Bubs Smith
photo
11
Copyright photograph by NZ Herald
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
Main management concerns & issues
1. cost per person (“just need funding”)
 Track work ($3 pp)
 Rescue, SAR & volcanic risk
management – visitor safety ($2 pp)
 Toilets/waste-management ($1.50 pp)
 Road maintenance
 Concession management
2. challenge to solve
 Crowding on track at times &
maintaining satisfaction
 Protecting cultural values & identity
 Transport & car parking
 Effective planning/consultation Top: DOC;
Bottom: Paul Carr
12
Copyright photograph by NZ Herald
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
Track management/erosion control
standard solutions, some debate
 Vulnerable volcanic soils (trampling &
erosion)
 Restoration, upgrades & track
deviations (up to $250/metre)
 Maintenance $3.50/m (DOC model)
 Limits to upgrade options in mountains
 Alternative tracks, concerns & efficacy
13
Copyright photograph by NZ Herald
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
Safety & risk management and the
TAC visitor
• Limited understanding of
personal responsibility - “they’d
close the track if it wasn’t safe”
• Most visitors are reasonably
prepared but notable exceptions
• Information available but not
always accessed/received
• Iwi hold a duty of care -
kaitiakitanga
• No trauma fatalities for 5 years
but several near-misses
(hypothermia, slips, rockfall, Aug
2012 eruption)
• Many rescues, well developed
public (free) system Heading to Mt Doom (barefoot like
Frodo!) & about to get lost in cloud.
DOC photo
Babies on the TAC - first baby
rescue 2016. DOC photo
14
• A mass fatality event in TNP will
most likely be due to an
“unheralded” eruption
• Unmitigated: 1 event / 10-19 years
• If mitigation effective: 1 event / 90-
100 yrs
• Good volcanic warning system but
maintaining readiness is a
concern
• Concessionaire contribution?
• Accept that eruptions disrupt
visitor use & commercial activity
Top: Herb Spannagl;
bottom: Cant. Uni
Risk management in active volcanic
areas
15
噴石(奥の院)
Ontake eruption 2014: 58 hikers killed (5 missing) most
of them by flying rocks. Similar eruption to Tongariro
2012, so many lessons (e.g. need for effective
communications & warnings)
16
Copyright photograph by NZ Herald
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
Toilets
 “Dissatisfaction rates relatively
high” Angus Assoc 2012 (annual
numbers c 85,000)
 Plan to double number of toilet
pans and locations in 2 years &
reduce waste volume. CAPEX
$500,000
 Difficult siting decisions to
minimise impact on scenic,
cultural & aesthetic values
 Personal poo kits practical?
Top: DOC; bottom: Bubs Smith
17
2005: “Integrated use limits” aka “carrying
capacity” identified: exceeded when >550-
600 people-counts/day
2012: number confirmed
≥ 600 counts/day = negative perceptions,
sense of crowding, detracts from
experience
20% of survey days in 2005 had ≥600
counts
34% in 2012 had ≥600
55% in Jan-April 2016 had ≥600
3 days with ≥2000 counts in 2016
≈ 40% of NZ Ranker reviewers now
mention crowding etc
Crowding perceptions
Peak day queue up Red Crater
ridge: at the chain section
requested by concessionaires
18
Copyright photograph by NZ Herald
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
Over-use/over-crowding needs multi-
facetted solution:
 Staggering of start times often
suggested (since 1990s): it’s
occurring but problem not solved
 Booking or quota system or user-
charge: taxpayer discount
 Transport management (most
visitors use concession transport)
 Concession management – legal
constraints (but less when
environment & safety issues?)
 Planning process-integrity of
Management Plan process, more
focused consultation, other govt
funding
2005
2012
19
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
Suggested revision of goals
“We have a responsibility to ensure people can enjoy our wild
places while protecting the integrity of the environment” Hon.
Maggie Barry, Minister of Conservation, SS booklet
1. Limit numbers: ensure the world-
class visitor experience is protected
and provides ongoing economic
benefits to tangata whenua and other
local communities
2. Manage transport logistics: work
with concessionaires to ensure their
businesses assist with goal 1
3. Optimise risk management: pay
more heed to the alpine volcanic
environment & visitor responsibility
4. Protect values: cherish Tongariro
National Park World Heritage Area
5. Emphasise TAC’s value: bring
together & unify mountain
communities Top: Bubs Smith; bottom: DOC
20
2,000,000
2,500,000
3,000,000
3,500,000
4,000,000
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
180,000
200,000
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Internationalvisitorarrivalsandforecast
VisitorNumbers(basedonrawKetetahicounterdata)
Annual visitor numbers and projections
Annual Ketetahi totals (counter
100073031 corrected for missing
data) for non-eruption episode
years
Annual Ketetahi totals directly
affected by eruption episode
corrected for missing March 2012
data
Synthetic Ketetahi totals during
eruption episode
Ketetahi Model with compound
growth rate of 8.6%
Projected Ketetahi totals with 6%
compound average growth rate
(MBIE forecast to 2020)
International Visitor arrivals (MBIE)
International visitor arrival forecast
(MBIE 2016, with compound
average growth rate of 6%)
Calendar year
Visitornumbers
21
Visitor use peaks in summer- raw
counter data on TAC
22
TAC rescue operations: police-organized
(≈ 70% of total). Average 2x10-4 ops/person
23
Crowding: examined in 1993-96, 2005 & 2012
surveys
2005
2012
2015/16 Bubs Smith photos
• Red Crater area
most crowding
reported
• Ketetahi roadend
largest increase
24
Copyright photograph by NZ Herald
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
Quote from Blaschke & Whitney 2007
• Currently, transport concessions do not impose any limits on the number of
walkers able to be carried, so that on busy days transport operators have
unlimited discretion to run additional busloads. Comments made during the
focus group discussions identified a number of further issues with the
concession process. Allegations and anecdotal information were provided
concerning conditions of concessions not being adhered to, under-reporting
of numbers of walkers carried, and the presence of non-authorised operators
within the park providing transport services and in some cases guiding
services to significant numbers of walkers.
• DOC’s intention for the concession system is that it “helps the Department to
ensure that the various concession activities are compatible with the primary
aim of protecting the land and other resources. It also helps to make sure
that services and facilities provided for visitors are appropriate, of a suitable
standard and that other activities do not conflict with visitor enjoyment.”
(http://www.doc.govt.nz/About-DOC/Concessions/index.asp).
• It would be difficult to argue that the current system for transport
concessions for the Crossing achieves this stated intention.
25
What they say about the TAC
• DOC brochure 1990s: “Often
described as the best one day
walk in NZ”
• Lonely Planet: “one of the
world’s greatest one-day hikes”
• Wikipedia: “among the most
popular day hikes in the
country”
• Trip Advisor: Rating 5*, 1056
reviews (85% excellent, 12%
VG, 0.2% terrible)
• NZ Rankers: 90%*, 788 reviews
• *caution with these stats
26
Eruption
on TAC
The TAC on the NZ risk landscape
27
Copyright photograph by NZ Herald
Cities on Volcanoes Conference
Yogayakarta, INDONESIA
TAC with existing & proposed toilet sites
Angus Associates 2012
Additional slides for reference
28
Summary in Bamford 2014:
Currently the Department of Conservation and Ngati
Hikairo Ki Tongariro are assessing their options for
sustainably managing the TAC. Their 5 objectives are:
1. Develop and future-proof the TAC as a sustainable
world-class visitor experience;
2. Increase knowledge, respect and understanding of the
values of Tongariro National Park (TNP);
3. Use the TAC to promote and grow the region(s) and to
ensure that it contributes to the economic sustainability
of local communities;
4. Provide economic opportunities and resources for the
development of Ngati Hikairo ki Tongariro;
5. Use the TAC to bring together and unify mountain
communities.
29
History of the Crossing
Pre 1900s: trails to Ketetahi Springs (medicinal & cultural) & birding
Early 1900s: bridle trail Papakai over to Waihohonu Hut/coach rd
1920s-40s: tramways built for logging in Ketetahi bush
1950s & 60s: Park develops track with tramping club assistance
1960s-early 90s: “Tongariro Crossing” track restoration & upgrades:
Summer Programme crossing & Ketetahi Springs very popular
1986: 1st public transport
From 1993: OSH/access/fee option negotiations with Ketetahi Trust
Early 1990s: crowding concerns raised
2007: “Alpine” added to name because of safety concerns
2008 & 2011: deviations circumventing eroded area & Ketetahi land
2012-13: eruption episode prevents access to full TAC until May
Towards co-management with iwi in last 20 years
30
31
Visitor surveys and other references
• Angus & Associates 2012
• Bamford 2014
• Blaschke & Whitney 2007
• Coomber & Leonard 2005
• Dhellemmes 2016
• Gibson 1996
• Keys, Williams and Leonard 2014
• Olsen 2001
• Slee and Curtis 1993
• Visitor counters
Acknowledgements to Bubs Smith and other
photographers, DOC & police colleagues, GNS
Science and Canterbury University

More Related Content

Similar to Harry Keys: Tongariro Alpine Crossing

1 Environmental Implications Of Tourism Development On River Nile
1 Environmental Implications Of Tourism Development On River Nile1 Environmental Implications Of Tourism Development On River Nile
1 Environmental Implications Of Tourism Development On River NileLori Moore
 
Ecotourism Emerging Industry Forum (2005)
Ecotourism Emerging Industry Forum (2005)Ecotourism Emerging Industry Forum (2005)
Ecotourism Emerging Industry Forum (2005)ron mader
 
AFRICA Atlas of Our Changing Environment
AFRICA Atlas of Our Changing EnvironmentAFRICA Atlas of Our Changing Environment
AFRICA Atlas of Our Changing EnvironmentAndy Dabydeen
 
Prospect of Marine Tourism in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities Towards...
Prospect of Marine Tourism in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities Towards...Prospect of Marine Tourism in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities Towards...
Prospect of Marine Tourism in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities Towards...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Azores presentation for Discover the World
Azores presentation for Discover the WorldAzores presentation for Discover the World
Azores presentation for Discover the WorldMrs Coles
 
Geoparks: A global approach to promote sustainable tourism for local communities
Geoparks: A global approach to promote sustainable tourism for local communitiesGeoparks: A global approach to promote sustainable tourism for local communities
Geoparks: A global approach to promote sustainable tourism for local communitiesLeisure Solutions®
 
A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middl...
A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middl...A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middl...
A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middl...Declan Hearne
 
Artifact_MOOC Financing for Development
Artifact_MOOC Financing for DevelopmentArtifact_MOOC Financing for Development
Artifact_MOOC Financing for Developmentdubico63
 
María Loureiro-'Los retos del Planeta y propuestas de soluciones desde la bio...
María Loureiro-'Los retos del Planeta y propuestas de soluciones desde la bio...María Loureiro-'Los retos del Planeta y propuestas de soluciones desde la bio...
María Loureiro-'Los retos del Planeta y propuestas de soluciones desde la bio...Fundación Ramón Areces
 
cios-prof-attri-presentation.pdf
cios-prof-attri-presentation.pdfcios-prof-attri-presentation.pdf
cios-prof-attri-presentation.pdfAndraYusti2
 
Students notes reduce impact of tourism
Students notes reduce impact of tourismStudents notes reduce impact of tourism
Students notes reduce impact of tourismgeographybn
 
Session2 01 Florian_Carius
Session2 01 Florian_CariusSession2 01 Florian_Carius
Session2 01 Florian_CariusTAPAS
 
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.pptcbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.pptmochmalikalfirdaus
 
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.pptcbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.pptadnanNaseem12
 
Day 2 for 2018 copyright ver.
Day 2 for 2018 copyright ver.Day 2 for 2018 copyright ver.
Day 2 for 2018 copyright ver.YuriOki
 
Tourism Planning And Development Of Sustainable...
Tourism Planning And Development Of Sustainable...Tourism Planning And Development Of Sustainable...
Tourism Planning And Development Of Sustainable...Sheri Elliott
 
Teacher slides to reduce impact of tourism
Teacher slides to reduce impact of tourismTeacher slides to reduce impact of tourism
Teacher slides to reduce impact of tourismgeographybn
 

Similar to Harry Keys: Tongariro Alpine Crossing (20)

1 Environmental Implications Of Tourism Development On River Nile
1 Environmental Implications Of Tourism Development On River Nile1 Environmental Implications Of Tourism Development On River Nile
1 Environmental Implications Of Tourism Development On River Nile
 
Ecotourism Emerging Industry Forum (2005)
Ecotourism Emerging Industry Forum (2005)Ecotourism Emerging Industry Forum (2005)
Ecotourism Emerging Industry Forum (2005)
 
Duguma et al-landscape-restoration
Duguma et al-landscape-restorationDuguma et al-landscape-restoration
Duguma et al-landscape-restoration
 
AFRICA Atlas of Our Changing Environment
AFRICA Atlas of Our Changing EnvironmentAFRICA Atlas of Our Changing Environment
AFRICA Atlas of Our Changing Environment
 
Prospect of Marine Tourism in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities Towards...
Prospect of Marine Tourism in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities Towards...Prospect of Marine Tourism in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities Towards...
Prospect of Marine Tourism in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities Towards...
 
Azores presentation for Discover the World
Azores presentation for Discover the WorldAzores presentation for Discover the World
Azores presentation for Discover the World
 
Map_Catalogue
Map_CatalogueMap_Catalogue
Map_Catalogue
 
Tourism unit
Tourism unitTourism unit
Tourism unit
 
Geoparks: A global approach to promote sustainable tourism for local communities
Geoparks: A global approach to promote sustainable tourism for local communitiesGeoparks: A global approach to promote sustainable tourism for local communities
Geoparks: A global approach to promote sustainable tourism for local communities
 
A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middl...
A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middl...A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middl...
A Review of Water Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Lower Middl...
 
Artifact_MOOC Financing for Development
Artifact_MOOC Financing for DevelopmentArtifact_MOOC Financing for Development
Artifact_MOOC Financing for Development
 
María Loureiro-'Los retos del Planeta y propuestas de soluciones desde la bio...
María Loureiro-'Los retos del Planeta y propuestas de soluciones desde la bio...María Loureiro-'Los retos del Planeta y propuestas de soluciones desde la bio...
María Loureiro-'Los retos del Planeta y propuestas de soluciones desde la bio...
 
cios-prof-attri-presentation.pdf
cios-prof-attri-presentation.pdfcios-prof-attri-presentation.pdf
cios-prof-attri-presentation.pdf
 
Students notes reduce impact of tourism
Students notes reduce impact of tourismStudents notes reduce impact of tourism
Students notes reduce impact of tourism
 
Session2 01 Florian_Carius
Session2 01 Florian_CariusSession2 01 Florian_Carius
Session2 01 Florian_Carius
 
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.pptcbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
 
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.pptcbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
cbd-good-practice-guide-tourism-powerpoint-en.ppt
 
Day 2 for 2018 copyright ver.
Day 2 for 2018 copyright ver.Day 2 for 2018 copyright ver.
Day 2 for 2018 copyright ver.
 
Tourism Planning And Development Of Sustainable...
Tourism Planning And Development Of Sustainable...Tourism Planning And Development Of Sustainable...
Tourism Planning And Development Of Sustainable...
 
Teacher slides to reduce impact of tourism
Teacher slides to reduce impact of tourismTeacher slides to reduce impact of tourism
Teacher slides to reduce impact of tourism
 

More from Sustainable Summits Initiative

Suzuki, Anzai, Matsumoto - Groundwater and soil pollution.
Suzuki, Anzai, Matsumoto - Groundwater and soil pollution.Suzuki, Anzai, Matsumoto - Groundwater and soil pollution.
Suzuki, Anzai, Matsumoto - Groundwater and soil pollution.Sustainable Summits Initiative
 
Alex Van Steen – RMI expeditions to Carstenz Pyramid
Alex Van Steen – RMI expeditions to Carstenz PyramidAlex Van Steen – RMI expeditions to Carstenz Pyramid
Alex Van Steen – RMI expeditions to Carstenz PyramidSustainable Summits Initiative
 
Aukje Van Gervan – Respect the mountains for Sustainable Summits 2014(rfs)
Aukje Van Gervan – Respect the mountains for Sustainable Summits 2014(rfs)Aukje Van Gervan – Respect the mountains for Sustainable Summits 2014(rfs)
Aukje Van Gervan – Respect the mountains for Sustainable Summits 2014(rfs)Sustainable Summits Initiative
 
Ty Tyler and Erik Murdock – Climbing management plans, Access Fund
Ty Tyler and Erik Murdock – Climbing management plans, Access FundTy Tyler and Erik Murdock – Climbing management plans, Access Fund
Ty Tyler and Erik Murdock – Climbing management plans, Access FundSustainable Summits Initiative
 
Dave Bamford: Global Climbing Pressures and Management Options
Dave Bamford: Global Climbing Pressures and Management OptionsDave Bamford: Global Climbing Pressures and Management Options
Dave Bamford: Global Climbing Pressures and Management OptionsSustainable Summits Initiative
 
Dr Jamili Nias: Mt Kinabalu and addressing social pressures
Dr Jamili Nias: Mt Kinabalu and addressing social pressuresDr Jamili Nias: Mt Kinabalu and addressing social pressures
Dr Jamili Nias: Mt Kinabalu and addressing social pressuresSustainable Summits Initiative
 
Roger Robinson: The Denali Story – The Clean Climb Program
Roger Robinson: The Denali Story – The Clean Climb ProgramRoger Robinson: The Denali Story – The Clean Climb Program
Roger Robinson: The Denali Story – The Clean Climb ProgramSustainable Summits Initiative
 
Derek Chinn: Huts – NZ context (Mid-Tasman fly-in hut)
Derek Chinn: Huts – NZ context (Mid-Tasman fly-in hut)Derek Chinn: Huts – NZ context (Mid-Tasman fly-in hut)
Derek Chinn: Huts – NZ context (Mid-Tasman fly-in hut)Sustainable Summits Initiative
 
Karen Rollins: Sustainable Mountain Accommodation – BEES
Karen Rollins: Sustainable Mountain Accommodation – BEESKaren Rollins: Sustainable Mountain Accommodation – BEES
Karen Rollins: Sustainable Mountain Accommodation – BEESSustainable Summits Initiative
 

More from Sustainable Summits Initiative (20)

Suzuki, Anzai, Matsumoto - Groundwater and soil pollution.
Suzuki, Anzai, Matsumoto - Groundwater and soil pollution.Suzuki, Anzai, Matsumoto - Groundwater and soil pollution.
Suzuki, Anzai, Matsumoto - Groundwater and soil pollution.
 
Peter Whittaker & Ben Lawhon – Leave No Trace
Peter Whittaker & Ben Lawhon – Leave No TracePeter Whittaker & Ben Lawhon – Leave No Trace
Peter Whittaker & Ben Lawhon – Leave No Trace
 
Doug Whittaker – Capacity on summits
Doug Whittaker – Capacity on summitsDoug Whittaker – Capacity on summits
Doug Whittaker – Capacity on summits
 
Alex Van Steen – RMI expeditions to Carstenz Pyramid
Alex Van Steen – RMI expeditions to Carstenz PyramidAlex Van Steen – RMI expeditions to Carstenz Pyramid
Alex Van Steen – RMI expeditions to Carstenz Pyramid
 
Aukje Van Gervan – Respect the mountains for Sustainable Summits 2014(rfs)
Aukje Van Gervan – Respect the mountains for Sustainable Summits 2014(rfs)Aukje Van Gervan – Respect the mountains for Sustainable Summits 2014(rfs)
Aukje Van Gervan – Respect the mountains for Sustainable Summits 2014(rfs)
 
Ty Tyler and Erik Murdock – Climbing management plans, Access Fund
Ty Tyler and Erik Murdock – Climbing management plans, Access FundTy Tyler and Erik Murdock – Climbing management plans, Access Fund
Ty Tyler and Erik Murdock – Climbing management plans, Access Fund
 
Hill and Henry - Wilderness Waste (2013)
Hill and Henry - Wilderness Waste (2013)Hill and Henry - Wilderness Waste (2013)
Hill and Henry - Wilderness Waste (2013)
 
Dave Bamford: Global Climbing Pressures and Management Options
Dave Bamford: Global Climbing Pressures and Management OptionsDave Bamford: Global Climbing Pressures and Management Options
Dave Bamford: Global Climbing Pressures and Management Options
 
Peter Rupitsch: People in the Austrian mountains
Peter Rupitsch: People in the Austrian mountainsPeter Rupitsch: People in the Austrian mountains
Peter Rupitsch: People in the Austrian mountains
 
Dr Nima Namgyal Sherpa: Khumbu Climbing Centre
Dr Nima Namgyal Sherpa: Khumbu Climbing CentreDr Nima Namgyal Sherpa: Khumbu Climbing Centre
Dr Nima Namgyal Sherpa: Khumbu Climbing Centre
 
Robin McNeill: The Role of Volunteers
Robin McNeill: The Role of VolunteersRobin McNeill: The Role of Volunteers
Robin McNeill: The Role of Volunteers
 
Richard Wesley: Leave no trace
Richard Wesley: Leave no traceRichard Wesley: Leave no trace
Richard Wesley: Leave no trace
 
Mike Davies: Aoraki – Mount Cook National Park Plan
Mike Davies: Aoraki – Mount Cook National Park PlanMike Davies: Aoraki – Mount Cook National Park Plan
Mike Davies: Aoraki – Mount Cook National Park Plan
 
Erik Bradshaw: Access to the Alps – a case study
Erik Bradshaw: Access to the Alps – a case studyErik Bradshaw: Access to the Alps – a case study
Erik Bradshaw: Access to the Alps – a case study
 
Rob Brown: Wilderness Values in the mountains
Rob Brown: Wilderness Values in the mountainsRob Brown: Wilderness Values in the mountains
Rob Brown: Wilderness Values in the mountains
 
Dr Jamili Nias: Mt Kinabalu and addressing social pressures
Dr Jamili Nias: Mt Kinabalu and addressing social pressuresDr Jamili Nias: Mt Kinabalu and addressing social pressures
Dr Jamili Nias: Mt Kinabalu and addressing social pressures
 
Roger Robinson: The Denali Story – The Clean Climb Program
Roger Robinson: The Denali Story – The Clean Climb ProgramRoger Robinson: The Denali Story – The Clean Climb Program
Roger Robinson: The Denali Story – The Clean Climb Program
 
Dawa Steven Sherpa: The Everest Environmental Story
Dawa Steven Sherpa: The Everest Environmental Story  Dawa Steven Sherpa: The Everest Environmental Story
Dawa Steven Sherpa: The Everest Environmental Story
 
Derek Chinn: Huts – NZ context (Mid-Tasman fly-in hut)
Derek Chinn: Huts – NZ context (Mid-Tasman fly-in hut)Derek Chinn: Huts – NZ context (Mid-Tasman fly-in hut)
Derek Chinn: Huts – NZ context (Mid-Tasman fly-in hut)
 
Karen Rollins: Sustainable Mountain Accommodation – BEES
Karen Rollins: Sustainable Mountain Accommodation – BEESKaren Rollins: Sustainable Mountain Accommodation – BEES
Karen Rollins: Sustainable Mountain Accommodation – BEES
 

Recently uploaded

Making a Difference: Understanding the Upcycling and Recycling Difference
Making a Difference: Understanding the Upcycling and Recycling DifferenceMaking a Difference: Understanding the Upcycling and Recycling Difference
Making a Difference: Understanding the Upcycling and Recycling DifferenceSwag Cycle
 
Biogas Production from Agricultural Feedstock and Energy Crops
Biogas Production from Agricultural Feedstock and Energy CropsBiogas Production from Agricultural Feedstock and Energy Crops
Biogas Production from Agricultural Feedstock and Energy CropsRabiyaSalman2
 
Call In girls Connaught Place (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi NCR
Call In girls Connaught Place (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi NCRCall In girls Connaught Place (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi NCR
Call In girls Connaught Place (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi NCRjennyeacort
 
Science, Technology and Nation Building.pptx
Science, Technology and Nation Building.pptxScience, Technology and Nation Building.pptx
Science, Technology and Nation Building.pptxgrandmarshall132
 
办理德州理工大学毕业证书TTU文凭学位证书
办理德州理工大学毕业证书TTU文凭学位证书办理德州理工大学毕业证书TTU文凭学位证书
办理德州理工大学毕业证书TTU文凭学位证书zdzoqco
 
Dwarka Call Girls 9643097474 Phone Number 24x7 Best Services
Dwarka Call Girls 9643097474 Phone Number 24x7 Best ServicesDwarka Call Girls 9643097474 Phone Number 24x7 Best Services
Dwarka Call Girls 9643097474 Phone Number 24x7 Best Servicesnajka9823
 
LESSON 1- Eyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan.pptx
LESSON 1- Eyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan.pptxLESSON 1- Eyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan.pptx
LESSON 1- Eyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan.pptxPascualJaniceC
 
Asexual-and-Sexual-Reproduction.huhupptx
Asexual-and-Sexual-Reproduction.huhupptxAsexual-and-Sexual-Reproduction.huhupptx
Asexual-and-Sexual-Reproduction.huhupptxMyBrightestStarParkJ
 
Al Jaddaf Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Al Jaddaf Call Girls
Al Jaddaf Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Al Jaddaf Call GirlsAl Jaddaf Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Al Jaddaf Call Girls
Al Jaddaf Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Al Jaddaf Call Girlstiril72860
 
Along the Lakefront, "Menacing Unknown"s
Along the Lakefront, "Menacing Unknown"sAlong the Lakefront, "Menacing Unknown"s
Along the Lakefront, "Menacing Unknown"syalehistoricalreview
 
EARTH DAY Slide show EARTHDAY.ORG is unwavering in our commitment to end plas...
EARTH DAY Slide show EARTHDAY.ORG is unwavering in our commitment to end plas...EARTH DAY Slide show EARTHDAY.ORG is unwavering in our commitment to end plas...
EARTH DAY Slide show EARTHDAY.ORG is unwavering in our commitment to end plas...Aqsa Yasmin
 
5 Wondrous Places You Should Visit at Least Once in Your Lifetime (1).pdf
5 Wondrous Places You Should Visit at Least Once in Your Lifetime (1).pdf5 Wondrous Places You Should Visit at Least Once in Your Lifetime (1).pdf
5 Wondrous Places You Should Visit at Least Once in Your Lifetime (1).pdfsrivastavaakshat51
 
Düsseldorf U学位证,杜塞尔多夫大学毕业证书1:1制作
Düsseldorf U学位证,杜塞尔多夫大学毕业证书1:1制作Düsseldorf U学位证,杜塞尔多夫大学毕业证书1:1制作
Düsseldorf U学位证,杜塞尔多夫大学毕业证书1:1制作f3774p8b
 
NO1 Certified Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil...
NO1 Certified Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil...NO1 Certified Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil...
NO1 Certified Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil...Amil baba
 
原版定制copy澳洲詹姆斯库克大学毕业证JCU毕业证成绩单留信学历认证保障质量
原版定制copy澳洲詹姆斯库克大学毕业证JCU毕业证成绩单留信学历认证保障质量原版定制copy澳洲詹姆斯库克大学毕业证JCU毕业证成绩单留信学历认证保障质量
原版定制copy澳洲詹姆斯库克大学毕业证JCU毕业证成绩单留信学历认证保障质量sehgh15heh
 
INSIDER THREAT PREVENTION IN THE US BANKING SYSTEM
INSIDER THREAT PREVENTION IN THE US BANKING SYSTEMINSIDER THREAT PREVENTION IN THE US BANKING SYSTEM
INSIDER THREAT PREVENTION IN THE US BANKING SYSTEMijsc
 
التغيرات المناخية وتاثيرها على القطاع الزراعي المصري
التغيرات المناخية وتاثيرها على القطاع الزراعي المصريالتغيرات المناخية وتاثيرها على القطاع الزراعي المصري
التغيرات المناخية وتاثيرها على القطاع الزراعي المصريRawhyaShaheen
 
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptxTitle-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptxSagar Chaudhary
 
原版1:1复刻塔夫斯大学毕业证Tufts毕业证留信学历认证
原版1:1复刻塔夫斯大学毕业证Tufts毕业证留信学历认证原版1:1复刻塔夫斯大学毕业证Tufts毕业证留信学历认证
原版1:1复刻塔夫斯大学毕业证Tufts毕业证留信学历认证jdkhjh
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Making a Difference: Understanding the Upcycling and Recycling Difference
Making a Difference: Understanding the Upcycling and Recycling DifferenceMaking a Difference: Understanding the Upcycling and Recycling Difference
Making a Difference: Understanding the Upcycling and Recycling Difference
 
Biogas Production from Agricultural Feedstock and Energy Crops
Biogas Production from Agricultural Feedstock and Energy CropsBiogas Production from Agricultural Feedstock and Energy Crops
Biogas Production from Agricultural Feedstock and Energy Crops
 
Call In girls Connaught Place (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi NCR
Call In girls Connaught Place (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi NCRCall In girls Connaught Place (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi NCR
Call In girls Connaught Place (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi NCR
 
Science, Technology and Nation Building.pptx
Science, Technology and Nation Building.pptxScience, Technology and Nation Building.pptx
Science, Technology and Nation Building.pptx
 
办理德州理工大学毕业证书TTU文凭学位证书
办理德州理工大学毕业证书TTU文凭学位证书办理德州理工大学毕业证书TTU文凭学位证书
办理德州理工大学毕业证书TTU文凭学位证书
 
Dwarka Call Girls 9643097474 Phone Number 24x7 Best Services
Dwarka Call Girls 9643097474 Phone Number 24x7 Best ServicesDwarka Call Girls 9643097474 Phone Number 24x7 Best Services
Dwarka Call Girls 9643097474 Phone Number 24x7 Best Services
 
LESSON 1- Eyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan.pptx
LESSON 1- Eyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan.pptxLESSON 1- Eyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan.pptx
LESSON 1- Eyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan.pptx
 
Asexual-and-Sexual-Reproduction.huhupptx
Asexual-and-Sexual-Reproduction.huhupptxAsexual-and-Sexual-Reproduction.huhupptx
Asexual-and-Sexual-Reproduction.huhupptx
 
Al Jaddaf Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Al Jaddaf Call Girls
Al Jaddaf Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Al Jaddaf Call GirlsAl Jaddaf Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Al Jaddaf Call Girls
Al Jaddaf Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Al Jaddaf Call Girls
 
Along the Lakefront, "Menacing Unknown"s
Along the Lakefront, "Menacing Unknown"sAlong the Lakefront, "Menacing Unknown"s
Along the Lakefront, "Menacing Unknown"s
 
EARTH DAY Slide show EARTHDAY.ORG is unwavering in our commitment to end plas...
EARTH DAY Slide show EARTHDAY.ORG is unwavering in our commitment to end plas...EARTH DAY Slide show EARTHDAY.ORG is unwavering in our commitment to end plas...
EARTH DAY Slide show EARTHDAY.ORG is unwavering in our commitment to end plas...
 
5 Wondrous Places You Should Visit at Least Once in Your Lifetime (1).pdf
5 Wondrous Places You Should Visit at Least Once in Your Lifetime (1).pdf5 Wondrous Places You Should Visit at Least Once in Your Lifetime (1).pdf
5 Wondrous Places You Should Visit at Least Once in Your Lifetime (1).pdf
 
Düsseldorf U学位证,杜塞尔多夫大学毕业证书1:1制作
Düsseldorf U学位证,杜塞尔多夫大学毕业证书1:1制作Düsseldorf U学位证,杜塞尔多夫大学毕业证书1:1制作
Düsseldorf U学位证,杜塞尔多夫大学毕业证书1:1制作
 
NO1 Certified Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil...
NO1 Certified Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil...NO1 Certified Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil...
NO1 Certified Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil...
 
原版定制copy澳洲詹姆斯库克大学毕业证JCU毕业证成绩单留信学历认证保障质量
原版定制copy澳洲詹姆斯库克大学毕业证JCU毕业证成绩单留信学历认证保障质量原版定制copy澳洲詹姆斯库克大学毕业证JCU毕业证成绩单留信学历认证保障质量
原版定制copy澳洲詹姆斯库克大学毕业证JCU毕业证成绩单留信学历认证保障质量
 
INSIDER THREAT PREVENTION IN THE US BANKING SYSTEM
INSIDER THREAT PREVENTION IN THE US BANKING SYSTEMINSIDER THREAT PREVENTION IN THE US BANKING SYSTEM
INSIDER THREAT PREVENTION IN THE US BANKING SYSTEM
 
التغيرات المناخية وتاثيرها على القطاع الزراعي المصري
التغيرات المناخية وتاثيرها على القطاع الزراعي المصريالتغيرات المناخية وتاثيرها على القطاع الزراعي المصري
التغيرات المناخية وتاثيرها على القطاع الزراعي المصري
 
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptxTitle-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
 
Hot Sexy call girls in Nehru Place, 🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort Service
Hot Sexy call girls in Nehru Place, 🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort ServiceHot Sexy call girls in Nehru Place, 🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort Service
Hot Sexy call girls in Nehru Place, 🔝 9953056974 🔝 escort Service
 
原版1:1复刻塔夫斯大学毕业证Tufts毕业证留信学历认证
原版1:1复刻塔夫斯大学毕业证Tufts毕业证留信学历认证原版1:1复刻塔夫斯大学毕业证Tufts毕业证留信学历认证
原版1:1复刻塔夫斯大学毕业证Tufts毕业证留信学历认证
 

Harry Keys: Tongariro Alpine Crossing

  • 1. 1 Copyright photograph by NZ Herald Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA Paul Dawson photo Sustainable Summits 2016, Aoraki Mt Cook National Park, 7-11 August Harry Keys (hkeys@doc.govt.nz) Department of Conservation DOC-2848662
  • 2. 2 Red Crater 1886 m Tongariro 1961 m Emerald Lakes Blue Lake/ Rangihiroa's Mirror
  • 3. 3 Copyright photograph by NZ Herald Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA Ngauruhoe last erupted 1974-77 Red Crater last erupted 1934 Te Maari last erupted 2012 Mangatepopo carpark & Roadend To Ketetahi Roadend Alpine area subject to severe weather year round 3 historically active volcanic vents Centre of North island, very accessible Visitor use peaks over summer
  • 4. 4 A short history of the Crossing Left: 1908 tourist group at Emerald Lakes - few people, no management Right: Now many people, management important, moving towards co-management with iwi 2013 opening ceremony after eruptions
  • 5. 5 Estimated numbers on the Crossing 10,000 Spot counts & hut surveys from 1992 Early 1990s: international visitors exceed NZers 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 2005 2010 2015 Calendar Year Counter time series 1992: 11,000 people: 20% of 48,000 total on the19 km track 2015: 109,000: 80% of 140,000 total on the 20 km track Estimated numbers 1950-2011, Bamford 2014 GFC eruption ? Growth can’t continue like this: numbers and/or experience are likely to decline unless some kind of new management is introduced and effective
  • 6. 6 Economic benefits • Large number of people • Almost 90% stay 1 or 2 nights in local districts • $200/day spent on accommodation & transport per TNP summer visitor ($20 million/year) • Strong growth (9%/year, average compound rate) • 80-90% use buses & rental vehicles • 21 transport concessions; 22 guiding concessions mostly local • >50 bus and rental car companies used • Increased number of school/youth visits & benefits from education
  • 7. 7 • 46% 20-29 years, 22% 30-39; strong social media use • International 76% (range 70- 80%, trend appears to have weakened) • No reduction in numbers of NZers • Domestic (2012): AKL 43%, Wgtn 12%, South Is 3% • Gender: even ratio • Party size: 1 =13%, 2 =46%, 3-4 =24% • 60% 0-1 hike/year of this type Demographics etc Based on 6 visitor surveys 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 International&domesticproportions Survey year/season % international % domestic Apparent no. NZ
  • 8. 8 Social and recreational benefits “strong benefits”, “clear majority satisfied” [similar to expectations], “huge sense of achievement” Angus & Assoc 2012, Blaschke & Whitney 2007 Helping meet DOCs 2025 goals: 50% international visitors visit a national park; 90% of New Zealanders enriched by our nature 2012 Q: What did you most enjoy?
  • 10. 10 Visitor concerns 2012 survey question: What did you least enjoy? Bubs Smith photo
  • 11. 11 Copyright photograph by NZ Herald Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA Main management concerns & issues 1. cost per person (“just need funding”)  Track work ($3 pp)  Rescue, SAR & volcanic risk management – visitor safety ($2 pp)  Toilets/waste-management ($1.50 pp)  Road maintenance  Concession management 2. challenge to solve  Crowding on track at times & maintaining satisfaction  Protecting cultural values & identity  Transport & car parking  Effective planning/consultation Top: DOC; Bottom: Paul Carr
  • 12. 12 Copyright photograph by NZ Herald Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA Track management/erosion control standard solutions, some debate  Vulnerable volcanic soils (trampling & erosion)  Restoration, upgrades & track deviations (up to $250/metre)  Maintenance $3.50/m (DOC model)  Limits to upgrade options in mountains  Alternative tracks, concerns & efficacy
  • 13. 13 Copyright photograph by NZ Herald Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA Safety & risk management and the TAC visitor • Limited understanding of personal responsibility - “they’d close the track if it wasn’t safe” • Most visitors are reasonably prepared but notable exceptions • Information available but not always accessed/received • Iwi hold a duty of care - kaitiakitanga • No trauma fatalities for 5 years but several near-misses (hypothermia, slips, rockfall, Aug 2012 eruption) • Many rescues, well developed public (free) system Heading to Mt Doom (barefoot like Frodo!) & about to get lost in cloud. DOC photo Babies on the TAC - first baby rescue 2016. DOC photo
  • 14. 14 • A mass fatality event in TNP will most likely be due to an “unheralded” eruption • Unmitigated: 1 event / 10-19 years • If mitigation effective: 1 event / 90- 100 yrs • Good volcanic warning system but maintaining readiness is a concern • Concessionaire contribution? • Accept that eruptions disrupt visitor use & commercial activity Top: Herb Spannagl; bottom: Cant. Uni Risk management in active volcanic areas
  • 15. 15 噴石(奥の院) Ontake eruption 2014: 58 hikers killed (5 missing) most of them by flying rocks. Similar eruption to Tongariro 2012, so many lessons (e.g. need for effective communications & warnings)
  • 16. 16 Copyright photograph by NZ Herald Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA Toilets  “Dissatisfaction rates relatively high” Angus Assoc 2012 (annual numbers c 85,000)  Plan to double number of toilet pans and locations in 2 years & reduce waste volume. CAPEX $500,000  Difficult siting decisions to minimise impact on scenic, cultural & aesthetic values  Personal poo kits practical? Top: DOC; bottom: Bubs Smith
  • 17. 17 2005: “Integrated use limits” aka “carrying capacity” identified: exceeded when >550- 600 people-counts/day 2012: number confirmed ≥ 600 counts/day = negative perceptions, sense of crowding, detracts from experience 20% of survey days in 2005 had ≥600 counts 34% in 2012 had ≥600 55% in Jan-April 2016 had ≥600 3 days with ≥2000 counts in 2016 ≈ 40% of NZ Ranker reviewers now mention crowding etc Crowding perceptions Peak day queue up Red Crater ridge: at the chain section requested by concessionaires
  • 18. 18 Copyright photograph by NZ Herald Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA Over-use/over-crowding needs multi- facetted solution:  Staggering of start times often suggested (since 1990s): it’s occurring but problem not solved  Booking or quota system or user- charge: taxpayer discount  Transport management (most visitors use concession transport)  Concession management – legal constraints (but less when environment & safety issues?)  Planning process-integrity of Management Plan process, more focused consultation, other govt funding 2005 2012
  • 19. 19 Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA Suggested revision of goals “We have a responsibility to ensure people can enjoy our wild places while protecting the integrity of the environment” Hon. Maggie Barry, Minister of Conservation, SS booklet 1. Limit numbers: ensure the world- class visitor experience is protected and provides ongoing economic benefits to tangata whenua and other local communities 2. Manage transport logistics: work with concessionaires to ensure their businesses assist with goal 1 3. Optimise risk management: pay more heed to the alpine volcanic environment & visitor responsibility 4. Protect values: cherish Tongariro National Park World Heritage Area 5. Emphasise TAC’s value: bring together & unify mountain communities Top: Bubs Smith; bottom: DOC
  • 20. 20 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 4,000,000 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Internationalvisitorarrivalsandforecast VisitorNumbers(basedonrawKetetahicounterdata) Annual visitor numbers and projections Annual Ketetahi totals (counter 100073031 corrected for missing data) for non-eruption episode years Annual Ketetahi totals directly affected by eruption episode corrected for missing March 2012 data Synthetic Ketetahi totals during eruption episode Ketetahi Model with compound growth rate of 8.6% Projected Ketetahi totals with 6% compound average growth rate (MBIE forecast to 2020) International Visitor arrivals (MBIE) International visitor arrival forecast (MBIE 2016, with compound average growth rate of 6%) Calendar year Visitornumbers
  • 21. 21 Visitor use peaks in summer- raw counter data on TAC
  • 22. 22 TAC rescue operations: police-organized (≈ 70% of total). Average 2x10-4 ops/person
  • 23. 23 Crowding: examined in 1993-96, 2005 & 2012 surveys 2005 2012 2015/16 Bubs Smith photos • Red Crater area most crowding reported • Ketetahi roadend largest increase
  • 24. 24 Copyright photograph by NZ Herald Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA Quote from Blaschke & Whitney 2007 • Currently, transport concessions do not impose any limits on the number of walkers able to be carried, so that on busy days transport operators have unlimited discretion to run additional busloads. Comments made during the focus group discussions identified a number of further issues with the concession process. Allegations and anecdotal information were provided concerning conditions of concessions not being adhered to, under-reporting of numbers of walkers carried, and the presence of non-authorised operators within the park providing transport services and in some cases guiding services to significant numbers of walkers. • DOC’s intention for the concession system is that it “helps the Department to ensure that the various concession activities are compatible with the primary aim of protecting the land and other resources. It also helps to make sure that services and facilities provided for visitors are appropriate, of a suitable standard and that other activities do not conflict with visitor enjoyment.” (http://www.doc.govt.nz/About-DOC/Concessions/index.asp). • It would be difficult to argue that the current system for transport concessions for the Crossing achieves this stated intention.
  • 25. 25 What they say about the TAC • DOC brochure 1990s: “Often described as the best one day walk in NZ” • Lonely Planet: “one of the world’s greatest one-day hikes” • Wikipedia: “among the most popular day hikes in the country” • Trip Advisor: Rating 5*, 1056 reviews (85% excellent, 12% VG, 0.2% terrible) • NZ Rankers: 90%*, 788 reviews • *caution with these stats
  • 26. 26 Eruption on TAC The TAC on the NZ risk landscape
  • 27. 27 Copyright photograph by NZ Herald Cities on Volcanoes Conference Yogayakarta, INDONESIA TAC with existing & proposed toilet sites Angus Associates 2012 Additional slides for reference
  • 28. 28 Summary in Bamford 2014: Currently the Department of Conservation and Ngati Hikairo Ki Tongariro are assessing their options for sustainably managing the TAC. Their 5 objectives are: 1. Develop and future-proof the TAC as a sustainable world-class visitor experience; 2. Increase knowledge, respect and understanding of the values of Tongariro National Park (TNP); 3. Use the TAC to promote and grow the region(s) and to ensure that it contributes to the economic sustainability of local communities; 4. Provide economic opportunities and resources for the development of Ngati Hikairo ki Tongariro; 5. Use the TAC to bring together and unify mountain communities.
  • 29. 29 History of the Crossing Pre 1900s: trails to Ketetahi Springs (medicinal & cultural) & birding Early 1900s: bridle trail Papakai over to Waihohonu Hut/coach rd 1920s-40s: tramways built for logging in Ketetahi bush 1950s & 60s: Park develops track with tramping club assistance 1960s-early 90s: “Tongariro Crossing” track restoration & upgrades: Summer Programme crossing & Ketetahi Springs very popular 1986: 1st public transport From 1993: OSH/access/fee option negotiations with Ketetahi Trust Early 1990s: crowding concerns raised 2007: “Alpine” added to name because of safety concerns 2008 & 2011: deviations circumventing eroded area & Ketetahi land 2012-13: eruption episode prevents access to full TAC until May Towards co-management with iwi in last 20 years
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31 Visitor surveys and other references • Angus & Associates 2012 • Bamford 2014 • Blaschke & Whitney 2007 • Coomber & Leonard 2005 • Dhellemmes 2016 • Gibson 1996 • Keys, Williams and Leonard 2014 • Olsen 2001 • Slee and Curtis 1993 • Visitor counters Acknowledgements to Bubs Smith and other photographers, DOC & police colleagues, GNS Science and Canterbury University