The Role Of A Manager And A Leader


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This is a presentation I delivered at the 10th National Playwork Conference in March 2012.

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The Role Of A Manager And A Leader

  1. 1. The Role Of A Manager And A LeaderDavid StonehouseSenior LecturerTel: 01695 657003E-mail: the University of choice
  2. 2. Management & Leadership in Playwork “Whether we like it or not, playwork either within the voluntary sector, private or council run, playwork has to be managed and led within a business environment.” (Stonehouse, 2011a:7)the University of choice
  3. 3. Leadership V Management“Leadership & management are two distinctive and complementary systems of action. Each has its own function and characteristic activities. Both are necessary for success in an increasingly complex and volatile environment.” (Kotter, 1990:103)the University of choice
  4. 4. Manager V LeaderBennis and Nanus (1985:21) State“managers are people who do thingsright, and leaders are people who dothe right thing.”Some leaders make unsuitablemanagers and some managers makeunsuitable leaders (Yukl, 2010).the University of choice
  5. 5. What Is Management?■ Takes place within a structured organisational setting & with prescribed roles;■ Directed towards the attainment of aims & objectives;■ Achieved through the efforts of other people; and■ Using systems & procedures. (Mullins: 2010)the University of choice
  6. 6. Three Primary Responsibilities1. Quality2. Budget3. Staff■ Managers have 24 hr, 7-day/week responsibility for the quality of the play service■ Managers ensure that staff have what they need to get their job done.■ Managers allocate resources to meet the needs of children and the play service within the budget. Chilton (2006:127) when talking about what makes an effective playworker states that one of a number of skills is the “management and administration: of the physical site, personnel, finances, communication systems, committees, materials and equipment.”the University of choice
  7. 7. 1.Quality “providing good play opportunities, and continuously improving what you do by using standards” (Conway, 2008:72). “the standard of how good something is when measured against other similar things” (Kilvington and Wood, 2010:121).■ Policies and Procedures.■ Listening and gaining feedback■ Managing complaints,the University of choice
  8. 8. 2. Budget The manager will usually be the one who is responsible for setting the budget (Davy & Gallagher, 2006). The manager must only spend the budget on what has been agreed and must never overspend (Stonehouse, 2011a).the University of choice
  9. 9. Budget Considerations■ Staff■ Premises■ Equipment■ Training/development of staff■ Heating, lights, water.■ Food.the University of choice
  10. 10. Playwork Skills When talking about what makes an effective playworker Chilton (2006:127) states that one of a number of skills is the “management and administration: of the physical site, personnel, finances, communication systems, committees, materials and equipment.”the University of choice
  11. 11. 3. Staff■ Hiring - job descriptions, job specifications, Attracting quality staff■ Retaining■ Firing!!■ Development/training■ Managing sickness.the University of choice
  12. 12. F.W. Taylor (1856-1915)Scientific Management (1900-1930)■ “Human beings are predisposed to seek the maximum reward for the minimum effort.”■ “Managers must lay down in detail what each worker should do, step by step; ensure through close supervision that the instructions are adhered to; and, to give positive motivation, link pay to performance.”the University of choice
  13. 13. F.W. Taylor - Scientific Management■ Midvale & Bethlehem Steel Company, Pennsylvania.■ Identified that there was a ‘one best way to accomplish a task.’■ 75 men were loading on average 12 ½ tons of pig iron per man per day.■ Schmidt through Taylor increased this to 47 ½ tons a day and kept this up for the three years of the study. 60% pay increase.the University of choice
  14. 14. F.W. Taylor - Scientific Management■ Higher wages from increased output■ The removal of physical strain from doing work the wrong way■ Substitution of industrial warfare with industrial harmony■ Developing countries may be best to apply Scientific Management to aid their economies.the University of choice
  15. 15. Four Overriding Principles of Scientific Management1. Replace ‘rule of thumb’ means of organising work with scientific methods. Time & motion, expertise of experienced workers.2. Scientific Personnel system. Workers hired, trained and promoted based on technical competence and ability.3. Common goals & sharing of organisational mission. Financial incentives.the University of choice
  16. 16. Four Overriding Principles of Scientific Management 1. Relationship between managers and workers should be cooperative & interdependent. However, Functional Foremen (Managers) plan prepare & supervise, worker’s work. Henry Ford in 1913 applied Scientific Management to his Highland Park Plant. ‘Fordism’the University of choice
  17. 17. Douglas McGregor (1960) Theory X and Theory Y■ Theory X – managers believe that that their employees are basically lazy, need constant supervision and direction and are indifferent to organisational needs. emphases external rewards, workers controlled through rewards and punishment.■ Theory Y – managers believe that their workers enjoy their work, are self motivated, and are willing to work hard to meet personal and organisational goals. workers derive satisfaction from the work itself.■ Theory Z – Combination of the X & Y.the University of choice
  18. 18. Neo Human Relations More psychological approachMaslow (1943) ‘Hierarchy of Human Needs.’ 5 Levels Self- actualisation Esteem needs Love needs Safety needs Physiological needsthe University of choice
  19. 19. Characteristic Differences MANAGER LEADER■ Attention to detail ■ Innovator■ Motivated by reward & ■ Motivator punishment ■ Role model■ Low on interpersonal skill ■ Interpersonal skills■ Reactive than proactive ■ Values staff■ Strives on efficiency ■ Promoter of positive■ Sticks to rules, policies & punishment regulations. ■ Proactivethe University of choice
  20. 20. Formal & Informal Organisation Formal Informal■ Policies & procedures ■ Informal leaders■ Spans of control ■ Personal animosities & friendships■ Organisational charts ■ Grapevine■ Mission statements ■ Group norms &■ Job definitions & sentiments descriptions ■ Emotional feelings,■ Production efficiency needs & desires. & effectiveness ■ Prestige & power measures structures.the University of choice
  21. 21. What is Leadership? It is about getting people to do willingly, that which their instincts teach them not to do. (Mullins: 2010)the University of choice
  22. 22. the University of choice
  23. 23. Scotland Forever!! Charge of the Scots Greys■ 107 riders killed, 97 wounded, and 228 horses (of the original 416) lostthe University of choice
  24. 24. Leadership Styles■ Autocratic or Authoritarian Style of Leadership■ Democratic Style of Leadership■ Laissez-faire Style of Leadership■ Transactional Style of Leadership■ Transformational Style Of Leadership There are many more!!!!the University of choice
  25. 25. Autocratic or Authoritarian Style of Leadershipleader who■ Tells others what to do■ Who limit’s discussion on their ideas■ Communication is only in one direction, from them to the rest of the staff.■ Places emphasis on productivity, how much can get done in the shortest possible time Sadek and Sadek (2009) liken this type of leader to a spider sitting within the middle of a web. Always in complete control of its surroundings.the University of choice
  26. 26. Autocratic LeadershipNegatives: A leader who consistently behaves in an autocratic way could end up devaluing and de-motivating their staff, leading to problems with staff retention (Johnston and Nahmad-Williams, 2009).Positives: when the leader is the most knowledgeable person and where time is limited (Huczynski and Buchanan, 1999). For example in an emergency situationthe University of choice
  27. 27. Democratic Style of LeadershipLeader:■ Involves others in decision making■ Team work is promoted and encouraged■ leader will ask rather than telling■ Power here shifts away from the leader and is shared with the team as a whole■ Communication is in a two way direction with the leader welcoming and seeking discussion and feedbackthe University of choice
  28. 28. Democratic Style ofPositives: Leadership■ greater motivation and commitment within the team■ team feel valued and respected for their contribution■ Ownership of any decision is accepted by everyoneNegatives:■ where there is disagreement within the team conflict might arise And as Marquis and Huston (2009:39) state “because many people must be consulted, democratic leadership takes more time and, therefore, may be more frustrating for those who want decisions made rapidly.”the University of choice
  29. 29. Laissez-faire Style of LeadershipThe Leader:■ gives complete freedom of action to the team in making decisions and planning■ Complete power is given over to the team■ leader will not interfere with the teams work, but keeps themselves available if help is requiredthe University of choice
  30. 30. Laissez-faire Style of LeadershipWorks well When:■ The team possesses a high degree of skill, knowledge and motivation to accomplish what is being asked of them.Mullins (2010) stresses the importance when discussing this leadership style that it has to be a genuine laissez-faire style, where the team has the skill and ability and the leader trusts the team.the University of choice
  31. 31. Laissez-faire StyleDoes not work when:■ staff members do not have the necessary ability or skills.This can then lead to high levels of stressAs Northouse (2009:44) states “because people are directionless and at a loss to know what to do, they tend to do nothing.”Gill (2008) argues, laissez-faire leadership can become no leadership at all.the University of choice
  32. 32. Transactional leadershipThe leader enters into a transaction with the employee who agrees to take part, or work in a certain way, in return for some form of reward or compensation (Lawler, 2007) Or to prevent some form of punishment from taking place (Mullins, 2010).the University of choice
  33. 33. Transactional LeadershipAs Mullins (2010:391) states this type of leadership “appeals to the self-interest of followers.” This style contrast with the Transformational or Charismatic Leadership style.the University of choice
  34. 34. Transformational Style Of Leadership “is a process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers” (Mullins, 2010:391).• Actively develop relationships with their co-workers.• The work place & meaning of work are transformed• Employees pursue active goals.the University of choice
  35. 35. Transformational Leaders “Act as mentors to their followers by encouraging learning, achievement, and individual development. They provide meaning, act as role models, provide challenges, evoke emotions, and foster a climate of trust.” (Harms and Crede, 2010:6)the University of choice
  36. 36. Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components.■ Idealised Influence – Charisma of the leader. Are they perceived as being confident and committed. Do they engender respect and admiration from their followers; Leader aims for the employee to“transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the team, department, or organisation” (Daft and Marcic, 2009:427)the University of choice
  37. 37. Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components.■ Inspirational Motivation – behaviour of the leader provides meaning & challenge to the workers. The leader sets challenging goals but ones which are attainable. “inspirationally motivate employees by clearly articulating an appealing vision of the organisation’s mission and future.” (Wright and Pandey, 2010:75)the University of choice
  38. 38. Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components.■ Intellectual Stimulation – promotes intelligence & new ways of working. Encourages creative thinking, risk taking, to participate at an intellectual level and for followers to challenge their own assumptions.■ Individualised Consideration – Leader has special concern for workers growth & development. Through mentoring, empowering, encouraging and being in frequent contact.the University of choice
  39. 39. Transformational Leaders■ Have a clear collective vision■ & they manage to communicate it effectively to all employees.■ Trust their subordinates and leave them space to breathe and grow.■ Stimulate employees to be more innovative.the University of choice
  40. 40. Transformational Leaders ■ Actively develop relationships with their co-workers, who become more active, motivated & inspired ■ The work place & meaning of work are ‘transformed.’ ■ Employees pursue organisational goals.the University of choice
  41. 41. Guidelines for Leaders• Articulate a clear and appealing vision.• Explain how the vision can be attained.• Act confident and optimistic.• Express confidence in followers.• Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key values.• Lead by example. (Yukl, 2010)the University of choice
  42. 42. Battle of Agincourt 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin’s Day)the University of choice
  43. 43. St Crispin’s Day Speech From Henry V■ He was present■ He was flexible and fair■ He was honest■ He was involved■ He was clear■ He was timelythe University of choice
  44. 44. Key Qualities■ Knowledge & skill,■ Effective communication of ideas,■ Confidence,■ Commitment,■ Energy,■ Insight into the needs of othersthe University of choice
  45. 45. Additional Qualities■ Ability to listen■ Ability to reserve judgement■ Give direct & positive feedback■ Recognise individual values through respect for others■ & use humour.the University of choice
  46. 46. “The Dark Side of Charisma” Yukl (2010)■ The leader may take unnecessary risks■ Or deny problems or failures as they occur■ People over rely upon the leader, accepting everything they say and do to be correct.■ No-one feels able to question decisions or voice opposition Yukl (2010:275) states Leaders demonstrating this failing may “make more risky decisions that can result in a serious failure.”the University of choice
  47. 47. So Which Style Is Best? Anon (2010:21) states “Leaders must learn to adapt their leadership styles and strategies to meet the needs of various complex situations.” “The key to a great leader is not then to be rigid in their choice of style, but to move between the different styles as the situation demands. It is this flexibility and level of skill which makes the leader stand out not just as a leader, but as a great leader” (Stonehouse, 2011b:11).the University of choice
  48. 48. BibliographyAnon. (2010) ‘The Changing Face of Leadership.’ Strategic Direction. 26 (1) pp.21-23.Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1985) Leaders. The Strategies For Taking Charge. New York:Harper & Row.Burnes, B. (2000) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics.Third Edition. London: Prentice Hall.Chilton, T. (2006) ‘Adventure Playgrounds in the Twenty-First Century.’ In: Brown, F. (ed)Playwork: Theory and Practice. Buckingham: Open University Press. Pp.114-127Conway, M. (2008) ‘Quality in Play: Underpinning Thoughts’ In: Brown, F. & Taylor, C. (eds)Foundations of Playwork. Berkshire: Open University Press. pp.72-75.Daft, R.L. and Marcic, D. (2009) Understanding Management. Sixth Edition. United States:South-Western Cengage Learning.Davy, A. & Gallagher, J. (2006) New Playwork: Play and Care for Children 4 – 16. FourthEdition. London: Delmar Cengage Learning.Gill, R. (2008) Theory and Practice of Leadership. London: Sage Publications Ltd.Harms, P.D. & Crede, M. (2010) ‘Emotional Intelligence and Transformational andTransactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. ‘Journal of Leadership & OrganisationalStudies. 17 (1) 5-17.the University of choice
  49. 49. BibliographyHuczynski, A. & Buchanan, D. (1999) ‘Can Leaders Change Their Styles?’ In: Billsberry, J.(ed) The Effective Manager: Perspectives and Illustrations. London: Sage Publications.Pp 42-46.Kilvington, J. & Wood, A. (2010) Reflective Playwork: For All Who Work With Children.London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Kotter, J.P. (1990) What Leaders Really Do. Harvard Business Review. May – Junepp 103-111.Johnston, J. & Nahmad-Williams, Lindy. (2009) Early Childhood Studies. Essex: PearsonEducation Limited.Lawler, J. (2007) ‘Leadership in Social Work: A Case of Caveat Emptor?’ British Journal ofSocial Work. 37:Pp. 123-141.Marquis, B. L. & Huston, C. J. (2009) Leadership Roles and Management Functions inNursing. Sixth Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Mullins, L.J. (2010) Management and Organisational Behaviour. Ninth Edition. London:Financial Times Prentice Hall.the University of choice
  50. 50. BibliographyNorthouse, P.G. (2009) Introduction to Leadership, Concepts and Practice. London: SagePublications Ltd.Sadek, E. & Sadek, J. (2009) Good Practice in Nursery Management. Third Edition.Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.Senge, P. M. (2006) The Fifth Discipline: The Art And Practice of the Learning Organisation.London : Currency Doubleday.Stonehouse, D. (2011a) ‘Are You A Manager Or Leader Of Playwork? Part One.’ IP-DiP: ForProfessionals In Play. Weekly. 14th January (31) pp. 7-11.Stonehouse, D. (2011b) ‘Are You A Manager Or Leader Of Playwork? Part Two.’ IP-DiP: ForProfessionals In Play. Weekly. 21st January (32) pp. 7-11.Wright, B. E. & Pandey, S. K. (2010) ‘Transformational Leadership in the Public Sector:Does Structure Matter?’ Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 20:Pp. 75-89.Yukl, G. (2010) Leadership in Organizations. Seventh Edition. New Jersey:Pearson.the University of choice