Managing change theories


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This presentation examines a number of change theories which can enable change to be successful.

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  • Way of mapping out the forces at work in any situation which are keeping things as they are. It can be used to diagnose the current situation in a clear and systematic way which shows how the situation may be changed. Idea underlying the technique is that any situation which appears stable is in fact in a state of dynamic tension between the forces for change and the forces resisting change. In order to move the situation in the desired direction the main aim is to reduce or remove restraining or blocking forces. Identify forces for and against – people, resources, time, technology, politics List key forces for reducing restraining forces and maximising promoting forces.
  • Comfortable Loss of control or power Not their idea Don’t believe in it – ideological Fear Feel criticised Process – lack of involvement or consultation Too much change Magnitude – may not be able to imagine the change
  • Managing change theories

    1. 1. Managing Change - TheoriesDavid StonehouseSenior LecturerTel: 01695 657003E-mail: the University of choice
    2. 2. Change Theories■ Leaders & Change ■ Resistance to Agents Change■ Planned Change ■ Comfort Zone■ Emergent ■ Project Approach Management■ Kurt Lewinthe University of choice
    3. 3. Change is the constant & stability the exception. “A round man cannot be expectedto fit into a square hole right away. He must have time to modify his shape.” Mark Twainthe University of choice
    4. 4. “Change is not the same as transition. Change is situational: the new site, the new structure, the new team, the new role , the new procedure. Transition is the psychological process people go through to come to terms with the new situation. Remember that change is external and transition is internal.” William Bridgesthe University of choice
    5. 5. Leaders in Change. “It is the leader who is the innovator, who is proactive and a motivator. He/she has a vision of how things could be and the drive and commitment to bring that vision to fulfilment” (Stonehouse, 2011:510). “managers cope with the complexities and results of change while leaders inspire and initiate change” (Smith and Langston,1999:6)the University of choice
    6. 6. Change Agents Often the person given the job of implementing and leading the change is called the change agent (Marquis and Huston, 2009).the University of choice
    7. 7. Planned Change■ Cyclical process involving diagnosis, action & evaluation, and further action & evaluation■ Triggered by the need to respond to new challenges or opportunities presented by the external environment, or in anticipation of the need to cope with potential future problems.■ An intentional attempt to improvethe University of choice
    8. 8. The Emergent Approach■ Change is seen as a continuous process■ Stresses the developing & unpredictable nature of change■ Environment is increasingly dynamic & uncertain■ Change as a period of organisational transition characterised by disruption, confusion & unforeseen events that emerge over long time- frames.■ No universal rules with regard to leading changethe University of choice
    9. 9. ‘Unfreezing, Moving & Refreezing.’ – Kurt LewinUnfreezing Moving•The nature of the change •Defining problemsneeded •Identifying solutions•The methods planned to •Implementing solutionsachieve the change.•The needs of those affected Refreezing•The ways that progress will •Stabilising the situationbe planned & Monitored. •Building & rebuilding relationships •Consolidating the systemsthe University of choice
    10. 10. Forcefield Analysis – Lewin (1947) Driving forces S Restraining forces T for change A for equilibrium T U S Q U O For effective organisational change to take place the status quo has to change: • Identify forces for and against • Identify key forces – list actions for reducing restraining forces and maximising driving forcesthe University of choice
    11. 11. Why Resistance? “Because change disrupts the homeostasis or balance of the group, resistance should always be expected” (Marquis and Huston, 2009:176).the University of choice
    12. 12. Key reasons for resisting change Level of See problem and solution emotional/political but resist as feel threatened involvement by the solution See problem and solution but resist as do not feel involved in finding the solution See the problem but don’t agree with the solution See the problem but not the solution Don’t see the problem Don’t care Level of understandingthe University of choice
    13. 13. Resistance Can Be■ Overt/Immediate■ Covert/ImplicitThe aim is for the resistance to be overt, so that it is out in the open and can be dealt with.the University of choice
    14. 14. Individual Resistance To Change■ Do not recognise the need to change.■ ‘If it isn’t broke, don’t fix it!’■ Other things are the priority. - Patients/staff needs - do not have the time.Kantor (2009:181) states that “the effort it takes to manage things under routine circumstances needs to be multiplied when things are changing.”the University of choice
    15. 15. Individual Resistance To Change■ Embarrassment about admitting that what they are doing could be improved.As the ‘Code of Conduct for Assistant / Associate Practitioners and Healthcare Support Workers – Working to Standards’ (Assistant Practitioners Coordinator Network, 2011), states as support workers you must improve the quality of your care through updating your skills, knowledge and experience.If we continue to try and hold onto our old way of working we find ourselves trying to defend our past practices while fighting against the change (Kanter, 2009).the University of choice
    16. 16. Individual Resistance To Change■ Lacking trust in a person or organisation.■ Anticipating a lack of resources. - Time - Equipment - Staff - Training - Supportthe University of choice
    17. 17. Organisational Resistance To Change■ Culture – traditions, customs, beliefs, unwritten rules. “If an organisations culture is one which is not open to change and development then it will be resistant” (Stonehouse, 2013: ). May need a culture change. Change of top management may be required before a change in culture can take place.the University of choice
    18. 18. Organisational Resistance To Change■ Maintaining Stability – change is seen as being risky, a time of uncertainty.Mullins (2010:757) states “the more mechanistic or bureaucratic the structure, the less likely it is that the organisation will be responsive to change.”the University of choice
    19. 19. Organisational Resistance To Change■ Threats to power or influence.“the main resistance may well come from middle and, especially, senior managers who see their status, power and personal beliefs challenged” (Burnes, 2000:171)the University of choice
    20. 20. Organisational Resistance To Change■ Investment in resources, time and personnel. Resources need to be invested in the short term to get rewards in the long term. Costs need to be acceptable to the organisation.the University of choice
    21. 21. Organisational Resistance To Change■ Existing legal contracts or agreements. May need to wait until these can be re-negotiated before a change can take place.the University of choice
    22. 22. The Change Agent “The role of the change agent is to recognise the causes of resistance ad to address each one. If this is not done, then the change will be much harder to implement successfully and may not even succeed at all” (Stonehouse, 2012:256).the University of choice
    23. 23. Rosabeth Moss Kanter Interesting Solutions to Resistance to Change■ Wait ■ Reduce the stakes■ Wear them down ■ Warn them off■ Appeal to a higher ■ Remember that only authority afterwards does an■ Invite them in innovation look like■ Send emissaries the right thing to have■ Display support done all alongthe University of choice
    24. 24. Ways to Overcome resistance!■ Communication.■ Open, honest, with no secrets or surprises■ Involve everyone, which develops ownership “The More that staff are actively involved in reaching towards an agreed solution, the more constructive their response is likely to be” (Aubrey, 2011:140).■ Share the vision.the University of choice
    25. 25. Resistance to Change a Positive!!■ Should be seen positively.■ Resistance strengthens the change outcome, making it more robust and error free.■ Often the fault is not with the recipients of change, but with the Change Agent.the University of choice
    26. 26. Resistance to Change a Positive!! “Resistance is not simply a force to overcome; it indicates a different viewpoint that should be listened to and explored” (Newton, 2009:257).the University of choice
    27. 27. PANIC ZONE DISCOMFORT COMFORT ZONE ZONEComfort Zone – people stay here, don’t change, don’t learnDiscomfort Zone – people uncertain, most likely to change, most likelyto learnPanic Zone – people freeze, will not change, will not learn
    28. 28. What Is A Project■ “A unique set of co-ordinated activities, with definite starting and finishing points, undertaken to meet specific objectives within defined schedule, cost and performance parameters.”the University of choice
    29. 29. What Is A Project■ Has a start and finish time■ Creates something new or improves something already there■ Performed by people and teams■ Has resource issues■ Planned and controlledthe University of choice
    30. 30. What Is A Project■ “A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product service or result.”- Temporary- Uniquethe University of choice
    31. 31. What Is NOT A Project■ Your day to day activities.■ What is routine.the University of choice
    32. 32. Project TeamsFor people who are working together on a common task or project.Come together for a specified time.- Used within the military, aeronautics and space agencies.the University of choice
    33. 33. A Successful Project is■ Completed on Time.■ Within Budget.■ Quality■ Satisfaction of Stakeholders & Organisation.■ Satisfaction of the Project Team Members.the University of choice
    34. 34. A Project Should Be SMARTS = SpecificM = MeasurableA = Achievable or A = Agreed ToR = Realistic or R = RealisticT = Time-based.the University of choice
    35. 35. The Five Phases of Project Management1. Initiation2. Planning3. Executing4. Monitoring5. Closingthe University of choice
    36. 36. ReferencesAssistant Practitioners Coordinator Network (2011) Code of Conduct forAssistant / Associate Practitioners and Healthcare Support Workers – Workingto Standards. National Health Service North West, Manchester.Aubrey, C. (201) Leading And Managing I The Early Years. Second Edtiion.London: Sage.Burnes, B. (2000) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach To OrganisationalDynamics. Third Edition. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd.Kanter, R.M. (2009) ‘Managing The Human Side Of Change.’ In: Price, D. (ed)The Principles And Practice Of Change. Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan. Pp175-183.Kanter, R.M; Stein and Jick (1992) The Challenge of Organizational Change.New York: Free Press.Marquis, B. L. & Huston, C. J. (2009) Leadership Roles and ManagementFunctions in Nursing. Sixth Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.the University of choice
    37. 37. ReferencesMullins, L.J. (2010) Management and Organisational Behaviour. NinthEdition. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.Newton, R. (2009) The Practice And Theory Of Project Management:Creating Value Through Change. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Smith, A. & Langston, A. (1999) Managing Staff in Early YearsSettings. London: Routledge.Stonehouse, D. (2011) ‘Management and Leadership For SupportWorkers.’ British Journal of Healthcare Assistants. October. Vol 05. No10.Stonehouse, D. (2012) ‘Resistance To Change: The HumanDimension.’ British Journal of Healthcare Assistants. September. Vol06. No 09Stonehouse, D. (2013)the University of choice