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# Pilot deviations including runway incursions module 8 core topic 15

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• 2012/4/27-011 (I) PP CFI Workshop Module 8, Core Topic 15 Presentation created by Jason Forshey, GL region FAASTeam [email_address] National POC: Jim Leavitt, EA region FAASTeam james.w.leavitt@faa.gov
• Pilot deviations are something that we all have faced at one time or another. We get distracted in the cockpit, we put the wrong waypoint into the GPS, we hear ATC instructions incorrectly or maybe we just forgot what that altitude clearance was. Mistakes happen, and while it is impossible for us to prevent all mistakes we can do our best to prevent as many as we can.
• From the Office of Runway Safety, at the address below, this information as well as video’s, animations, along with a host of resources and training aids can be found. http://www.faa.gov/airports/runway_safety/
• From the Office of Runway Safety, at the address below, this information as well as video’s, animations, along with a host of resources and training aids can be found. http://www.faa.gov/airports/runway_safety/
• From the Office of Runway Safety, at the address below, this information as well as video’s, animations, along with a host of resources and training aids can be found. http://www.faa.gov/airports/runway_safety/ These numbers are accurate as of 02/14/2012
• Let’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type. An aircraft is instructed to hold short of the runway but crosses the hold line by mistake. No other aircraft are in the area.
• Let’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type. A Boeing B737 landed and exited at a high speed taxiway. The B737 pilot was instructed to hold short of adjacent runway, and the pilot acknowledged hold short instructions. An Airbus A330 was cleared for takeoff on the adjacent runway full length. The 737 pilots missed the hold line and pulled onto the runway and stopped. The A330 rotated 3600 feet prior to the 737 entry point to the runway and overflew the 737 by 400 feet. The A330 rotated normally and was not aware of the incursion by the B737.
• Let’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type. Local Control (LC) cleared a Diamond DV20 for takeoff. When the DV20 was rotating, LC observed a Cessna C182 entering the runway without authorization approximately 1050 feet down field from where the DV20 rotated. The DV20 over flew the C182 by 150 feet, the closest proximity reported.
• Let’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type. An air traffic controller cleared an aircraft for takeoff, mistakenly believing that an aircraft that had previously landed had exited and cleared the runway. During takeoff roll, the aircraft heard the previous aircraft notify the ATCT that they were still on the runway. The aircraft aborted takeoff and has to swerve to one side of the runway to miss hitting the aircraft by 10 feet.
• Let’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type. An aircraft reports a pedestrian on the runway on takeoff. Estimates of the closest proximity from the pilot and pedestrian differ significantly and there is no way to confirm which is correct, as the incident occurred at night and was not observable from the ATCT.
• Airports are getting more and more crowded. More airplanes, more operations, more potential for a mishap to occur. Things get more complicated when you mix aircraft of different sizes, types and mission.
• Any type of error, deviation, incursion, or mishap can happen to even the most skilled and proficient of us! These things occur because we don’t see it coming otherwise we’d take the action necessary to avoid the event.
• Do you educate your students as to the meaning of taxiway location signs? Of course, you do and you train and test your students to assure their understanding. Do you teach them about distractions that may cause them to ignore or not respond to the information provided by airport surface signage?
• We’ve all seen photos of such examples. And, we truly think that this is an example of that “someone else” we’re always speaking about. The pilot of this aircraft most likely had the same thoughts prior to the time this picture was taken. And, if you are thinking that this doesn’t count because it is not a US registered aircraft you are fooling yourself.
• Pilots and aircraft operators should be constantly aware that during certain low visibility conditions the movement of aircraft and vehicles on airports may not be visible to the tower controller. This may prevent visual confirmation of an aircraft’s adherence to taxi instructions.
• The most attentive attendee in front of you right now will be thinking: “Yes, but I don’t fly an aircraft like either of those!” Of, course forward visibility is restricted from the cockpit of a heavy military conventional gear aircraft, too bad but it doesn’t apply to me. So ….. I’ll think about something else until the next slide.
• It’s always someone else!
• Think about this picture. Classic isn’t it? Do you think the pilot of the Cessna can see the Bonanza? If the pilot in the Beech is alone do you think he knows that the Cessna is there? Well again, it’s someone else ……. Right? Do your students think that way, maybe you should find out?
• The first two subjects – Planning your operations on the surface and Employing Cockpit Discipline will help you maintain situational awareness. Loss of SA happens to pilots, controllers and drivers – and is a major factor in many if not most runway incursions. Understanding signs and markings is also a key in maintaining situational awareness. When you examine many of the most serious runway incursions, you will find two things: 1. If someone had looked both ways before entering the runway – they might have seen the runway was occupied and preventing the incursion. 2. Sometimes – someone does look and takes evasive action based on seeing what could happen and saves the day!
• Airport Diagrams are now available for all towered airports online, free of charge from FAA Checking NOTAMs and ATIS for changes to the airport environment is very important. The number of runway incursions tend to go up when taxi routes have changed temporarily. A hot spot is defined as an area on an airport where the risk of a runway incursion or incident is high. Jeppesen has charted hot spots for years and Runway Safety has produced many hot spot brochures over the years. The hot spot will be marked with a red circle – and a notation like HOT 1 – and there will be text accompanying it giving pilots warning information.
• Who wouldn’t do that? What a waste of time, to tell anyone to “Verify Compass heading to confirm proper runway taxiway selection”. Could an accident really happen because a pilot didn’t verify and use the assigned runway ? Preliminary flight data from Comair Flight 5191&apos;s black box recorders and the damage at the scene indicate the plane, a CRJ-100 regional jet, took off from the shortest runway at Lexington&apos;s Blue Grass Airport, National Transportation Safety Board member Debbie Hersman.
• DISTRACTIONS are a major factor – you need to be paying attention when taxiing the aircraft The majority of incursions happen during taxi out for takeoff Heads UP: Some air carriers are now color coding taxi charts to tell the crew where it is less risky to have heads down programming the FMS, etc. Difficult intersections may be coded red.. RIIEP: Runway Incursion Incident Evaluation Program – this program, now defunct, had pilots who caused an incursion fill out a questionnaire about what happened. The percentage shown are from the 2007 results and mean Of pilots that had an incursion and participated in the program 72 percent of those pilots did not write down taxi routes and clearances 47 percent did not use the airport diagram during taxi
• The airspace is becoming increasingly more complex and congested. As a result there are more opportunities for Deviations and Incursions . New pilots must be made aware of this and experienced pilots must be kept up to date as to the changes and increased risks. Distraction or being unaware can be deadly, it is not necessarily a lack of knowledge, more often it’s a lack of the application of knowledge that causes Pilot Deviations. The knowledge must include that of risk mitigation as well as the rules and procedures. That’s the complete package we must deliver to our students.
• Check your student’s knowledge of operational requirements of the various airspaces. Do not assume that more experienced pilots have the knowledge and understanding needed to operate safely. You might create an example by asking some airspace questions during flight training at a point when it might be DISTRACTING.
• Many opportunities for Pilot Deviations in and around Special Use and Restricted Airspace due to a lack of knowledge or awareness. The DC SFRA is a perfect example, who doesn’t know that it exists? But, the airspace continues to be violated.
• Airspace deviations are indeed a major problem, but they are not the only kind of deviation a pilot can run into.
• Let’s talk about some tips and tricks that pilots can use to prevent deviations and runway incursions from happening. Does anyone have any suggestions or tricks that have been useful for them?
• Situational awareness, Single Pilot Resource Management (SRM), knowledge, and common sense will all serve the G/A pilot well. How do we teach these important elements? We can share knowledge and procedures, can we teach Situational Awareness and common sense? That is the challenge we face in our attempt to mitigate the danger of Pilot Deviations.
• ### Pilot deviations including runway incursions module 8 core topic 15

1. 1. Presented to: Instructors and Pilot Examiners By: The FAASTeam Date: July 1 to September 30, 2012 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeamFAASTeam CFI Workshop 8CFI Workshop 8 Module 8, Core Topics 15: Pilot Deviations Including Runway Incursions
2. 2. 2Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 Module 8 – Core Topic 15 Pilot Deviations, Including Runway Incursions: • Educate your students to recognize the potential for Pilot Deviations during all Areas of Operation • Create and demonstrate situations that will enable students to experience various types of Pilot Deviations first hand in the training environment. • Teach and practice strategies to mitigate Pilot Deviations dependant on distractions and/or cockpit confusion. Are all of your students registered at FAASafety.gov?
3. 3. 3Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Definitions What is a runway incursion? Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Definition according to ICAO
4. 4. 4Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Definitions What is a pilot deviation? A pilot deviation (PD) is an action of a pilot that violates any Federal Aviation Regulation. Definition according to Department of Transportation
5. 5. 5Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Definitions What is an Operational Error? An operational error (OE) is an action of an air traffic controller that results in: Less than the required minimum separation between two or more aircraft, or between an aircraft and obstacles (e.g., vehicles, equipment, personnel on runways). An aircraft landing or departing on a runway closed to aircraft. Definition according to Department of Transportation
6. 6. 6Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Definitions What is a vehicle/pedestrian deviation? A vehicle or pedestrian deviation (V/PD) includes pedestrians, vehicles, or other objects interfering with aircraft operations by entering or moving on the movement area without authorization from air traffic control. Definition according to Department of Transportation
7. 7. 7Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 http://www.faa.gov/airports/runway_safety
8. 8. 8Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
9. 9. 9Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
10. 10. 10Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category D Little or no chance of collision but meets the definition of a runway incursion Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
11. 11. 11Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category C Separation decreases but there is ample time and distance to avoid a potential collision Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
12. 12. 12Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category B Separation decreases and there is a significant potential for collision Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
13. 13. 13Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category A Separation decreases and participants take extreme action to narrowly avoid a collision, or the event results in a collision Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
14. 14. 14Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category E Does not fit into any other category Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
15. 15. 15Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
16. 16. 16Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
17. 17. 17Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
18. 18. 18Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
19. 19. 19Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
20. 20. 20Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
21. 21. 21Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
22. 22. 22Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
23. 23. 23Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 What can you do to reduce runway incursions? • Plan your surface operations • Employ cockpit discipline • Understand taxi procedures • Make proper use of aircraft lights • Use proper communication techniques • Understand/recognize airport signs and markings • STAY ALERT – Look both ways prior to crossing any runways!
24. 24. 24Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Planning Surface Operations • Pre plan taxi routes at departure and destination airports • Ensure you have an accurate, up to date airport diagram available • Review NOTAM’s and ATIS for possible construction impacts – rwy/twy closures • Look for “hot spots” – Jeppesen airport diagrams – FAA charts
25. 25. 25Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Verify Compass heading to confirm proper runway taxiway selection.
26. 26. 26Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Cockpit Discipline • Minimize distractions during critical phases – Taxi for takeoff is where majority of RIs occur – Delay checklists and “cleanup” until off the runway • Recognize when you need to have “heads up” – Any time the plane is moving but… – Especially when approaching a runway or an intersecting taxiway • Write down taxi routes and clearances – From RIIEP – 72% of pilots who had incursion DID NOT • Use the airport diagram during taxi – From RIIEP – 47% of pilots who had Rwy inc DID NOT • Verbalize critical instructions to other crew members – Hold Short or Crossing instructions
27. 27. 27Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Pilot Deviations What’s the Problem?
28. 28. 28Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012
29. 29. 29Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 • TFR – Temporary Flight Restriction • SFRA – Special Flight Rules Area • MOA – Military Operations Area • ADIZ – Air Defense Identification Zone • Prohibited – From the surface to defined limit • Alert – Informs of a high volume of aerial activity • Warning – Areas 3 NM beyond the US coast, possible hazardous activity
30. 30. 30Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Other Possible Deviations • Altitude • Heading • Course • Speed • Crossing restrictions
31. 31. 31Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 Helpful Tips • Watch where you are going! • Pay attention! • When in doubt, ask for help! • Don’t rush • Don’t cut corners • Use the checklist • Keep maps, diagrams and flight plans available • Use reminders
32. 32. 32Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 SITUATIONAL AWARENESS WILL SAVE YOUR LIFE!
33. 33. 33Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 Module 8, Core Topic #15 Questions? Comments? Ideas? Quiz time ~
34. 34. 34Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 1. The before take-off checklist should be completed while taxing. a. True b. False 2. At a Towered airport, if you are unsure of where to taxi after landing, you should a. Consult your taxi chart b. Ask ATC c. Ask you co-pilot or passenger d. Taxi around until you find your destination on the airport.
35. 35. 35Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 3. Should the pilot read-back “all” takeoff and landing clearances, including the runway designator?? a. Yes b. No 4. Only “read-back” an ATC clearance when on an “IFR” flight plan. a. True b. False
36. 36. 36Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 5. Which of the following areas are major contributors to Pilot Deviations in general? a. Communications b. Airport Knowledge c. Cockpit procedures for maintaining orientation d. Distraction e. All of the above Answers Follow –
37. 37. 37Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 1. The before take-off checklist should be completed while taxing. a. True b. False b. False - Airplane Flying Handbook 2. At a Towered airport, if you are unsure of where to taxi after landing, you should a. Consult your taxi chart b. Ask ATC c. Ask you co-pilot or passenger d. Taxi around until you find your destination on the airport. b. Ask ATC - Airplane Flying Handbook
38. 38. 38Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 3. Should the pilot read-back “all” takeoff and landing clearances, including the runway designator?? “YES” – FAA, Office of Runway Safety. 4. Only “read-back” an ATC clearance when on an “IFR” flight plan. True or False? “False’ – AIM, Section 5 and Airplane Flying Handbook
39. 39. 39Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 5. Which of the following areas are major contributors to Pilot Deviations in general? a. Communications b. Airport Knowledge c. Cockpit procedures for maintaining orientation d. Distraction e. All of the above e. All of the above - Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA- H-8083-3A) page 1-5
40. 40. 40Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 July 1 through September 30, 2012 This CompletesThis Completes CFI Workshop Module 8CFI Workshop Module 8 ANDAND The Second CFI Workshop SeriesThe Second CFI Workshop Series CONGRATULATIONS!CONGRATULATIONS!