Insular cortex

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  • Insular cortex

    1. 1. Insular CortexJack Bellingham & Sorfina Zainal
    2. 2. Location✦ centre of the cerebral hemisphere
    3. 3. Functions✦ interoceptive awareness - senses within body✦ motor control✦ homeostasis - stability within body✦ social emotions✦ emotions✦ self-awareness✦ perception✦ cognitive functioning
    4. 4. Studies✦ Dr. Andrea Caria: ✦ generation of signals & if it supports the function of emotions ✦ 3 groups: specific, unspecific or no feedback about extent of activation ✦ assessed visual emotional stimuli (fMRI); used specialized imaging technique (negative and neutral pictures) ✦ results: specific - increased activity & perceived negative pictures as more unpleasant; unspecific & no feedback - not able to increase activity & showed no changes in emotional response ✦ voluntary control of activity in emotionally important brain systems is possible - clinical treatment of emotional disorders
    5. 5. Studies✦ Dreher & Sescousse ✦ verify hypothesis on desires being assessed in same brain area ✦ game that rewarded 18 volunteers with money or erotic images ✦ brain monitored with fMRI ✦ results: desires evaluated in cerebral region (including insula); brain activity was within that region - addiction (gambling)
    6. 6. Studies✦ Rilling ✦ compare neurobiology of humans & other primates - comparison of grey & white matter ✦ range of imaging and analytical techniques used on chimpanzees & bonobos (voxel-based morphometry - technique allows investigation in brain) ✦ results: bonobos had more developed circuitry in limbic system & pathway connecting amygdala and cortex is larger - more emotional; empathy ✦ less developed insula - more aggression
    7. 7. Damage✦ immunosuppression✦ apathy✦ loss of libido
    8. 8. Thank You

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