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Hvac - presentation (Air conditioning presentation)

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General overview of HVAC Technology
General overview of VRF Technology
Benefits of VRF
General overview of Refrigerant
General overview of Ton
General overview of Compressor

Published in: Engineering

Hvac - presentation (Air conditioning presentation)

  1. 1. CIS Electricals Pvt. Ltd. MD KHURSHID ALAM M.TECH ENGINEER Email- sm.arzoo111@gmail.com Ph- +91 8750848018 HVAC- Presentation: HVAC Overview
  2. 2. General overview of HVAC Technology General overview of VRF Technology Benefits of VRF General overview of Refrigerant General overview of Ton General overview of Compressor
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION: Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality.
  4. 4. What Is Air-Conditioning? Air-Conditioning Means control of five parameter First modern electrical air conditioning unit was invented by Willis Carrier in 1902 at Buffalo, New York
  5. 5. Total Air- conditioning Solution Air Movement & circulation Temperature Control Humidity Control Noise Level Indoor Air Quality
  6. 6. Refrigeration Cycle:
  7. 7. Working of Refrigeration Cycle: 1. COMPRESSOR: There are two function of compressor:  Refrigerant flow create.  Pressure difference create. 2. CONDENSOR: There are two function of condenser:  Release the heat of refrigerant.  Convert vapor to liquid refrigerant.
  8. 8. Drier ( Receiver/Accumulator): Filtration of refrigerant. Silica Gel: Absorption of moisture. 3. EXPANSION DEVICE: Controls the amount of refrigerant flow. 4. EVAPORATOR: There are two function of evaporator:  Absorption of heat energy.  Convert liquid to vapor refrigerant.
  9. 9. Types of Air-Conditioning:  Window Air-Conditioning System  Split Air-Conditioning System  Packaged Air-Conditioning System  Central Air-Conditioning System
  10. 10. Window Air-Conditioning System:  In this air conditioner all the components namely the compressor, condenser ,expansion valve, evaporator and cooling coil are enclosed in a single box  Window air-conditioning system are one of the most commonly used and cheapest type of air conditioners.  Window air conditioner units are reliable and simple-to- install solution to keep a room cool while avoiding the costly construction of a central air system.  Capacity up to 5 tons
  11. 11. Split Air-Conditioning system:  The split air conditioner comprises of two parts the outdoor unit and the indoor unit.  Outdoor unit consists of compressor, condenser and expansion valve.  Indoor unit consists of evaporator or cooling coil and cooling fan.
  12. 12. Package Air-Conditioning System:  They are used where the cooling loads extend beyond 20 tons.  All the components are housed in a same box.  Cooled air is thrown by the high capacity blower, and it flows through the duct laid through various rooms.  They are of two types PACS i) air cooled ii) water cooled
  13. 13. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) System:  Variable refrigerant flow (VRF), also known as variable refrigerant volume (VRV), VRFs use refrigerant as the cooling and heating medium.
  14. 14. Heat Pump versus Heat pump with Heat Recovery
  15. 15. Heat Pump:
  16. 16. Outdoor Unit Indoor Units Controls System Heat Pump:
  17. 17. Heat Pump with Heat Recovery: Simultaneous Cooling & Heating
  18. 18. Heat Pump with Heat Recovery: Simultaneous Cooling & Heating Branch Circuit Controller Indoor Units Controls System Outdoor Unit
  19. 19. Outdoor Unit:  Controls compressor speed  Controls condenser fan speed  Controls pressure of refrigerant to maximize capacity and efficiency
  20. 20. Branch Circuit (BC) Controller: Separates refrigerant into gas and liquid Ensures units in heating receive superheated gas Ensures units in cooling receive sub-cooled liquid
  21. 21. Indoor Units: Sense the space temperature Contain a Linear Expansion Valve (LEV) that automatically modulates Allow the precise amount of refrigerant through the heat exchanger Filter and distributes air
  22. 22. Controls System: Integrated sequence of operation Takes input from the user and provides feedback to the system
  23. 23. What are the benefits of VRF? Two-pipe System INVERTER Technology Multiple Indoor Units Variable Capacity System Zoning System Complete Control Offering
  24. 24. What Is Refrigerant: Refrigerant is a fluid. Chemically use in cooling machine. Refrigerant Color Codes: Number Type Picture Color Refrig. Name R-22 HCFCs hydrochlor ofluorocarb on Light Green Monochlorodifluoro methane CHClF2
  25. 25. Number Type Picture Color Refrig. Name R-134a HFCs hydrofluor ocarbons Light Sky Blue Tetrafluoroethane CH2FCF3 R-410A HFCs hydrofluor ocarbons Rose R-32 + R-125 Difluoromethane CH2F2 +CHF2CF3 R-407C HFCs hydrofluor ocarbons Chocolate Brown R-32 + R-125 + R-134a CH2F2 +CHF2CF3+CH2FCF3
  26. 26. Suction And Discharge Pressure Of Refrigerant: PSI – Pounds per square inch Refrigerant Suction (PSIG) Discharge (PSIG) Stand By (PSIG) R-22 60 265 150 R-134a 40 – 45 180 - 190 75 - 80 R-407 c 70 - 80 270 – 280 150 R-410A 100 - 110 380 – 400 220
  27. 27. Ton Of Refrigeration: R AC 1 TR ICE 1 TR AC Ton of Refrigeration foot-pound- second (fps) System: 1 Ton = 2000 (lb) Latent heat of ice = 144 btu/lb 2000 x 144 = 2,88,000 btu/day 2,88,000/24 = 12000 btu/ hr 12000/60 = 200 btu/min 200/60 = 3.333 btu/sec Note- 1 Tr = 12000 btu/sec
  28. 28. Ton of Refrigeration Meter, Kilogram, Second, (MKS) System: 1 Ton = 907 kg Latent heat of ice = 80 kcl/kg 907 x 80 = 72000 kcl 72000/ 24 = 3000 kcl/hr 3000/60 = 50 kcl/min 50/60 = 0.833 kcl/sec Note- 1 kw = 0.24 kcl/sec
  29. 29. COMPRESSOR: It is a heart of refrigeration system: A Compressor is a device used to increase the low pressure of air to High pressure. Types of compressor:  Reciprocating Compressor.  Scroll Compressor.  Screw Compressor.  Centrifugal Compressor.
  30. 30. Reciprocating Compressor:  The reciprocating compressor are slowly being phased out because power consumption of 0.94 kw per ton.  There maintenance cost is high due to a large number of moving parts. Scroll Compressor:  The scroll compressor are slowly replacing the reciprocating compressor in capacity up to 40 tons.  These compressor are more efficient requiring approx. 0.75 kw per ton.  They are maintenance free since they are rotary type with minimum moving parts.
  31. 31. Screw compressor:  These compressor are replacement for large size reciprocating compressor and are available in much large capacity then reciprocating unit.  They have a high efficiency between 0.68 to 0.75 kw per ton.  The require minimum maintenance since there are less moving parts. Centrifugal compressor:  These compressor are meant for large capacity between 200 tons to 2500 tons.  They have the highest efficiency which can be as high as 0.62 kw per tons.
  32. 32. They require more maintenance then screw compressor but are preferred for their large capacity range. Motor Winding: (TERMINAL COVER)  COMMON.  STARTING.  RUNNING. Common Starting Running
  33. 33. Continuity, Resistance(Ω) or winding Testing: Continuity is OK between common and starting terminal. Continuity is OK between common and running terminal. Continuity is OK between starting and running terminal. Continuity is OK between starting and common terminal. Continuity is OK between running and starting terminal. Continuity is OK between running and common terminal.
  34. 34. Ground Testing: Continuity is NOT OK between Common and Earth terminal. Continuity is NOT OK between Starting and Earth terminal. Continuity is NOT OK between Running and Earth terminal.
  35. 35. Compressor testing: Common Starting Running 19.1 Ω63.2 Ω 82.7 Ω Lowest valueMedium value Highest value
  36. 36. Find out compressor motor terminal:  Resistance is lowest between common and running.  Resistance is Medium between common and starting.  Resistance is Highest between starting and running. Find out common: Common Starting Running 19.1 Ω63.2 Ω 82.7 Ω CRCS SR
  37. 37. To start compressor without relay: Common Starting Running Starting winding Running winding N P
  38. 38. Check the quality of the broken comp.’s oil. the oil has turn bad.  Push out the bad oil inside the other compressors.  Change the accumulator and oil separator  Use high pressure nitrogen to purge the system and  Then add necessary refrigerant oil.  Vacuuming and add refrigerant. Carbonized oil
  39. 39. Effect of poor maintenance on compressor power consumption Condition Te (0C) Tc (0C) Refrigeration Capacity* (TR) Specific Power Consumption (kW/TR) Increase kW/TR (%) Normal 7.2 40.5 17.0 0.69 - Dirty condenser 7.2 46.1 15.6 0.84 20.4 Dirty evaporator 1.7 40.5 13.8 0.82 18.3 Dirty condenser and evaporator 1.7 46.1 12.7 0.96 38.7
  40. 40. MAIN CAUSE OF COMPRESSOR FAILURE:  Bad Vacuum.  Moisture in compressor.  Insufficient oil.  Carbonized oil.  Weak Capacitor.  Terminal rusty.  Loose connection.  Low voltage.  Low Refrigerant.  High Refrigerant.  Chocked Condenser.  Low speed of Outdoor fan due to weak capacitor.
  41. 41. COPPER PIPE LEAKE PROBLEM:  Due to not proper Brazing.  Due to not proper tight of flaring point.  Due to not proper insulation.  Due to near carbon mono- oxide formation.  Due to pinch.  Due to not proper bend.  Due to corrosion.  Vibration at suction valve and discharge valve for this install rubber pad at four side of the outdoor unit.
  42. 42. COPPER PIPE SIZING DETAILS: TUBE OD WALL THICKNESS Temper DesignPre ssure Weight Working Pressure Inch mm mm swg (N/mm2) kg/mt (kg/cm2 or bar) 1/4" 6.35 0.80 21 soft 46.00 0.125 132.6 3/8" 9.53 0.80 21 soft 46.00 0.196 84.3 1/2" 12.7 0.80 21 soft 46.00 0.268 61.8 5/8" 15.88 0.99 19 soft 46.00 0.414 61.2 3/4", 6/8" 19.05 0.99 19 soft 46.00 0.507 51.0 3/4", 6/8" 19.05 0.80 21 Hard 72.50 0.410 63.6 7/8" 22.22 0.80 21 Hard 72.50 0.482 54.2 1" 25.4 0.88 20.5 Hard 72.50 0.607 52.0 1 1/8" 28.58 0.99 19 Hard 72.50 0.768 52.0 1 1/4" 31.75 1.10 18.5 Hard 72.50 0.948 52.0 1 3/8" 34.93 1.21 18 Hard 72.50 1.147 52.0 1 1/2" 38.1 1.32 17.5 Hard 72.50 1.365 52.0 1 5/8" 41.28 1.43 17 Hard 72.50 1.602 52.0
  43. 43. THANK YOU

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