central air conditioning system

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central air conditioning system

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING AND SURVEYING, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA, PERAK GROUP ASSIGNMENT DIPLOMA IN ESTATE MANAGEMENT EMT 257 BUILDING SERVICES & EQUIPMENT TITLE: CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM PREPARED FOR: MISS NUR ILYANA BAZLIN BINTI MD NOR NAME MATRIC NO. NUR HIDAYAH ADILAH BINTI MALEK 2011641458 NURUL ATIQAH BT MAHADI 2011260236 NOR AIN BT MOHD MUSTAFA KAMAL 2011297788 FATEN ATHIRAH BT OTHMAN 2011289296 MUHAMMAD FAISAL B NGATIMIN 2011296496
  2. 2. DEFINITION OF AIRCONDITIONING   Process of altering the properties of air mainly of two things which are temperature and humidity to more favorable conditions Process of altering the properties of air mainly of two things which are temperature and humidity to more favorable conditions
  3. 3. TYPES OF AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM
  4. 4. CENTRAL AC SYSTEM Split-system Packaged Unit An outdoor metal cabinet contains the condenser and compressor, and an indoor cabinet contains the evaporator The evaporator, condenser, and compressor are all located in one cabinet, which usually is placed on a roof or on the ground
  5. 5. PORTABLE AC SYSTEM Consists of a mobile selfcontained air conditioning unit that is placed on the floor inside a room and discharges exhaust heat using a hose vent through an exterior wall A bit noisier
  6. 6. ROOM AC SYSTEM
  7. 7. DUCTLESS AC SYSTEM also known as a mini split system perfect where there is no overhead attic or crawl space Consists of the following components such as indoor air handling unit, outdoor condensing unit and remote controller
  8. 8. CASE STUDY
  9. 9. DEFINITION OF CENTRAL AC SYSTEM  The central air – conditioning system is suitable for a large building which is required a very high air cooling such as cinema, hotel, hospital, supermarket and etc. This system is commonly use in a new building.
  10. 10. DEFINITION OF CENTRAL AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM A method of structural cooling in which a centralized unit cools and dehumidifies air before circulating it throughout the building The main unit is located outdoors or in isolated area of a building
  11. 11. Method of cooling To cool down the hot and high pressure refrigerant gas that travels from compressor to condenser. It provides ease during the condensation which occurs in the condenser where refrigerant gas changes into liquid form.
  12. 12. Water Cooling Method Water from cooling tower is used to remove heat There is a ball float inside the cooling tower to ensure the water is at specified level The process of heat extraction in cooling tower is known as evaporation process whereby the water is cooled by a fan and the heat will evaporate into air to cool the water Cooling tower functions to cool down the hot water that flows from the condensed water return pipe (CWR) Italso supplies cooled water to condenser through condensed water supply pipe.
  13. 13. COMPONENTS
  14. 14. COMPRESSOR   i. ii. iii.  A pump or other machine that increases the pressure of a gas. Three basics types of compressor: Reciprocating Rotary screw Rotary centrifugal Types of compressor are specified by the number of compression stage, a cooling method, lubrication and packaged or custom built
  15. 15. AIR HANDLING UNIT ROOM      Also known as AHU Shaped like box that content equipment with a blower, condenser, compressor and expansion valve A function is to suck air from the rooms and let it pass through air filters then discharging the cooled air back to the rooms. Located at the top of building and the door of room is always closed Removable panels are installed with reason a personnel can enter for maintenance
  16. 16. RETURN AIR INLETS     This component is to regulate and extract air from a room and recycle it Use of any ventilating, heating and air conditioning The air will force air process which blows through the duct Located either in hallway or in the ceiling at AHU Rooms
  17. 17. COOL AIR DISPENSER   A place that a cooled air passes over the air filter and is through by the supply air ducts into the space which to be air conditioned Located at the top of ceiling and it will come in several types
  18. 18. TYPE OF GAS THAT USED AS REFRIGERANT    Chlorodifluoromethane also known hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) Usually known as R22 gas Very high quality and competitive price
  19. 19. Condenser    Condenser is a component which acts as a heat exchanger that is being used in airconditioning system. The purpose of condenser is to change the hot gas that is released by the compressor to liquid form Types of condenser; WaterAir-cooled condenser cooled condenser Evaporative condenser
  20. 20. Case study: Water-cooled condenser   1. 2. 3.   It uses water from the cooling tower to remove the heat from the high temperature gas in the compressor. The capacity of water-cooled condenser depends on; the temperature from the water the amount of water circulated temperature of the gas. The capacity increases with the temperature difference between gas and water. There are two pipes of condenser which are Condensed Water Return (CWR) and Condensed
  21. 21. Cross-section of water-cooled condenser The condenser in Air Handling Unit Room
  22. 22. Cooling method in condenser It will flow back through condensed water return (CWR) pipe and enter cooling tower for the process of cooling Water that flows in the condensed water supply (CWS) pipe will enter condenser Once the heat is absorbed, the cooled water will turn into hot water as it has absorbed heat The water is used to absorb heat from the hot compressed refrigerant gas that flows from compressor
  23. 23. Cooling tower at Dewan Seri Iskandar
  24. 24. PROCESS Cooling tower and AHU controller buttons are switched on. Water tank supply water to cooling tower. Cooling tower cooler and filter the water before it enters condenser. Refrigerant turns into highly pressured liquid and enters TXV. The gaseous travel into condenser and cold water used to cool the hot gaseous. Condensation process occur here. In AHU, compressor compress the refrigerant used; R22 gas causes it to turn into hot and highly pressured gas. TXV controls the flows of the refrigerant which causes it to reduce pressure. When pressure reduced, refrigerant expand and its temperature drops Refrigerant enters evaporator coil. Lower pressure in evaporator causes refrigerant to evaporate. It absorbs heat and turns cold gaseous.
  25. 25. COMMON PROBLEMS Bad odour Faulty wiring Leaky ducts and low airflow Low refrigerant
  26. 26. MAINTENANCE Refrigerant gas Cleaning Belting Clean the filter at the air – conditioning system Electric control
  27. 27. ADVANTAGES Improves indoor air quality Level of indoor noise is almost negligible Maintains a constant temperature and humidity throughout the conditioned space
  28. 28. DISADVANTAGES The size for the AC unit The cost of installing the system
  29. 29. THANK YOU 

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