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YANTROPAKARANANI-II
EQUIPMENTS ,FUEL AND HEATING DEVICES
DEFINITION AND TYPE OF PUTA
• The Puta is defined as the quantum of heat required to process
a drug, neither over processed nor under processed but
optimally processed so as the drug can exert the desired
pharmacological effect
रसादि द्रव्यपाकप्रमाण ज्ञापनं पुटम्।
नेष्टोन्यूनादिकः पाकः सुपाक
ं दितमौषिम्।।
(R.Chu 5/144,RRS 10/47)
• Subjecting the Dhatu (Loha etc.) to heating system using the
Upalas fuel is known as Puta
• िातुषुपलेन्दनिािः पुटम् |
PROCEDURE
• The material is to be subjected to Bhavana and Chakrika are
prepared.
• The dried Chakrika/pellets are placed inside a suitable Sharava and it
is placed for drying under sunlight.
• After drying it is closed using another Sharava of the same size.
• Sandhibandhana: Cement the joints of the sharava with clay and
cloth: Sharava Samputa.
• Subjected to heat system using Puta.
TYPES OF PUTA
Based on fuel used
• Tusha putam
• Karisha putam
• Upala putam
• Khadiradi khasta
(Based on Sharangadhara
Samhita, Deepika commentary)
• Girinda ,Kashta, Kolisha etc
Based on the size/quantum of heat
• Kukkuta puta
• Varaha puta
• Gaja puta etc
PUTA UTILITY
पुटाद्दोषदिनाशः स्यात्पुटािेिगुणोियः।
दियते च पुटाल्लोिः पुटं तस्मात् समाचरेत्|| (R.S.S 1/311)
लोिािेपुुनर्ाुिो गुणादिक्यं ततोऽग्रता।
अनप्सु मज्जनं रेखापूणुता पुटतो र्िेत् ॥
पुटाि् ग्राब्णो लघुत्वं च शीघ्रव्याप्तिश्र्च िीपनम् ।
जाररताि् दप सूतेन्द्राल्लोिानामदिको गुण: ॥
यथाऽश्मदन दिशेद्वदिर्ुदिस्थपुटयोगत: ।
चूणुत्वाप्ति गुणािाप्तिस्तथा लोिेषु दनप्तश्र्चतम् ॥
(र.र.स.१०/४९-५०)
Advantages of Puta
• Lightness in Guru Dravya
• Increased bioavailability
• Apunarbhavatva: converts into compound form: does not regain its
original metallic form when subjected to Puta after admixing with
Mitra panchaka.
• Gunadikya: size reduction, addition of organic principles during
bhavana,
• Impurities and toxic principles are removed.
• Varitaratva
• Rekhapurnata
अनुक्तपुट
अनुक्तपुटमाने तु साध्यद्रव्यर्लार्लात् ।
पुटं दिज्ञाय िातव्यमूिापोिदिचक्षणः ।।६४।। (R.R.S 10)
When the type of Puta has not been specified for a particular
Dravya,then it is advised to apply one’s skill, wisdom and
experience: by trial and error method.
Puta to be continued till Vaaritaratva is obtained.
SURYA PUTA
द्रव्याणां र्ादितानान्तु र्ािनौषिज रस: ।
शोषणं सूयुतापे यत् तत् सूयुपुटमुच्यते || (R.T 3/37)
• After subjecting the drug material to suitable bhavana with
specified liquid preparations, the drug is impregnated with these
liquids and placed daily under hot sun until the liquid dries up.
• e.g : Shilajatu shodana,Bhanu paka of Loha choorna.
• Also known as Roudraputa.
CHANDRA PUTA
• After subjecting the drug material to suitable bhavana with specified
liquid preparations, the drug is impregnated with these liquids and
placed daily under moonlight until the liquid dries up.
• e.g : Pravala bhasma.(Rasatantrasara and Siddhaprayoga Sangraha)
MAHA PUTA
दनम्नदिस्तरत : क
ु ण्डे दद्विस्ते चतुरस्त्रक
े ।
िनोत्पलसिस्त्रेण पूररते पुट्नौषिम् ॥
क्रौच्यां रुिं प्रयत्नेन दपदष्टकोपरर दनदक्षपेत् ।
िनोत्पलसिस्त्रिु क्रौदचकोपरर दिन्यसेत् ॥
िदिं प्रज्वालयेत्तत्र मिापुटदमिं स्मृतम् ॥
(र.र.स. १०/५१-५२)
References RT RRS
Measurements Half vyama 2 Hastha
Number of upala Not
specified
1500
One hasta=45.72 cm, 1 vyama= 182.88 10
GAJA PUTA
राजिस्तप्रमाणेन् चतुरस्रं च दनम्नकम् ।
पूणुञ्चोपलसाठीदर्: कण्ठािध्यथ दिन्यसेत् ॥
दिन्यसेत्क
ु मुिीं तत्र पुटनद्रव्यपूररताम् ।
पूणुच्छगणतोऽिाुदन दगररण्डादन दिदनदक्षपेत् ।।
एतद्गजपुटं प्रोक्तं मिागुणदिियकम् ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५३-५४)
मारण of लोि, अभ्रक,मादक्षक,दिमल
Rajahasta=55.88 cm 11
GAJAPUTA DIMENSIONS
References RRS RPS RT
Measurements 1 Raja hasta
30A
1 Raja hasta 1 Nrupakara
Number of upala Not specified 1000 Not specified
VARAHA PUTA
• इत्थं चारदत्नक
े क
ु ण्डे पुटं िारािमुच्यते ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५५)
• A cubical pit of 1 Aratni -22 A=41.91cm (l*b*d) is prepared.
• The pit is filled with dry cow dung cakes up to the neck.
• Over that samputita dravya is placed.
• Above that half of the previously placed dry cow dung cakes are
heaped and ignited.
• Around 150 upala.
KUKKUTA PUTA
पुटं र्ूदमतले यत्तदद्वतप्तस्तदद्वतयोच्छ्र्यम् ।
तािच्च तलदिस्तीणु तत्स्यात्क
ु क्क
ु टक
ं पुटम् ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५६)
• Dimensions : 2 Vitasthi (l*b*d) (1 Vitasthi=22.86 cm)
• The cow dung cakes (50-60) may be heaped upon the ground around
the samputita dravya and ignited.
KAPOTA PUTA
यत्पुटं िीयते र्ूमािष्टसंख्यिुनोपल: ।
र्ििा सूतकर्स्माथु कपोतपुटमुच्यते ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५७)
• Eight cow dung cakes are heaped upon the ground, around the
enclosed medicinal drugs and ignited.
• Aushadha Dravya quantity : less than or equal to 5 tola.
LAVAKA PUTA
ऊर्ध्वं षोडदशका मात्रस्तुषिाु गोिर: पुटम् ।
यत्र तल्लािकाख्यं स्यात्सुमृिुद्रव्यसािनम् ॥ (र.र.स. १०/६३)
• powder of natural cow dung cakes or the husk : 1 Shodashika/1 Pala.
• heaped upon the ground, around the samputitha dravya and ignited.
• For Mrudu Dravya.
BHUDHARA PUTA
िदिदमत्रां दक्षतौ सम्यङ
् दनखन्याद्वयङ
् गुलािि: ।
उपररष्टात्पुटं यत्र पुटं ति् र्ूिराह्वयम ॥(र.र.स.१०/६२)
• A small pit is made on the ground and samputita dravya is placed
inside with 2 Angula of sand on all sides.
• Heat is applied from above by heaping the dry cow dung cakes.
GORVARA PUTA
गोष्ठान्तगोक्षुरक्षुण्णं शुष्क
ं चूदणुतगोमयम् ।
गोर्रं तत्समादिष्टं िररष्ठं रससािने ॥
गोर्रिाु तुषिाुदप पुटं यत्र प्रिीयते ।
तद्गोर्रपुटं प्रोक्तं दसिये रसर्स्मन: ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५८-५९)
• Dry Gobar/cowdung powder is taken : which got powdered by the
hooves of cows in cowshed –due to stamping.
• Mix it with Tusha
• Used in Parada Bhasma.
VALUKA PUTA
अिस्तािुपररष्टाच्च क्रौदञ्चकाऽऽच्छाध्यते खलु।
र्ालुकादर् : प्रतिादर्युत्र तद्वालुकापुटम् ॥ (र.र.स.१०/६१)
• If the clean dry sand /Valuka is filled in a selected bigger mud pot and
used for the application of heat-puta will be called as Valuka puta.
KUMBHA / BHANDA PUTA
स्थूलर्ाण्डे तुषापूणे मध्ये मूषासमप्तिते ।
िदिना दिदिते पाक
े तद्भाण्डपुटमुच्यते ॥
(र.र.स. १०/६०)
• If the husk is filled in a selected bigger mud pot and used for the
application of heat, the puta will be called as Kumbha puta.
• According to Bhavaprakasha:The bhanda should be closed with a lid
after igniting the tusha/husk.
1.Puta is a specific system of heating for the incineration metals and
minerals.
2.For the hard/soft/inorganic :according to heat resistance ,various Puta has
been described.
3.According to the quantity of fuel: Mahaputa, Gajaputa, Varahaputa,
Kukkutaputa, Kapotaputa, Gorbaraputa, Bhanda and Tusha etc puta are
mentioned.
4.Each and every Puta have different dimensions.
5.Intensity of heat, Mode of Temperature and Time duration depends upon
the Puta.
6. According to the heat resistance of the material,Puta are selected and
applied for the Marana purpose.
Name of
puta Dimension
s
Classical
Metr
ic
(in
cms)
Total
number of
Upalas
Probable
Max Temp.
(In hours)
Metals/ Minerals
Incinerated
Mahaputa 2 Hasta 91 1500 10000C Tamra, Parada,
Swarna, Hiraka
Gajaputa 1 Rajahasta 57 1000 10000C Parada, Tamra,
Trivanga
Kukkutaput
a
2 Vitasti 46 100 10000C ½hr Parada, Swarna,
Lauha
Varahaputa 1 Aratni 42 500 10000C ½hr Abhraka, Tamra,
Swarnamakshika
Laghuputa 8 Upala 23 8 8000C ½hr Abhraka,
Swarna, Rajata
Bhudaraputa - 20 - 1400C ½hr Parada, Somala
Gorbaraputa 1 Vitasti-
Height
23 Upala
churna
4000C 4hrs Parada bhasma
Bhanadaput
a
Brihat
Bhanda
1700 - 4000C 8 hrs Haritala, Somala
Valukaputa Brihat
Bhanda
1700
0
- 4000C 8 hrs Pittala, Haritala,
Somala
MUSHA
• मुष्णादत िोषान् मूषेयान् सा मूषेदत दनगध्यते । (र.र.स १०/२)
• Musha means that which relieves impurities from metals and
minerals.It eradicates the dosha of the drug subjected for heating.
• In order to extract metals from their minerals, to prepare alloys by
mixing two or more metals to liquefy the metals or to extracts etc.
musha is used.
मूषा
मूषा दि क्रौदञ्चका प्रोक्ता क
ु मुिी करिादटका ।
पाचनी िदिदमत्रा च रसिादिदर्रीयुते ॥ (र.र.स १०/१)
Synonyms: Kumudi,Krounchika,Karahatika,Pachani,Vahnimitra.
उपािानं र्िेत्तस्य मृदत्तका लोिमेि च । (र.र.स १०/३)
Essential requirements: Mruttika,Loha
मूषोपयोगी मृदत्तका –
मृदत्तका पाण्डुरस्थूलाऽशक
ु रा शोणपाण्डुरा ।
दचराध्मानसिा सा दि मूषाथुमदतशस्यते ॥
तिर्ािे च िाल्मीकी कौलाली िा समीयुते । (र.र.स १०/६)
• सशक
ु रा पाण्डुरा च िदितापसिा दचरम् ।
स्थूला च मृदत्तका या स्यात् मूषाथं स मतोत्तमा ॥ (र.त 3/6)
• क
ृ ष्णा रक्ता च पीता च शुक्लिणाु च मृदत्तका ।
आद्या श्रेष्ठा कदनष्ठाऽन्त्या मध्यमा मध्यमा मता ॥
(रसाणुि 4/30)
•दचक्कणा, दपप्तच्छल, गुरु, क
ृ ष्ण मृत् / पीत मृत्, दसकतादििदजुत
(शिालर्क्षतन्त्र)
TYPES
• Based on utility, shape, ingredients
• र.र.स – 17 types
• र.त – 9 types
• रसाणुि – 8 types
• रसेन्द्र चुडामदण – 17 types
• रस कामिेनु – शुष्क मूषा
• रसेन्द्र मङ्गल – पक्व मूषा, लोि मूषा, मूक मूषा
• रसरत्नाकर – िज्र मूषा(3 types), मूक मूषा, अन्ध मूषा,
दिद्र मूषा
SAMANYA MUSHA
या मृदत्तका िग्धतुष: शणेन दशप्तखत्रकिाु ियलदद्दना च |
लौिेन िण्डेन च क
ु दिता सा सािारणा स्यात्खलु मूदषकाथे ||
(र.र.स १०/७)
• श्वेताश्मानस्तुषा िग्धा: दशप्तखत्रा: शणखपुरे ।
लदद्द दकिं क
ृ ष्णमृत्सना संयोज्या मूदषकामृदि ॥ (र.र.स १०/८)
SAMANYA MUSHA
दशप्तखत्रकिुग्धतुषः शणेन सलदद्दका िण्डसुक
ु दिता च ।
या मृदत्तका तदद्वदिता तु मूषा सामान्यमूषा कदथता रसज्ञः ॥
(र.त ३/७)
Ingredients – Equal quantity of मृत्-mud
िग्ध तुषा-ash of husk
शण-burnt fibres of jute
दशप्तखत्र-Charcoal
िय लदद्द-Horse dung
GOSTHANI MUSHA
मूषा या गोस्तनाकारा दशखायुक्तदपिानका |
सत्वानां द्रािणे शुिौ मूषा सा गोस्तनी र्िेत् ||
(R.R.S 10/25 )
The crucible prepared in the shape of gosthana.
Lid of this crucible is prepared in inverted cone shape.
Used for sattwa extraction of selected metals and minerals.
VAJRA MUSHA
मृिप्तस्त्रर्ागा: शणलदद्दर्ागौ र्ागश्च दनिुग्धतुषोपलािे:|
दकिािुर्ागं पररखण्डय िज्रमूषां दििध्यात्खलु सत्वपाते ||
(R.R.S 10/9)
मृत् – 3 p
शण - 1 p
ियलदद्द – 1 p
िग्धतुषा – 1 p
उपल(श्वेताष्म चूणु) – 1 p
लोि दकि – ½ p
Uses – Satvapatana, Rasabandhana
Todaraananda – िग्धतुषा, िग्ध शण – 1 p each
मृत्, पाषाण – 1/4th p each
mardana with vajravalli drava
MAHA MUSHA
तले या क
ू पुराकारा क्रमािुपरर दिस्तृता |
स्थूलिृन्ताकित्स्थूला मिामूषेत्यसौ स्मृता |
सा चायो अभ्रकसत्वािे: पुटाय द्रािणाय च ||
(R.R.S.10/29)
Crucible having a narrow and strong base at the bottom.
Wide spacious body above.
Equal length and width.
Also called as sthula musha.
Sattva of loha abhraka swarna makshika etc.
YOGA MUSHA
िग्धाङगारतुषोपेता मृत्स्ना िल्मीकमृदत्तका |
तत्तदद्वडसमयुक्ता तत्तदिडदिलेदपता ||
तया या दिदिता मूषा योगमूषेदत कथ्यते |
अनया सादित: सूतो जायुते गुणित्तर: ||
(R.R.S 10/10-11 )
• िग्ध अङ्गार, िग्ध तुषा , मृत्, िल्मीक मृत्, दर्ड ,लेप with दर्ड
• Uses - सूत दसप्ति – पारिसािन कररका – पारि
• मारण, पारि जारण
VRNTAKA MUSHA
िृन्ताकाकारमूषायां नालं द्वािशकाङ
् गुलम् |
ित्तुरपुष्पिच्चोर्ध्वं सुदृढं प्तिष्टपुष्पित् ||
अष्टाङ् गुलञ्ज सप्तच्छद्रं सा स्याि् िृन्ताकमूदषका |
अनया खपुरािीनां मृिू नां सत्वमािरेत् ||
(R.R.S 10/23-24 )
Crucible of 12 A l*b.
Resembles the shape of brinjal.
Lid:shape of dhattura with a nadi of 8 A length.
Sattvapatana of Kharpara etc.
MALLA MUSHA
दनदिुष्टा मल्लमूषा या मल्लदद्वतय सम्पुटात् |
पपुट्यादिरसािीनां स्वेिनाय प्रकीदतुता ||
(र.र.स १०/२५)
Two sharavas sealed face to face.
Also called sharava samputa.
Used for preparation of Parpati etc.
MADANA MUDRA
औिुम्बराख्यिटिुग्धपलं पलं च लाक्षा पलमृदषपलं त्वथ चुम्बकस्य |
सङक
ु टयमानमतसीफलतलदमस्रं सूतस्य जारणदििौ मिनाख्यमुद्रा ||
आनन्दकन्द. पृ
Udumbara kshira:1 pala
Vata kshira:1 pala
Laksha rasa:1 pala
Chumbaka loha :7 pala.
Bhavana with Atasi thaila.
Acts as an adhesive.
HATA MUDRA
चुम्बक
ं लोिचूणं च क्रोडरक्तेन संयुतम् ।
तत्र सिं प्रिातव्यं घनघातेन ताडयेत् ॥
सन्ध्यारभ्योियो याित्सूयुदर्म्बं च दृश्यते ।
िठमुद्रेदत दिख्याता सिुदसिनुमस्क
ृ ता ॥ आनन्दकन्द. पृ
• Chumbaka loha choorna+ Kroudha rakta: Mardana for 12 hours.
• Mudra during Parada jarana.
SANDHI BANDHANA
मूषादपिानयोर्ुन्धे र्न्धनं सप्तन्धलेपनम् |
अन्ध्रणं रन्ध्रणं चि संप्तिष्टं सप्तन्धर्न्धनम्||
(R.R.S 10/5 )
The process of sealing the crucible and its pidanaka is called as
sandhibandhana.
It is also called as Sandhi lepana,randhrana,samslishta.
CRUCIBLES
• Crucible: A container that can withstand very high temperatures and is
used for metal processing as well as a number of modern laboratory
processes.
• For melting metals.
• Relatively high thermal conductivity
• Can withstand the action of abrasive or corrosive solids, liquids or gases at
high temperatures.
• Can withstand sudden change in temperature.
• Shouldn't react with the metal slag.
• Should conserve heat, have low coefficient of thermal expansion and
should not contaminate the material with which it comes in contact.
CRUCIBLES
• A vessel made of a refractory substances such as graphite,
porcelain etc., used for melting and calcining materials at very high
temperatures.
• Types – depending on type of material it is made of
Carbon bonded crucibles
Oxide refractory crucibles
Clay Graphite crucible
CRUCIBLE
• Carbon bonded crucible: comprises primarily of silicon carbide and
graphite with other refractory materials.
• Clay graphite crucibles: It contains high percentage of graphite with
some silicon carbide having a ceramic bond composed of clay and
other refractory material.
• Oxide refractory crucible: It comprises alumina silica, magnesia and
zircon etc
• Based on shape : ‘A’ shaped, Bilge shaped.
CRUCIBLE:
• Fused silica crucibles are used for melting gold, silver and other
precious metals at up to 2750F.
• Silicon carbide (SiC) crucibles are high quality melting crucibles: temp
up to 1600C and are suitable for smelting and refining precious
metals, base metals and other products.
Precautions to be taken
• Temper the new or stored crucible before use. Heat the empty
crucible for 2 hours at around 104C,then fire the empty crucible to
charred heat. Allow the crucible to cool at room temperature.
• Store all crucibles in dry area.
• Use proper flux/Vida/Dravaka Gana.
CERAMIC CRUCIBLES
• made of ceramic material such as kiln-fired clay.
• ceramics are non-metal, inorganic, crystalline/amorphous solids
that have been fired, cooled and glazed during their creation.
• silica, zircon, alumina, magnesite etc are the ceramics used to
prepare ceramic crucibles.
Used in smelting of iron, copper etc.
CRUCIBLES
Alumina crucible –
made from alumina or aluminum oxide.
ceramic form of alumina is commonly used
because of its low cost, strength and ability
to withstand temp. as high as 1800C.
used to melt or heat chemicals, melting metals, creating alloys .
CRUCIBLES
Graphite crucibles –Made of graphite and clay and fired to very high
temperature to form a solid container.
Typically used for melting non-ferrous or non-iron metals such as gold,
silver, aluminum, brass etc.
CRUCIBLE - SILICA
•Silicon carbide crucible – withstands temp of 1510 C, used for
handling soft metals like gold, silver.
•Zircon-silica crucibles – for highly acidic compounds.
CHULLIKA
अङ्गारिादनका ख्याता िसन्ती च िसप्तन्तका ।
अङ्गारशकटी चादप िसनी च दनगद्यते ॥
अङगारिादनका ह्रेषा मृिुद्रव्यप्रसादिका ।
िङ्गािीनां ढालनािौ दिशेषेण प्रयुज्यते ॥ (र.त ३/२२-२३)
The cullika or the oven of charcoal is called with different names such
as Angaradhanika,Hasanti,Hasantika, Angarasakati, hasani.
The soft drugs are heated and melted over this special oven.
It is useful in melting vanga,naga during their shodana/dhalana.
CHULHI
र्िेिेकमुखी चुल्ही पातनादि दक्रयाकारर।
चुल्ही तु दद्वमुखी प्रोक्ता स्वेिनादिषु कमुसु।।
मिास्वेिादिषु तथा चुल्ही तु दत्रमुखी स्मृता।
चतुमुुखी जारणािौ सत्वपाते च कीदतुता ।।
श्रीनाथाख्या तथा चुल्ही जारणे र्हुदर्ुमुखः।
रसकामिेनु 2 उपकरणपाि 5- 7
CHULHI
• Single faced Chulhi : for extraction/sublimation.
• Double faced Chulhi :Swedana etc purification processes.
• Triple faced chulhi : for conducting Mahasweda.
• Four faced Chulhi : Jarana and Satwapatana.
• Multifaced /Srinath: Jarana
KOSHTI
सत्वादि पातनाद्यथाु द्रव्यढालनसादिका ।
िदि सन्धादनका या तु कोदष्ठका सा दनगद्यते ॥ (र.त ३/२४)
KOSHTI:
The hearth or a stove is called koshti. This is an important apparatus to
carry out heating, baking &steaming etc procedures.
• For Dhalana,Satvapatana etc
अङ्गारकोष्ठी
नृपिस्तदमतोत्सेिे तििाुयामदिस्तृता ।
मध्यतश्चतुरस्त्रा च मृिा च पररलेदपता ।।
चतुरङ् गुलमानेन रन्ध्रेण पररशोदर्ता।
नादलकां समकोणाञ्च रन्ध्रे दतयुक
् दनिेशयेत् ।।
नादलकायामुखे चि र्स्त्रािक्त्रं दनिेशयेत्।
आपूयु कोदकलः कोष्ठीं द्रव्यमूषाप्तितां िमेत् ।।
अङ्गारकोदष्ठका ख्याता द्रव्यढालनसादिका।
सत्वानां पातने चेयं दिशेषादद्वदनयुज्यते ।। (र.त.3/25-28)
• Height: Nrpahastha:30 Angula
• Length and width:1/2 Nrpahastha:15 Angula
• Thickness: 10 Angula
• Quadrangular structure smeared with clay.
• Vankanala or pipe with an opening of 4 Angula is created at the base.
• Bhatti is filled with a layer of Angara (used as fuel).
• Then crucible containing the Dravya is sealed and placed .
• Another layer of Angara is put over it and ignited.
• Bellow/Bhastri is attached to the end of Vankanala to control and
intensify heat as required.
• For Dhalanadi karma.
SATWAPATANA KOSTHI
कोष्ठीचुप्तल्लयन्त्रदिदि.....।
अष्टािशांगुलोत्सेिप्रमाणायामिेष्टनाम्।।
िलमीकाकारिि् घृत्तामिोर्ागे र्ृित्तरम्।
कोष्ठीिच्छु दशरामन्तः पंचांगुल्फाग्रसंयुताम् ॥
प्रकाराग्रे यथा गुल्फास्तथागुल्फांश्च कारयेत्।।
द्वािशांगुलदिस्तारं चतुरस्रं समन्ततः ।।
सद्वाराचुप्तल्हका कोष्ठी रसज्ञेषु इयं मता।
िेिीयामल रसकामिेनु उपकरणपाि 2/1-4
• Angara - red hot charcoal has been advised as fuel material.
• It is advised to construct the furnace in the shape of hillock
(round with strong base measuring Asthadasangula (18 Angula)
in height and breadth (Utseda and Aayaam) with hollow interior.
• The upper part should have 5 Gulpha (projections) to rest the
vessel. Make a window below for entry of air and lighting the fire
and also for removing burnt ash.
• Bhastri : Bellows can be used to blow air into fire :emits a
stream of air when squeezed.
PATALA KOSHTI
A cylindrical pit measuring 12 A length is made inside the earth.
At the base of this pit, another smaller cylindrical pit measuring 4 A length is made.
The base of the smaller pit is fixed with one end of a strong tube that runs out through the
earth to the surface by the side of the larger pit.
The other end of the tube is connected to a vankanala placed by the side of the pit on the
ground.
The top of the smaller pit is fixed with a strong mesh and the larger pit base is filled with
one layer of charcoal.
Over that the drug filled and sealed crucibles are firmly placed.
Above them another layer of charcoal is filled and ignited.
Air blow is regulated with the help of blowers.
Used for the sattvapatana of mrudu dravya.
GARA KOSHTI
द्वािशाङ् गुदलम्ना या प्रािेशप्रदमता तथा ।
चतुरङ् गुलतश्चोर्ध्वं िलयेन समप्तिता ॥
र्ूररप्तच्छद्रितीं चक्रीं िलयोपरर दनदक्षपेत् ।
दशप्तखत्रांस्तत्र दनदक्षप्य प्रिमेद्वङ्गनालत: ॥
गारकोष्ठी समाख्याता मृष्टलोि दिनाशनी ।
( र र स 10/ 43-44)
• A quadrangular oven measuring 12 angula height. ‘One pradesha’ length and width is fixed on
earth.
• 4 Angula above from earth a strong iron sieve is fixed in the wall of koshthi.
• On that sieve, charcoal are filled, samputitha aushada dravya is placed.
• Heating process is controlled with the help of blower.
• uses
• For melting gold, silver, copper etc.
GAS STOVE
• A gas stove is a stove that is fueled by combustible gas such as syngas,
natural gas, propane, butane, liquefied petroleum gas or other
flammable gas.
• Before the advent of gas, cooking stoves relied on solid fuels such as
coal or wood.
• cooking technology had the advantage of being easily adjustable and
could be turned off when not in use.
GAS STOVE
• Ignition of the gas was originally by match and this was followed by
the more convenient pilot light. This had the disadvantage of
continually consuming gas. It still needed to be lit by match and
accidentally turning on the gas without igniting it could lead to an
explosion. To prevent these types of accidents, manufacturers
developed and installed a safety valve called a flame failure device for
gas hobs (cooktops) and ovens.
• Most modern gas stoves have electronic ignition, automatic timers for
the oven and extractor hoods to remove fumes.
HOT PLATE
• A hot plate is a portable self-contained table top small appliance
cooktop that features one or more electric heating elements or gas
burners.
• A hot plate can be used as a stand-alone appliance, but is often used
as a substitute for one of the burners from an oven range or a kitchen
stove.
• Hot plates are often used for food preparation generally in locations
where a full kitchen stove would not be convenient or practical. A hot
plate can have a flat surface or round surface. Hot plates can be used
for traveling or in areas with electricity.
INDUCTION STOVE
• Induction cooking is performed using direct induction heating of cooking
vessels, rather than relying on indirect radiation, convection, or thermal
conduction.
• Induction cooking allows high power and very rapid increases in
temperature to be achieved, and changes in heat settings are
instantaneous.
• In an induction cooktop ("induction hob" or "induction stove"), a coil of
copper wire is placed under the cooking pot and an alternating electric
current is passed through it.
• The resulting oscillating magnetic field wirelessly induces an electrical
current in the pot. This large eddy current flowing through the resistance of
the pot results in resistive heating.
INDUCTION STOVE
• For nearly all models of induction cooktops, a cooking vessel must be made of, or
contain, a ferrous metal such as cast iron or some stainless steels. The iron in the
pot concentrates the current to produce heat in the metal. If the metal is too
thin, or does not provide enough resistance to current flow, heating will not be
effective.
• Most induction tops will not heat copper or aluminum vessels because the
magnetic field cannot produce a concentrated current; "all metal" induction tops
use much higher frequencies to overcome that effect.
• Any vessel can be used if placed on a suitable metal disk which functions as a
conventional hotplate.
• Induction cooking has good electrical coupling between the pan and the coil and
is thus quite efficient, which means it puts less waste heat into the kitchen, can
be quickly turned on and off, and has safety advantages compared to gas stoves.
Cooktops are also usually easy to clean, because the cooktop itself does not get
very hot.
HOT AIR OVEN
• Hot air ovens are electrical devices which use dry heat to sterilize.
Generally, they use a thermostat to control the temperature. Their
double walled insulation keeps the heat in and conserves energy, the
inner layer being a poor conductor and outer layer being metallic.
There is also an air filled space in between to aid insulation.
• An air circulating fan helps in uniform distribution of the heat. These
are fitted with the adjustable wire mesh plated trays or aluminum
trays and may have an on/off rocker switch, as well as indicators and
controls for temperature and holding time. The capacities of these
ovens vary.
HOT AIR OVEN
A complete cycle involves heating the oven to the required temperature,
maintaining that temperature for the proper time interval for that
temperature, turning the machine off and cooling the articles in the closed
oven till they reach room temperature. The standard settings for a hot air
oven are:
1.5 to 2 hours at 160 °C (320 °F)
6 to 12 minutes at 190 °C (374 °F)
Along with the time required to preheat the chamber before beginning the
sterilization cycle. If the door is opened before time, heat escapes and the
process becomes incomplete. Thus the cycle must be properly repeated all
over.
These are widely used to sterilize articles that can withstand high
temperatures and not get burnt, like glassware and powders.
HEATING MANTLE
• A heating mantle is a piece of laboratory equipment used to apply heat to
containers, as an alternative to other forms of heated bath.
• In contrast to other heating devices, such as hotplates or Bunsen burners,
glassware containers may be placed in direct contact with the heating mantle
without substantially increasing the risk of the glassware shattering, because the
heating element of a heating mantle is insulated from the container so as to
prevent excessive temperature gradients.
• Heating mantles may have various forms. In a common arrangement, electric
wires are embedded within a strip of fabric that can be wrapped around a flask.
The current supplied to the device, and hence the temperature achieved, is
regulated by a rheostat.
• This type of heating mantle is quite useful for maintaining an intended
temperature within a separator funnel, for example, after the contents of a
reaction have been removed from a primary heat source.
HEATING MANTLE
HEATING MANTLE
• In further contrast to other methods of applying heat to a flask, such
as an oil bath or water bath, using a heating mantle generates no
liquid residue to drip off the flask.
• Heating mantles generally distribute heat evenly over the surface of
the flask.
MUFFLE FURNACE- HORIZONTAL AND
VERTICAL
• A muffle furnace or muffle oven is a furnace in which the subject
material is isolated from the fuel and all of the products of
combustion, including gases and flying ash.
MUFFLE FURNACE
• Muffle furnace: Vertical and Horizontal type.
• Horizontal type is more common than vertical type.
• They are used in many research facilities, e.g.: by chemists in order to
determine what proportion of a sample is non-combustible and non-
volatile (i.e., ash).
• Some models incorporate programmable digital controllers, allowing
automatic execution of ramping, soaking, and sintering steps.
• Advances in materials for heating elements, such as molybdenum disilicate,
can now produce working temperatures up to 1,800 degrees Celsius (3,272
degrees Fahrenheit), which facilitate more sophisticated metallurgical
applications.
MUFFLE FURNACE
• furnaces are usually heated to desired temperatures by conduction,
convection, or blackbody radiation from electrical resistance heater
elements.
• there is no combustion involved in the temperature control of the
system, which allows for much greater control of temperature
uniformity and assures isolation of the material being heated from
the byproducts of fuel combustion.
HEATING MATERIAL
• Tusha: Bhanda puta,Lavaka puta
• Karisha/Upala: in most of Puta as Upala
• In tuvaraka thaila,the prepared thaila should be kept in Karisha for 15 days before
use.
• Wood eg: Khadira ,Vibhitaka .
• Angara: In Koshti,mainly Angara koshti as the source of fuel,Taptakhalwa.
• Kshara and Lavana: In variants of Valuka Yantra
• Valuka: In Valuka yantra
• Shakrut: Aja shakrut can be burnt and used as a source of heat
• Dhanya: Burning grains or husks of grains,placing them in the heap of grains.
• Drava-Jala/Steam
• Taila
WOOD
• Soft wood burns easily: lower density, contains resins, oils and gums
which add to the calorific value of the wood.
• Heavier the wood when dry, the greater will be the calorific value.
• Green wood has a much lower heating capacity than dry wood due to
loss during evaporation of moisture.
COW DUNG CAKES
• Higher emission fuel: releases four times more volatile organic
compounds that volatile wood samples
• RICE HUSK
• Unproblematic fuel, available in abundance, economical, high caloric
content
INDIRECT HEATING
• Dhanya Rasi :In the context of Ayaskriti in Charaka Samhita Chikitsa
sthana;it is mentioned that the vessel containing Ayaskriti should be
placed in heap of Yava dhanya for one year.
• Bhugarbha Sthapana:In the context of Asava- arishta;to maintain
uniform temperature throughout the process of fermentation,the
containers are placed inside the heap of husk,wheat,paddy or buried
underground-Bhugarbha sthapana.
LIST OF REFERENCES
• Textbook of Rasashastra by Dr Ravindra Angadi
• Textbook of Rasashastra by Dr Parimi Suresh.
• Ayurvediya Rasashastra: Siddhinandan Mishra
• Wikipedia
• Ayurvediya Rasashastra : C B Jha

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Yantropakaranani 2: Heating Devices used in Ayurveda

  • 2. DEFINITION AND TYPE OF PUTA • The Puta is defined as the quantum of heat required to process a drug, neither over processed nor under processed but optimally processed so as the drug can exert the desired pharmacological effect रसादि द्रव्यपाकप्रमाण ज्ञापनं पुटम्। नेष्टोन्यूनादिकः पाकः सुपाक ं दितमौषिम्।। (R.Chu 5/144,RRS 10/47) • Subjecting the Dhatu (Loha etc.) to heating system using the Upalas fuel is known as Puta • िातुषुपलेन्दनिािः पुटम् |
  • 3. PROCEDURE • The material is to be subjected to Bhavana and Chakrika are prepared. • The dried Chakrika/pellets are placed inside a suitable Sharava and it is placed for drying under sunlight. • After drying it is closed using another Sharava of the same size. • Sandhibandhana: Cement the joints of the sharava with clay and cloth: Sharava Samputa. • Subjected to heat system using Puta.
  • 4. TYPES OF PUTA Based on fuel used • Tusha putam • Karisha putam • Upala putam • Khadiradi khasta (Based on Sharangadhara Samhita, Deepika commentary) • Girinda ,Kashta, Kolisha etc Based on the size/quantum of heat • Kukkuta puta • Varaha puta • Gaja puta etc
  • 5. PUTA UTILITY पुटाद्दोषदिनाशः स्यात्पुटािेिगुणोियः। दियते च पुटाल्लोिः पुटं तस्मात् समाचरेत्|| (R.S.S 1/311) लोिािेपुुनर्ाुिो गुणादिक्यं ततोऽग्रता। अनप्सु मज्जनं रेखापूणुता पुटतो र्िेत् ॥ पुटाि् ग्राब्णो लघुत्वं च शीघ्रव्याप्तिश्र्च िीपनम् । जाररताि् दप सूतेन्द्राल्लोिानामदिको गुण: ॥ यथाऽश्मदन दिशेद्वदिर्ुदिस्थपुटयोगत: । चूणुत्वाप्ति गुणािाप्तिस्तथा लोिेषु दनप्तश्र्चतम् ॥ (र.र.स.१०/४९-५०)
  • 6. Advantages of Puta • Lightness in Guru Dravya • Increased bioavailability • Apunarbhavatva: converts into compound form: does not regain its original metallic form when subjected to Puta after admixing with Mitra panchaka. • Gunadikya: size reduction, addition of organic principles during bhavana, • Impurities and toxic principles are removed. • Varitaratva • Rekhapurnata
  • 7. अनुक्तपुट अनुक्तपुटमाने तु साध्यद्रव्यर्लार्लात् । पुटं दिज्ञाय िातव्यमूिापोिदिचक्षणः ।।६४।। (R.R.S 10) When the type of Puta has not been specified for a particular Dravya,then it is advised to apply one’s skill, wisdom and experience: by trial and error method. Puta to be continued till Vaaritaratva is obtained.
  • 8. SURYA PUTA द्रव्याणां र्ादितानान्तु र्ािनौषिज रस: । शोषणं सूयुतापे यत् तत् सूयुपुटमुच्यते || (R.T 3/37) • After subjecting the drug material to suitable bhavana with specified liquid preparations, the drug is impregnated with these liquids and placed daily under hot sun until the liquid dries up. • e.g : Shilajatu shodana,Bhanu paka of Loha choorna. • Also known as Roudraputa.
  • 9. CHANDRA PUTA • After subjecting the drug material to suitable bhavana with specified liquid preparations, the drug is impregnated with these liquids and placed daily under moonlight until the liquid dries up. • e.g : Pravala bhasma.(Rasatantrasara and Siddhaprayoga Sangraha)
  • 10. MAHA PUTA दनम्नदिस्तरत : क ु ण्डे दद्विस्ते चतुरस्त्रक े । िनोत्पलसिस्त्रेण पूररते पुट्नौषिम् ॥ क्रौच्यां रुिं प्रयत्नेन दपदष्टकोपरर दनदक्षपेत् । िनोत्पलसिस्त्रिु क्रौदचकोपरर दिन्यसेत् ॥ िदिं प्रज्वालयेत्तत्र मिापुटदमिं स्मृतम् ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५१-५२) References RT RRS Measurements Half vyama 2 Hastha Number of upala Not specified 1500 One hasta=45.72 cm, 1 vyama= 182.88 10
  • 11. GAJA PUTA राजिस्तप्रमाणेन् चतुरस्रं च दनम्नकम् । पूणुञ्चोपलसाठीदर्: कण्ठािध्यथ दिन्यसेत् ॥ दिन्यसेत्क ु मुिीं तत्र पुटनद्रव्यपूररताम् । पूणुच्छगणतोऽिाुदन दगररण्डादन दिदनदक्षपेत् ।। एतद्गजपुटं प्रोक्तं मिागुणदिियकम् ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५३-५४) मारण of लोि, अभ्रक,मादक्षक,दिमल Rajahasta=55.88 cm 11
  • 12. GAJAPUTA DIMENSIONS References RRS RPS RT Measurements 1 Raja hasta 30A 1 Raja hasta 1 Nrupakara Number of upala Not specified 1000 Not specified
  • 13. VARAHA PUTA • इत्थं चारदत्नक े क ु ण्डे पुटं िारािमुच्यते ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५५) • A cubical pit of 1 Aratni -22 A=41.91cm (l*b*d) is prepared. • The pit is filled with dry cow dung cakes up to the neck. • Over that samputita dravya is placed. • Above that half of the previously placed dry cow dung cakes are heaped and ignited. • Around 150 upala.
  • 14. KUKKUTA PUTA पुटं र्ूदमतले यत्तदद्वतप्तस्तदद्वतयोच्छ्र्यम् । तािच्च तलदिस्तीणु तत्स्यात्क ु क्क ु टक ं पुटम् ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५६) • Dimensions : 2 Vitasthi (l*b*d) (1 Vitasthi=22.86 cm) • The cow dung cakes (50-60) may be heaped upon the ground around the samputita dravya and ignited.
  • 15. KAPOTA PUTA यत्पुटं िीयते र्ूमािष्टसंख्यिुनोपल: । र्ििा सूतकर्स्माथु कपोतपुटमुच्यते ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५७) • Eight cow dung cakes are heaped upon the ground, around the enclosed medicinal drugs and ignited. • Aushadha Dravya quantity : less than or equal to 5 tola.
  • 16. LAVAKA PUTA ऊर्ध्वं षोडदशका मात्रस्तुषिाु गोिर: पुटम् । यत्र तल्लािकाख्यं स्यात्सुमृिुद्रव्यसािनम् ॥ (र.र.स. १०/६३) • powder of natural cow dung cakes or the husk : 1 Shodashika/1 Pala. • heaped upon the ground, around the samputitha dravya and ignited. • For Mrudu Dravya.
  • 17. BHUDHARA PUTA िदिदमत्रां दक्षतौ सम्यङ ् दनखन्याद्वयङ ् गुलािि: । उपररष्टात्पुटं यत्र पुटं ति् र्ूिराह्वयम ॥(र.र.स.१०/६२) • A small pit is made on the ground and samputita dravya is placed inside with 2 Angula of sand on all sides. • Heat is applied from above by heaping the dry cow dung cakes.
  • 18. GORVARA PUTA गोष्ठान्तगोक्षुरक्षुण्णं शुष्क ं चूदणुतगोमयम् । गोर्रं तत्समादिष्टं िररष्ठं रससािने ॥ गोर्रिाु तुषिाुदप पुटं यत्र प्रिीयते । तद्गोर्रपुटं प्रोक्तं दसिये रसर्स्मन: ॥ (र.र.स. १०/५८-५९) • Dry Gobar/cowdung powder is taken : which got powdered by the hooves of cows in cowshed –due to stamping. • Mix it with Tusha • Used in Parada Bhasma.
  • 19. VALUKA PUTA अिस्तािुपररष्टाच्च क्रौदञ्चकाऽऽच्छाध्यते खलु। र्ालुकादर् : प्रतिादर्युत्र तद्वालुकापुटम् ॥ (र.र.स.१०/६१) • If the clean dry sand /Valuka is filled in a selected bigger mud pot and used for the application of heat-puta will be called as Valuka puta.
  • 20. KUMBHA / BHANDA PUTA स्थूलर्ाण्डे तुषापूणे मध्ये मूषासमप्तिते । िदिना दिदिते पाक े तद्भाण्डपुटमुच्यते ॥ (र.र.स. १०/६०) • If the husk is filled in a selected bigger mud pot and used for the application of heat, the puta will be called as Kumbha puta. • According to Bhavaprakasha:The bhanda should be closed with a lid after igniting the tusha/husk.
  • 21. 1.Puta is a specific system of heating for the incineration metals and minerals. 2.For the hard/soft/inorganic :according to heat resistance ,various Puta has been described. 3.According to the quantity of fuel: Mahaputa, Gajaputa, Varahaputa, Kukkutaputa, Kapotaputa, Gorbaraputa, Bhanda and Tusha etc puta are mentioned. 4.Each and every Puta have different dimensions. 5.Intensity of heat, Mode of Temperature and Time duration depends upon the Puta. 6. According to the heat resistance of the material,Puta are selected and applied for the Marana purpose.
  • 22. Name of puta Dimension s Classical Metr ic (in cms) Total number of Upalas Probable Max Temp. (In hours) Metals/ Minerals Incinerated Mahaputa 2 Hasta 91 1500 10000C Tamra, Parada, Swarna, Hiraka Gajaputa 1 Rajahasta 57 1000 10000C Parada, Tamra, Trivanga Kukkutaput a 2 Vitasti 46 100 10000C ½hr Parada, Swarna, Lauha Varahaputa 1 Aratni 42 500 10000C ½hr Abhraka, Tamra, Swarnamakshika
  • 23. Laghuputa 8 Upala 23 8 8000C ½hr Abhraka, Swarna, Rajata Bhudaraputa - 20 - 1400C ½hr Parada, Somala Gorbaraputa 1 Vitasti- Height 23 Upala churna 4000C 4hrs Parada bhasma Bhanadaput a Brihat Bhanda 1700 - 4000C 8 hrs Haritala, Somala Valukaputa Brihat Bhanda 1700 0 - 4000C 8 hrs Pittala, Haritala, Somala
  • 24. MUSHA • मुष्णादत िोषान् मूषेयान् सा मूषेदत दनगध्यते । (र.र.स १०/२) • Musha means that which relieves impurities from metals and minerals.It eradicates the dosha of the drug subjected for heating. • In order to extract metals from their minerals, to prepare alloys by mixing two or more metals to liquefy the metals or to extracts etc. musha is used.
  • 25. मूषा मूषा दि क्रौदञ्चका प्रोक्ता क ु मुिी करिादटका । पाचनी िदिदमत्रा च रसिादिदर्रीयुते ॥ (र.र.स १०/१) Synonyms: Kumudi,Krounchika,Karahatika,Pachani,Vahnimitra. उपािानं र्िेत्तस्य मृदत्तका लोिमेि च । (र.र.स १०/३) Essential requirements: Mruttika,Loha मूषोपयोगी मृदत्तका – मृदत्तका पाण्डुरस्थूलाऽशक ु रा शोणपाण्डुरा । दचराध्मानसिा सा दि मूषाथुमदतशस्यते ॥ तिर्ािे च िाल्मीकी कौलाली िा समीयुते । (र.र.स १०/६)
  • 26. • सशक ु रा पाण्डुरा च िदितापसिा दचरम् । स्थूला च मृदत्तका या स्यात् मूषाथं स मतोत्तमा ॥ (र.त 3/6) • क ृ ष्णा रक्ता च पीता च शुक्लिणाु च मृदत्तका । आद्या श्रेष्ठा कदनष्ठाऽन्त्या मध्यमा मध्यमा मता ॥ (रसाणुि 4/30) •दचक्कणा, दपप्तच्छल, गुरु, क ृ ष्ण मृत् / पीत मृत्, दसकतादििदजुत (शिालर्क्षतन्त्र)
  • 27. TYPES • Based on utility, shape, ingredients • र.र.स – 17 types • र.त – 9 types • रसाणुि – 8 types • रसेन्द्र चुडामदण – 17 types • रस कामिेनु – शुष्क मूषा • रसेन्द्र मङ्गल – पक्व मूषा, लोि मूषा, मूक मूषा • रसरत्नाकर – िज्र मूषा(3 types), मूक मूषा, अन्ध मूषा, दिद्र मूषा
  • 28. SAMANYA MUSHA या मृदत्तका िग्धतुष: शणेन दशप्तखत्रकिाु ियलदद्दना च | लौिेन िण्डेन च क ु दिता सा सािारणा स्यात्खलु मूदषकाथे || (र.र.स १०/७) • श्वेताश्मानस्तुषा िग्धा: दशप्तखत्रा: शणखपुरे । लदद्द दकिं क ृ ष्णमृत्सना संयोज्या मूदषकामृदि ॥ (र.र.स १०/८)
  • 29. SAMANYA MUSHA दशप्तखत्रकिुग्धतुषः शणेन सलदद्दका िण्डसुक ु दिता च । या मृदत्तका तदद्वदिता तु मूषा सामान्यमूषा कदथता रसज्ञः ॥ (र.त ३/७) Ingredients – Equal quantity of मृत्-mud िग्ध तुषा-ash of husk शण-burnt fibres of jute दशप्तखत्र-Charcoal िय लदद्द-Horse dung
  • 30. GOSTHANI MUSHA मूषा या गोस्तनाकारा दशखायुक्तदपिानका | सत्वानां द्रािणे शुिौ मूषा सा गोस्तनी र्िेत् || (R.R.S 10/25 ) The crucible prepared in the shape of gosthana. Lid of this crucible is prepared in inverted cone shape. Used for sattwa extraction of selected metals and minerals.
  • 31. VAJRA MUSHA मृिप्तस्त्रर्ागा: शणलदद्दर्ागौ र्ागश्च दनिुग्धतुषोपलािे:| दकिािुर्ागं पररखण्डय िज्रमूषां दििध्यात्खलु सत्वपाते || (R.R.S 10/9) मृत् – 3 p शण - 1 p ियलदद्द – 1 p िग्धतुषा – 1 p उपल(श्वेताष्म चूणु) – 1 p लोि दकि – ½ p Uses – Satvapatana, Rasabandhana Todaraananda – िग्धतुषा, िग्ध शण – 1 p each मृत्, पाषाण – 1/4th p each mardana with vajravalli drava
  • 32. MAHA MUSHA तले या क ू पुराकारा क्रमािुपरर दिस्तृता | स्थूलिृन्ताकित्स्थूला मिामूषेत्यसौ स्मृता | सा चायो अभ्रकसत्वािे: पुटाय द्रािणाय च || (R.R.S.10/29) Crucible having a narrow and strong base at the bottom. Wide spacious body above. Equal length and width. Also called as sthula musha. Sattva of loha abhraka swarna makshika etc.
  • 33. YOGA MUSHA िग्धाङगारतुषोपेता मृत्स्ना िल्मीकमृदत्तका | तत्तदद्वडसमयुक्ता तत्तदिडदिलेदपता || तया या दिदिता मूषा योगमूषेदत कथ्यते | अनया सादित: सूतो जायुते गुणित्तर: || (R.R.S 10/10-11 ) • िग्ध अङ्गार, िग्ध तुषा , मृत्, िल्मीक मृत्, दर्ड ,लेप with दर्ड • Uses - सूत दसप्ति – पारिसािन कररका – पारि • मारण, पारि जारण
  • 34. VRNTAKA MUSHA िृन्ताकाकारमूषायां नालं द्वािशकाङ ् गुलम् | ित्तुरपुष्पिच्चोर्ध्वं सुदृढं प्तिष्टपुष्पित् || अष्टाङ् गुलञ्ज सप्तच्छद्रं सा स्याि् िृन्ताकमूदषका | अनया खपुरािीनां मृिू नां सत्वमािरेत् || (R.R.S 10/23-24 ) Crucible of 12 A l*b. Resembles the shape of brinjal. Lid:shape of dhattura with a nadi of 8 A length. Sattvapatana of Kharpara etc.
  • 35. MALLA MUSHA दनदिुष्टा मल्लमूषा या मल्लदद्वतय सम्पुटात् | पपुट्यादिरसािीनां स्वेिनाय प्रकीदतुता || (र.र.स १०/२५) Two sharavas sealed face to face. Also called sharava samputa. Used for preparation of Parpati etc.
  • 36. MADANA MUDRA औिुम्बराख्यिटिुग्धपलं पलं च लाक्षा पलमृदषपलं त्वथ चुम्बकस्य | सङक ु टयमानमतसीफलतलदमस्रं सूतस्य जारणदििौ मिनाख्यमुद्रा || आनन्दकन्द. पृ Udumbara kshira:1 pala Vata kshira:1 pala Laksha rasa:1 pala Chumbaka loha :7 pala. Bhavana with Atasi thaila. Acts as an adhesive.
  • 37. HATA MUDRA चुम्बक ं लोिचूणं च क्रोडरक्तेन संयुतम् । तत्र सिं प्रिातव्यं घनघातेन ताडयेत् ॥ सन्ध्यारभ्योियो याित्सूयुदर्म्बं च दृश्यते । िठमुद्रेदत दिख्याता सिुदसिनुमस्क ृ ता ॥ आनन्दकन्द. पृ • Chumbaka loha choorna+ Kroudha rakta: Mardana for 12 hours. • Mudra during Parada jarana.
  • 38. SANDHI BANDHANA मूषादपिानयोर्ुन्धे र्न्धनं सप्तन्धलेपनम् | अन्ध्रणं रन्ध्रणं चि संप्तिष्टं सप्तन्धर्न्धनम्|| (R.R.S 10/5 ) The process of sealing the crucible and its pidanaka is called as sandhibandhana. It is also called as Sandhi lepana,randhrana,samslishta.
  • 39. CRUCIBLES • Crucible: A container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal processing as well as a number of modern laboratory processes. • For melting metals. • Relatively high thermal conductivity • Can withstand the action of abrasive or corrosive solids, liquids or gases at high temperatures. • Can withstand sudden change in temperature. • Shouldn't react with the metal slag. • Should conserve heat, have low coefficient of thermal expansion and should not contaminate the material with which it comes in contact.
  • 40. CRUCIBLES • A vessel made of a refractory substances such as graphite, porcelain etc., used for melting and calcining materials at very high temperatures. • Types – depending on type of material it is made of Carbon bonded crucibles Oxide refractory crucibles Clay Graphite crucible
  • 41. CRUCIBLE • Carbon bonded crucible: comprises primarily of silicon carbide and graphite with other refractory materials. • Clay graphite crucibles: It contains high percentage of graphite with some silicon carbide having a ceramic bond composed of clay and other refractory material. • Oxide refractory crucible: It comprises alumina silica, magnesia and zircon etc • Based on shape : ‘A’ shaped, Bilge shaped.
  • 42. CRUCIBLE: • Fused silica crucibles are used for melting gold, silver and other precious metals at up to 2750F. • Silicon carbide (SiC) crucibles are high quality melting crucibles: temp up to 1600C and are suitable for smelting and refining precious metals, base metals and other products.
  • 43. Precautions to be taken • Temper the new or stored crucible before use. Heat the empty crucible for 2 hours at around 104C,then fire the empty crucible to charred heat. Allow the crucible to cool at room temperature. • Store all crucibles in dry area. • Use proper flux/Vida/Dravaka Gana.
  • 44. CERAMIC CRUCIBLES • made of ceramic material such as kiln-fired clay. • ceramics are non-metal, inorganic, crystalline/amorphous solids that have been fired, cooled and glazed during their creation. • silica, zircon, alumina, magnesite etc are the ceramics used to prepare ceramic crucibles. Used in smelting of iron, copper etc.
  • 45. CRUCIBLES Alumina crucible – made from alumina or aluminum oxide. ceramic form of alumina is commonly used because of its low cost, strength and ability to withstand temp. as high as 1800C. used to melt or heat chemicals, melting metals, creating alloys .
  • 46. CRUCIBLES Graphite crucibles –Made of graphite and clay and fired to very high temperature to form a solid container. Typically used for melting non-ferrous or non-iron metals such as gold, silver, aluminum, brass etc.
  • 47. CRUCIBLE - SILICA •Silicon carbide crucible – withstands temp of 1510 C, used for handling soft metals like gold, silver. •Zircon-silica crucibles – for highly acidic compounds.
  • 48. CHULLIKA अङ्गारिादनका ख्याता िसन्ती च िसप्तन्तका । अङ्गारशकटी चादप िसनी च दनगद्यते ॥ अङगारिादनका ह्रेषा मृिुद्रव्यप्रसादिका । िङ्गािीनां ढालनािौ दिशेषेण प्रयुज्यते ॥ (र.त ३/२२-२३) The cullika or the oven of charcoal is called with different names such as Angaradhanika,Hasanti,Hasantika, Angarasakati, hasani. The soft drugs are heated and melted over this special oven. It is useful in melting vanga,naga during their shodana/dhalana.
  • 49. CHULHI र्िेिेकमुखी चुल्ही पातनादि दक्रयाकारर। चुल्ही तु दद्वमुखी प्रोक्ता स्वेिनादिषु कमुसु।। मिास्वेिादिषु तथा चुल्ही तु दत्रमुखी स्मृता। चतुमुुखी जारणािौ सत्वपाते च कीदतुता ।। श्रीनाथाख्या तथा चुल्ही जारणे र्हुदर्ुमुखः। रसकामिेनु 2 उपकरणपाि 5- 7
  • 50. CHULHI • Single faced Chulhi : for extraction/sublimation. • Double faced Chulhi :Swedana etc purification processes. • Triple faced chulhi : for conducting Mahasweda. • Four faced Chulhi : Jarana and Satwapatana. • Multifaced /Srinath: Jarana
  • 51. KOSHTI सत्वादि पातनाद्यथाु द्रव्यढालनसादिका । िदि सन्धादनका या तु कोदष्ठका सा दनगद्यते ॥ (र.त ३/२४) KOSHTI: The hearth or a stove is called koshti. This is an important apparatus to carry out heating, baking &steaming etc procedures. • For Dhalana,Satvapatana etc
  • 52. अङ्गारकोष्ठी नृपिस्तदमतोत्सेिे तििाुयामदिस्तृता । मध्यतश्चतुरस्त्रा च मृिा च पररलेदपता ।। चतुरङ् गुलमानेन रन्ध्रेण पररशोदर्ता। नादलकां समकोणाञ्च रन्ध्रे दतयुक ् दनिेशयेत् ।। नादलकायामुखे चि र्स्त्रािक्त्रं दनिेशयेत्। आपूयु कोदकलः कोष्ठीं द्रव्यमूषाप्तितां िमेत् ।। अङ्गारकोदष्ठका ख्याता द्रव्यढालनसादिका। सत्वानां पातने चेयं दिशेषादद्वदनयुज्यते ।। (र.त.3/25-28)
  • 53. • Height: Nrpahastha:30 Angula • Length and width:1/2 Nrpahastha:15 Angula • Thickness: 10 Angula • Quadrangular structure smeared with clay. • Vankanala or pipe with an opening of 4 Angula is created at the base. • Bhatti is filled with a layer of Angara (used as fuel). • Then crucible containing the Dravya is sealed and placed . • Another layer of Angara is put over it and ignited. • Bellow/Bhastri is attached to the end of Vankanala to control and intensify heat as required. • For Dhalanadi karma.
  • 54. SATWAPATANA KOSTHI कोष्ठीचुप्तल्लयन्त्रदिदि.....। अष्टािशांगुलोत्सेिप्रमाणायामिेष्टनाम्।। िलमीकाकारिि् घृत्तामिोर्ागे र्ृित्तरम्। कोष्ठीिच्छु दशरामन्तः पंचांगुल्फाग्रसंयुताम् ॥ प्रकाराग्रे यथा गुल्फास्तथागुल्फांश्च कारयेत्।। द्वािशांगुलदिस्तारं चतुरस्रं समन्ततः ।। सद्वाराचुप्तल्हका कोष्ठी रसज्ञेषु इयं मता। िेिीयामल रसकामिेनु उपकरणपाि 2/1-4
  • 55. • Angara - red hot charcoal has been advised as fuel material. • It is advised to construct the furnace in the shape of hillock (round with strong base measuring Asthadasangula (18 Angula) in height and breadth (Utseda and Aayaam) with hollow interior. • The upper part should have 5 Gulpha (projections) to rest the vessel. Make a window below for entry of air and lighting the fire and also for removing burnt ash. • Bhastri : Bellows can be used to blow air into fire :emits a stream of air when squeezed.
  • 56. PATALA KOSHTI A cylindrical pit measuring 12 A length is made inside the earth. At the base of this pit, another smaller cylindrical pit measuring 4 A length is made. The base of the smaller pit is fixed with one end of a strong tube that runs out through the earth to the surface by the side of the larger pit. The other end of the tube is connected to a vankanala placed by the side of the pit on the ground. The top of the smaller pit is fixed with a strong mesh and the larger pit base is filled with one layer of charcoal. Over that the drug filled and sealed crucibles are firmly placed. Above them another layer of charcoal is filled and ignited. Air blow is regulated with the help of blowers. Used for the sattvapatana of mrudu dravya.
  • 57. GARA KOSHTI द्वािशाङ् गुदलम्ना या प्रािेशप्रदमता तथा । चतुरङ् गुलतश्चोर्ध्वं िलयेन समप्तिता ॥ र्ूररप्तच्छद्रितीं चक्रीं िलयोपरर दनदक्षपेत् । दशप्तखत्रांस्तत्र दनदक्षप्य प्रिमेद्वङ्गनालत: ॥ गारकोष्ठी समाख्याता मृष्टलोि दिनाशनी । ( र र स 10/ 43-44) • A quadrangular oven measuring 12 angula height. ‘One pradesha’ length and width is fixed on earth. • 4 Angula above from earth a strong iron sieve is fixed in the wall of koshthi. • On that sieve, charcoal are filled, samputitha aushada dravya is placed. • Heating process is controlled with the help of blower. • uses • For melting gold, silver, copper etc.
  • 58. GAS STOVE • A gas stove is a stove that is fueled by combustible gas such as syngas, natural gas, propane, butane, liquefied petroleum gas or other flammable gas. • Before the advent of gas, cooking stoves relied on solid fuels such as coal or wood. • cooking technology had the advantage of being easily adjustable and could be turned off when not in use.
  • 59. GAS STOVE • Ignition of the gas was originally by match and this was followed by the more convenient pilot light. This had the disadvantage of continually consuming gas. It still needed to be lit by match and accidentally turning on the gas without igniting it could lead to an explosion. To prevent these types of accidents, manufacturers developed and installed a safety valve called a flame failure device for gas hobs (cooktops) and ovens. • Most modern gas stoves have electronic ignition, automatic timers for the oven and extractor hoods to remove fumes.
  • 60. HOT PLATE • A hot plate is a portable self-contained table top small appliance cooktop that features one or more electric heating elements or gas burners. • A hot plate can be used as a stand-alone appliance, but is often used as a substitute for one of the burners from an oven range or a kitchen stove. • Hot plates are often used for food preparation generally in locations where a full kitchen stove would not be convenient or practical. A hot plate can have a flat surface or round surface. Hot plates can be used for traveling or in areas with electricity.
  • 61. INDUCTION STOVE • Induction cooking is performed using direct induction heating of cooking vessels, rather than relying on indirect radiation, convection, or thermal conduction. • Induction cooking allows high power and very rapid increases in temperature to be achieved, and changes in heat settings are instantaneous. • In an induction cooktop ("induction hob" or "induction stove"), a coil of copper wire is placed under the cooking pot and an alternating electric current is passed through it. • The resulting oscillating magnetic field wirelessly induces an electrical current in the pot. This large eddy current flowing through the resistance of the pot results in resistive heating.
  • 62. INDUCTION STOVE • For nearly all models of induction cooktops, a cooking vessel must be made of, or contain, a ferrous metal such as cast iron or some stainless steels. The iron in the pot concentrates the current to produce heat in the metal. If the metal is too thin, or does not provide enough resistance to current flow, heating will not be effective. • Most induction tops will not heat copper or aluminum vessels because the magnetic field cannot produce a concentrated current; "all metal" induction tops use much higher frequencies to overcome that effect. • Any vessel can be used if placed on a suitable metal disk which functions as a conventional hotplate. • Induction cooking has good electrical coupling between the pan and the coil and is thus quite efficient, which means it puts less waste heat into the kitchen, can be quickly turned on and off, and has safety advantages compared to gas stoves. Cooktops are also usually easy to clean, because the cooktop itself does not get very hot.
  • 63. HOT AIR OVEN • Hot air ovens are electrical devices which use dry heat to sterilize. Generally, they use a thermostat to control the temperature. Their double walled insulation keeps the heat in and conserves energy, the inner layer being a poor conductor and outer layer being metallic. There is also an air filled space in between to aid insulation. • An air circulating fan helps in uniform distribution of the heat. These are fitted with the adjustable wire mesh plated trays or aluminum trays and may have an on/off rocker switch, as well as indicators and controls for temperature and holding time. The capacities of these ovens vary.
  • 65. A complete cycle involves heating the oven to the required temperature, maintaining that temperature for the proper time interval for that temperature, turning the machine off and cooling the articles in the closed oven till they reach room temperature. The standard settings for a hot air oven are: 1.5 to 2 hours at 160 °C (320 °F) 6 to 12 minutes at 190 °C (374 °F) Along with the time required to preheat the chamber before beginning the sterilization cycle. If the door is opened before time, heat escapes and the process becomes incomplete. Thus the cycle must be properly repeated all over. These are widely used to sterilize articles that can withstand high temperatures and not get burnt, like glassware and powders.
  • 66. HEATING MANTLE • A heating mantle is a piece of laboratory equipment used to apply heat to containers, as an alternative to other forms of heated bath. • In contrast to other heating devices, such as hotplates or Bunsen burners, glassware containers may be placed in direct contact with the heating mantle without substantially increasing the risk of the glassware shattering, because the heating element of a heating mantle is insulated from the container so as to prevent excessive temperature gradients. • Heating mantles may have various forms. In a common arrangement, electric wires are embedded within a strip of fabric that can be wrapped around a flask. The current supplied to the device, and hence the temperature achieved, is regulated by a rheostat. • This type of heating mantle is quite useful for maintaining an intended temperature within a separator funnel, for example, after the contents of a reaction have been removed from a primary heat source.
  • 68. HEATING MANTLE • In further contrast to other methods of applying heat to a flask, such as an oil bath or water bath, using a heating mantle generates no liquid residue to drip off the flask. • Heating mantles generally distribute heat evenly over the surface of the flask.
  • 69. MUFFLE FURNACE- HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL • A muffle furnace or muffle oven is a furnace in which the subject material is isolated from the fuel and all of the products of combustion, including gases and flying ash.
  • 70. MUFFLE FURNACE • Muffle furnace: Vertical and Horizontal type. • Horizontal type is more common than vertical type. • They are used in many research facilities, e.g.: by chemists in order to determine what proportion of a sample is non-combustible and non- volatile (i.e., ash). • Some models incorporate programmable digital controllers, allowing automatic execution of ramping, soaking, and sintering steps. • Advances in materials for heating elements, such as molybdenum disilicate, can now produce working temperatures up to 1,800 degrees Celsius (3,272 degrees Fahrenheit), which facilitate more sophisticated metallurgical applications.
  • 71. MUFFLE FURNACE • furnaces are usually heated to desired temperatures by conduction, convection, or blackbody radiation from electrical resistance heater elements. • there is no combustion involved in the temperature control of the system, which allows for much greater control of temperature uniformity and assures isolation of the material being heated from the byproducts of fuel combustion.
  • 72. HEATING MATERIAL • Tusha: Bhanda puta,Lavaka puta • Karisha/Upala: in most of Puta as Upala • In tuvaraka thaila,the prepared thaila should be kept in Karisha for 15 days before use. • Wood eg: Khadira ,Vibhitaka . • Angara: In Koshti,mainly Angara koshti as the source of fuel,Taptakhalwa. • Kshara and Lavana: In variants of Valuka Yantra • Valuka: In Valuka yantra • Shakrut: Aja shakrut can be burnt and used as a source of heat • Dhanya: Burning grains or husks of grains,placing them in the heap of grains. • Drava-Jala/Steam • Taila
  • 73. WOOD • Soft wood burns easily: lower density, contains resins, oils and gums which add to the calorific value of the wood. • Heavier the wood when dry, the greater will be the calorific value. • Green wood has a much lower heating capacity than dry wood due to loss during evaporation of moisture.
  • 74. COW DUNG CAKES • Higher emission fuel: releases four times more volatile organic compounds that volatile wood samples • RICE HUSK • Unproblematic fuel, available in abundance, economical, high caloric content
  • 75. INDIRECT HEATING • Dhanya Rasi :In the context of Ayaskriti in Charaka Samhita Chikitsa sthana;it is mentioned that the vessel containing Ayaskriti should be placed in heap of Yava dhanya for one year. • Bhugarbha Sthapana:In the context of Asava- arishta;to maintain uniform temperature throughout the process of fermentation,the containers are placed inside the heap of husk,wheat,paddy or buried underground-Bhugarbha sthapana.
  • 76. LIST OF REFERENCES • Textbook of Rasashastra by Dr Ravindra Angadi • Textbook of Rasashastra by Dr Parimi Suresh. • Ayurvediya Rasashastra: Siddhinandan Mishra • Wikipedia • Ayurvediya Rasashastra : C B Jha